Khachmaz (Xaçmaz, Khachmas) is a major city in Northeastern Azerbaijan's Khachmaz region. It is located about 10 km from the Caspian Sea, below Khudat, and to the east of Quba.
In the most northeastern region of Azerbaijan, Khachmaz is sandwiched between the Caucasus Mountains in Quba and Qusar regions to the west, and the Caspian Sea to the east. The southern border greets Devechi and the region stretches north to Russia. Khachmas city is located toward the bottom third of the region. It is about 10 km from the Caspian Sea and the border to Devechi. About half that distance to the Quba border to Khachmaz's west. It is substantially greater distance to the northern border.
Khachmaz is one of the most ancient regions of Azerbaijan. The antiquity of the city is evidenced by its wealth of cultural and historical monuments. The region was densely inhabited in the earliest times of human history and settlements, mounds, and barrows of the Bronze Age have been found throughout the region. Throughout its long history, Khachmaz has been a part of the Caucasian kingdom of Albania, the Shirvanshahlar state, and the Quba Khanate.
In 1810 the Quba Khanate was liquidated and, according to “Gulustan Treaty” in 1813 between Russia and Persia, all khanates of Northern Azerbaijan were occupied by Russia except the Talysh, Nakhchivan, and Irevan Khanates. These khanates were occupied by Russia later after signing Turkmenchay Treaty with Persia in 1828, which divided the territory of Azerbaijan and its people into two parts.
The Northeast Tourism Office is an excellent spot to get information on seeing the sites in Khachmaz and throughout the surrounding region.
- Spring: Turns from cold to hot quickly with about two weeks of wonderful weather. On the edges of this transition, weather fluctuates.
- Summer: Hot and humid with occasional cloudy days and limited soft showers.
- Fall: weather cools significantly making fall comfortable. Showers happen more frequently. Late fall can bring cold weather.
- Winter: is cold with gray skies and often brings rain and snow.
The climate is generally moderate to warm, humid temperate and subtropical, and Khachmaz sees an average yearly precipitation of 1300-1350 mm and average temperatures of 25-30°C in July and 1-2°C in January.
There are 2 auto stations for buses and taxis in Khachmaz city. The first one is minibus station from where you can get out mainly to Baku and other cities. The second one serves the transport mainly to the villages surrounding the city.
By bus or marshrutka
- 1 Minibus Station (at the highway, 3 km from the center).
The following connections exist:
- Baku – Hourly from 08:00. 3 manat. 2½-3 hr. (from Shamakhinka bus station in Baku)
- Çarxı – 0.30 manat (from Khachmaz: 09:00; 13:00; 15:00)
- Tikanoba (21 km) – 0.50 manat (from Khachmaz: 07:00; 13:00)
- Aşağızeyid (18 km) – 0.50 manat (from Khachmaz: 09:00; 13:00)
- Nağıoba (23 km) – 0.60 manat (from Khachmaz: 07:00; 13:00)
- Qıraqlı (23 km) – 0.60 manat (from Khachmaz: 07:00; 13:00)
- Əhmədoba (18 km) – 0.50 manat (from Khachmaz: 07:00; 13:00)
- Xəzərli (22 km) – 0.60 manat (from Khachmaz: 07:00; 13:00)
- İnqilab (23 km) – 0.60 manat (from Khachmaz: 07:00; 13:00)
- Alekseyevka (15 km) – 0.40 manat (from Khachmaz: 07:00; 13:00)
- Xudat – 0.50 manat (from Khachmaz: ever 20 min from 07:00)
- Nabran (25 km) – 0.60 manat (from Khachmaz: hourly from 08:00)
- Yalama (23 km) – 0.60 manat (from Khachmaz: 07:00; 13:00)
The railway station is located very close to the city center. There is an electric and night train service that runs between Baku and Khachmaz. The train leaves Baku at 08:00. An evening electric train leaves Baku at 19:20. The price is 0.60 manat. (Return: The first one leaves Khachmaz at 08:00 and the second one at 17:45.)
The electric train ride is for the adventurer. The cars are packed with people. Khanims (ladies) from the bazaar tend to take up seating space to stretch their legs or with their baggage. Don't be surprised if you have to argue for a seat or stand for a portion of the 4 hr 45 min ride from Baku to Khachmaz. The seats are wooden benches and aren't especially clean; the aisles are crammed with cargo from fruit sellers; and the patrons can get loud during arguments over space.
The night train Baku-Yalama costs 0.60 manat and leaves Baku at 20:00.
The fastest transport between Baku and Khachmaz is by taxi. It takes 2 hr. Prices must be negotiated, but going via Lada from Baku to Khachmaz costs 4-5 manat per seat (4 persons) and going via by Mercedes costs 5 manat per seat. To take a cab by yourself, expect to pay around 20 manat.
The center is small enough to be walkable.
Taxis are quite convenient if you know where you want to go within the city, and especially coming from the bus station. Service within the town generally costs 1 manat.
The Khachmaz region is very rich with monuments of history, culture and architecture. Some of the most significant are Sarkartapa, the ancient city-fortress Khudat, a fourth century Albanian mosque, the sixteenth century mosque-madrasa of Shah Abbas of 15th-16th centuries in Garaqurtlu, a village in Khachmaz, ancient settlements and the barrows of the Bronze Age, the famous “Iron gate” of Derbent fortress becoming a symbol of its inaccessibility. The fortifications “Baba-al-Abvat” were constructed in 8th-7th centuries BCE and protected from invasion the northern boundaries of Azerbaijan. Today Khachmaz borders with Russia here. In the village of Shykhlar the tourists can see the earliest monument of the mausoleum of the Middle ages- a mosque of Sheikh Yusif (15th century). At the top of the mountain Galadag the ruins of Gaurgala fortress have been kept.
- Albanian church. This church dates back to the 3rd and 4th centuries and the kingdom of Albania. There is a similar mosque in Qabala, which served as the capital of Albania for centuries.
- Sarkartapa. The Bronze Age Sarkartapa monument outside Khachmaz (also called Sarkar gishlaghy "Sarkar winter camp") is an important and particularly fruitful archaeological site.
- Bostanly Village. The early medieval Bostanly Village is one of the more interesting places for Khachmaz visitors. There is a hill 20-25 m-high called "Maidens’ Hill" and very close to this monument there is another interesting place called the "Seven sisters" tombs, covered with Arabic manuscripts. If you dive deep enough, you may be treated to some of the many legends about the seven sisters preserved in the local folklore. Numerous archaeological findings from Bostanly are displayed at the Regional Ethnography Museum.
- Ancient city-fortress Khudat. Khudat (meaning Charisma) was the capital of the Quba Khanate in early eighteenth century. Following Fatali-Khan's move from Khudat to Quba in 1735, the city lost its importance and turned into ruins.
- Mosque of Sheikh Yusif (XV). This Mosque is one of the earliest monuments in the mausoleum style widely used throughout the 16th and 17th centuries that has been preserved in the nearby village of Shikhlar. Sheikh Yusif, an outstanding scientist-philosopher of his day, was buried along with his wife and son and four of his followers in this mosque.
- Regional Ethnography Museum (Museum of Local Lore). This museum is located in the city center. The museum is very rich with archeological findings (over 4,000) representing all the different periods of Khachmaz's history. Of especial interest are the original scientific works of the well-known orientalist Abuabdullah Mahammad-bin Albukhari contained in the "Aljazaily sani" as well as the "Classification of Koran," authored by the well-known mathematician, philosopher from Chilaqyr Hajaly, Effendi.
- Veteran's Museum. 8,739 Khachmaz residents fought in World War II for the Red Army and some 2,800 of them perished. This museum also remembers 230 people who died in the ethnic conflict with Armenia during the early 1990s.
- Heydar Aliyev’s Museum. This is the obligatory personality cult shrine to independent Azerbaijan's first ruler.
- The Museum of Prominent Figures. This open sky museum is one of the most pleasant places in Khachmaz, located as it is in a nice park filled with fountains and numerous statues of prominent Azeris.
- Carpet Museum. Carpet museum is also one of the wonderful places to have a look. There are many ancient carpets in the museum along with carpet weaving tools (kargyla, khava, qyr, scissors, etc.), interesting carpet designs, dolls dressed in an ancient national style, a picture gallery and other interesting exhibits. The Fighting’s Glory Museum and Carpet Museum are located in the Park of Culture and Rest.
- Heydar Aliyev Park. A rather nice park with green trees, flowers, fountains, lights, cafes, and tea-houses. The Heydar Aliyev Museum, the Khazar Cinema-Club, and the Chess school are all located in this park.
- Park of Culture and Rest. This park is full of statues of different animals, artificial ponds stocked with colorful fish, rivers, and fountains full of green frogs (both artificial and live). Some people call this place the Zoo Park due to its zoological theme. One of the favorite places of the local children is the "Café Cirtdan-Dwarf." The Veterans Museum, Carpet Museum, Post Office, and several cafes are located within the park.
Cultural centers and other places to see
- The House of Culture
- Music School
- Youth Sport Complex
- Club of Railwaymen
- Chess School
- Church (Russian)
- The Entertaining Centers
- Football stadium
- Khazar Cinema Club
- Central Library
- Children’s Rest and Amusements Center
- Carpet Plant: the old tradition of carpet weaving is flourishing in the Khachmaz region and local carpet masters continue its further development. Their artwork products always give a plentiful material for researchers as well as for creative adaptation and usage in various related branches of culture.
- Vocational School
- Railway Station
- Gulalan Reserve
- Modular Power Station : Khachmaz modular type power station produces on average 1.6-1.8 million kW/hour of electricity daily. 10 generators.
- Qafqaz Tinned Food Factory: “Qafqaz Konserv Zavodu” can process 30,000-32,000 tons of fruit and vegetable and 6,000 tons of meat in a season. It works as the buyer of the agricultural products of the northern region of the country. Tomato paste, tomato puree, green pea, cucumber and cayenne pickles, eggplant caviar, different meat and vegetable tins are produced at the cannery. 50-60% of products is sold inside the country, the other part is exported.
- 1 Bazar.
Most consumer goods are available throughout Khachmaz and in larger quantities than many of Azerbaijan's smaller cities. The Bazaar carries most goods at very affordable prices (though quality may be suspect - typical for Azerbaijan) and some craftsmen are available.
The International Bank of Azerbaijan ATMs
- Khachmaz, Khachmaz, 1, Rasulbekov street
- Khachmaz, Khachmaz, 1, Narimanov street (Khachmaz bus station)
- Khachmaz, Khachmaz, 1st km of Khachmaz-Gandov highway (Azpetrol)
- Khachmaz, Khachmaz, M.A. Rasulzade street (Finance department of Xachmaz region)
- Shabran Nushican
- Xan Baqi
- Uyut: offers typical Azer food with a clean environment. A private room is available. It's located near the Central Library in Famous People Park.
- Cirtdan, a café for children.
Restaurants and cafés in Seyidly village
- Chinat tourist base - café
- Energetic rest-house - café
- Gami Tamiri (Kaspar) rest-house - café
- Geophysic Sanatorium - restaurant
- Malibu - restaurant, discothèque, café, sauna, pool
- Nabran-sanatorium - restaurant and café
- Tarlan - café
In Khachmaz, like most towns and cities in Azerbaijan, a Çay Xana (a tea house) is easy to find. In summer, cold beer is easy is also easily accessible. Some places will serve instant coffee.
Məkan: only serves beer and chickpeas, but the beer is cold and the service is good - which can be hard to find.
- Elite - hotel and restaurant.
- Kamran Hotel - a restaurant with some rooms to let.
- There are many internet cafes are available around the city center and are called “Internet Clubs”.
- Khachmaz Post Office is located by the “Park of Culture and Rest” in the city center.
All hospitals either state or private are located in the city center.
Be sure to carry a valid passport or ID when travelling in the northeast regions of Azerbaijan. It is common for police to stop foreign travellers and ask for identification. If you do not have an ID handy, you are susceptible to bribery.
Emergency contact numbers
- Fire: 101
- Police: 102
- City hospital: 103
Nearby destinations are: