Saskatchewan is a Canadian province in the Prairies. While the southern third of the province is a prairie known for its flat fields of wheat, the northern two-thirds is covered in the boreal forest of the Canadian Shield, with most of Saskatchewan's 100,000 lakes. The fresh air and open sky are other distinctive features of the prairie. There is little light pollution, and therefore stargazing is wonderful.
|Southeastern Saskatchewan |
Prairie farmland joined by the Qu'Appelle River. Includes the provincial capital of Regina.
|Southwestern Saskatchewan |
The heart of Canada's own "Old Wild West", this region features rolling grasslands and valleys. Located south of the South Saskatchewan River, its main city is Moose Jaw.
|West Central Saskatchewan |
The western half of the middle of the province, anchored by province's largest city of Saskatoon.
|East Central Saskatchewan |
Mostly rural agricultural region features prairie, saline lakes, and the occasional forest.
|Northern Saskatchewan |
Northern portion of the province characterized by lakes and boreal forest. Prince Albert serves as its main gateway.
- 1 Regina — the provincial capital offers museums, art galleries, and a professional football team
- 2 Saskatoon — the province's largest city, and its economic and cultural hub
- 3 The Battlefords — twin communities of North Battleford and Battleford at the confluence to the Battle and North Saskatchewan Rivers
- 4 Moose Jaw — take a tour through the extensive underground tunnels that were used by bootleggers in the 1920s and by early Chinese immigrants
- 5 Lloydminster — a city that straddles the border between Saskatchewan and Alberta
- 6 Prince Albert — gateway to Northern Saskatchewan
- 7 Weyburn — home of the world's first curling museum
- 8 Yorkton — home of North America's longest-running film festival
- 1 Big Muddy Badlands — a dry prairie terrain with rocky outcroppings
- 2 Prince Albert National Park — this park that is the size of Cornwall offers a wide range of recreational and wildness activities
- 3 Grasslands National Park — protecting one of Canada's few remaining areas of undisturbed dry mixed-grass/shortgrass prairie grassland
- 4 Cypress Hills Interprovincial Park — Canada's highest point between the Canadian Rockies and the Labrador Peninsula
Despite Saskatchewan's reputation for its prairie geography, there is a surprising variety of landscapes, including the hills and lakes in the north, a lake with water that is denser than the Dead Sea, and the North and South Saskatchewan rivers.
Saskatchewan also features historical sites related to the North-West Rebellion. In 1885, Louis Riel, leader of the Métis (persons of mixed Aboriginal and European descent), led an uprising against the Canadian government that culminated in the Battle of Batoche. The interpretive centre at Batoche remains a popular tourist destination. While the battles were not particularly large by world standards, the Rebellion was politically significant for the Canadian west, and offers a glimpse into what life was like on the Canadian frontier.
Saskatchewan's population used to be primarily rural, but is becoming more urban. The province's population was stagnant for many years, but has grown between 2010 and 2019 (to 1.2 million), as oilsands, potash and uranium development have driven an economic boom that mirrored Alberta's. Farming remains an important sector of the economy, though it is becoming economically nonviable. There are some attempts to grow other sectors of the economy, such as scientific research and technology. For example, a synchrotron has been built at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon.
Resource extraction is also important to the province. From oilfields in the southeastern section of the province, Saskatchewan produces the second largest supply of oil in Canada. There are mining operations in various locations: potash in Kindersley, lignite coal in Estevan, and uranium deposits in the far north.
Saskatchewan has been populated by various Indigenous peoples of North America, including members of the Sarcee, Niitsitapi, Atsina, Cree, Saulteaux, Assiniboine (Nakoda), Lakota and Sioux. The first known European entered in 1690, and travelled up the Saskatchewan River in hopes of trading fur with the region's indigenous peoples. The first permanent European settlement was a Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) post at Cumberland House, founded in 1774.
From 1670 to 1870, most of Saskatchewan formed a part of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory, owned by the HBC. In 1870, Canada acquired the HBC territories and established the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP, later the Royal Canadian Mounted Police) in 1873 to police the territory. The NWMP set up several posts and forts across Saskatchewan.
The Crown also entered into a series of numbered treaties with the Indigenous peoples of the area, now called the First Nations. Since the late 20th century, land losses and inequities as a result of those treaties have been subject to negotiation for settlement between the First Nations in Saskatchewan and the governments.
The Métis people, the descendants of relationships between Indigenous women and French or Scottish traders, had not been signatories to a treaty. Many of them had moved to the area north of present-day Saskatoon. In the early 1880s, the Canadian government refused to hear the Métis' grievances, which stemmed from land-use issues. In 1885, the Métis staged the North-West Rebellion. They were defeated by a Canadian militia brought to the Canadian prairies by the new Canadian Pacific Railway. Since then, the government has recognized the Métis as an Indigenous people with status rights and provided them with various benefits.
The federal government encouraged immigration. Settlers were allowed to acquire one quarter of a square mile of land (65 ha) to homestead and offered an additional quarter upon establishing a homestead. Highly optimistic advertising campaigns promoted the benefits of prairie living. Reality was far harsher, especially for the first arrivals who lived in sod houses. The dominant groups comprised British settlers from eastern Canada and Britain, who comprised about half of the population during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
In 1905, Saskatchewan became a province. Population quintupled from 91,000 in 1901 to 492,000 to 1911, thanks to heavy immigration of farmers from Ukraine, U.S., Germany and Scandinavia. The long-term prosperity of the province depended on the world price of grain, which headed steadily upward from the 1880s to 1920. In 1916, Saskatchewan was the first province to give women the right to vote.
Since the late 20th century, First Nations have become more politically active in seeking justice for past inequities, especially related to the taking of indigenous lands by various governments. The federal and provincial governments have negotiated on numerous land claims, and developed a program of "Treaty Land Entitlement", enabling First Nations to buy land to be taken into reserves with money from settlements of claims.
Saskatchewan receives more hours of sunshine than any other Canadian province. The province lies far from any significant body of water and has a northerly latitude, giving it a warm summer in the central and most of the eastern parts of the province; drying off to a semi-arid steppe climate in the southwestern part of the province. Drought can affect agricultural areas during long periods with little or no precipitation at all. The northern parts of Saskatchewan – from about La Ronge northward – have a shorter summer season.
Summers can get very hot, sometimes above 38 °C (100 °F) during the day, and with humidity decreasing from northeast to southwest. Warm southern winds blow from the plains and intermontane regions of the Western United States during much of July and August, very cool or hot but changeable air masses often occur during spring and in September. Winters are usually bitterly cold, with frequent Arctic air descending from the north with high temperatures not breaking −17 °C (1 °F) for weeks at a time. Warm chinook winds often blow from the west, bringing periods of mild weather. Annual precipitation averages 30 to 45 cm (12 to 18 inches) across the province, with the bulk of rain falling in June, July, and August.
Saskatchewan is one of the most tornado-active parts of Canada, averaging roughly 12 to 18 tornadoes per year, some violent. Severe and non-severe thunderstorm events occur in Saskatchewan, usually from early spring to late summer. Hail, strong winds and isolated tornadoes are a common occurrence.
Saskatchewan observes Central Standard Time (CST) (UTC−06:00) year-round and does not follow daylight saving time (DST). During the summer clocks in the entire province match those of Alberta, while during the winter clocks in most of the province match those of Manitoba.
There are two exceptions to this arrangement. The city of Lloydminster (located partly in Saskatchewan and partly in Alberta) and the surrounding area observes Mountain Time year-round, and it changes its clocks forward to Mountain Daylight Time each summer; because of this, clocks in this area are the same as the rest of Saskatchewan only during the summer months. The other exception is the area around Creighton and Denare Beach, which observes daylight saving time and matches its time with neighbouring Flin Flon, Manitoba.
Most visitors to Saskatchewan arrive either by automobile or via one of its two major airports, the John G. Diefenbaker International Airport (YXE IATA) in Saskatoon or Regina International Airport (YQR IATA).
Highway 1 (Trans-Canada Highway) runs across the southern portion of the province (including Regina and Moose Jaw), connecting Saskatchewan to Alberta and Manitoba. Similarly, Highway 16 (Yellowhead Highway) bisects the central part of the province, running through Saskatoon and North Battleford. There are a number of U.S.-Canada border crossings in the south, on the highways running between the two countries.
- Rider Express, toll-free: . Offers interprovincial bus routes in western Canada. Routes between Saskatchewan and out of province destination include the following:
- See also: Rail travel in Canada
- VIA Rail Canada, toll-free: . Operates trains routes across Canada. Routes operating in Saskatchewan:
- The Canadian trains that pass across the central part of the province, stopping only at Unity, Saskatoon, and Watrous. Eastbound trains travel from Vancouver via Kamloops, Jasper, and Edmonton. Westbound trains travel from Toronto via Sudbury and Winnipeg.
- The Winnipeg–Churchill completes the 1,700-km journey (over 1,000 mi) between Winnipeg and Churchill in Manitoba,with part of the route traveling through eastern Saskatchewan, including stops in Kamsack and Canora.
- Driving is the most common way of travelling around the province, and you may find it convenient or necessary to rent a car.
- Rider Express, toll-free: . Bus service 4 times daily between Regina and Saskatoon. Service between Regina, Saskatoon, Davidson, and North Battleford; and to Edmonton, Lloydminster and Vegreville (Alberta).
- Because of the large distances involved, travel to the northern parts of the province is often by airplane, with services provided by Transwest Airlines.
The Cypress Hills Interprovincial Park is in the extreme southwest corner of the province, sharing a border with Alberta's half of the park. Historical Fort Walsh and the highest point in the province can be found in the Cypress Hills.
Be sure to check out historical sites relating to the settlement of the west and the North West Rebellion of 1885. Fort Carlton, Batoche, and Duck Lake are within distance of Saskatoon for a day trip. Moose Jaw is home to the tunnels which run underneath the city. These tunnels are part of Moose Jaw's mob history which earned it the nickname "Little Chicago".
Saskatchewan is also the home of the RCMP Academy, Depot Division (commonly known as "Depot"; pronounced /ˈdɛpoʊ/, not /ˈdiːpoʊ/) that has been providing police training to Royal Canadian Mounted Police "cadets" since its establishment in 1885. The facility is in the west part of Regina, Saskatchewan, near the airport, and consists of several buildings. The RCMP Heritage Centre is next to the RCMP Training Academy at 5907 Dewdney Avenue. Through the use of permanent and temporary exhibits, multimedia technologies, and extensive programming, the Heritage Centre tells the RCMP story and educates Canadians and the world about the past, present and future of the RCMP within Canada and abroad.
Northern Saskatchewan stands in stark contrast to the prairies of southern Saskatchewan. The area north of Prince Albert is sparsely populated and dotted with freshwater lakes. It is best accessed by rental car however travellers should be aware that communities are separated by great distances in the provinces north and services are limited. Scheduled flights are also available to LaRonge from Saskatoon through smaller airline. The trek to northern Saskatchewan has only one purpose, to experience untouched wilderness, canoeists and fisherman will be well rewarded by its waterways.
Hunting and fishing are strong draws for visitors to Saskatchewan.
Hockey is taken very seriously in Saskatchewan, and matches can be extremely intense, as well as entertaining. Prince Albert, Moose Jaw, Saskatoon, Swift Current and Regina host teams in the Western Hockey League, while various smaller towns in the province host teams in the Saskatchewan Junior Hockey League.
A very passionate pastime for Saskatchewan residents is to cheer on their Canadian Football League team: the Saskatchewan Roughriders. Saskatchewanians are known for their loyalty and "Rider Pride". A Rider game in Regina is always party and spectacle as many of the fans show up to the game wearing watermelons on their heads!
Drive out of the city and into the rural areas during the night. Not only will you see the amazing sky but you will have a strong possibility of catching the Northern Lights. Sunsets are also one of the highly recommended experiences.
Pemmican and bannock are a few of the historical foods of the Cree First Nation Indigenous peoples. Bannock is easy to prepare and combine with local berries, the dough can be cooked over the open fire suspended on willow stick, and tastes similar to biscuits.
Early settlers survived by learning from the First Nations which flora and fauna of the land were edible and how to prepare. Thereafter, the land was tilled, and agricultural practices and trading economies allowed each ethnic group to plant and cultivate the foods necessary for the recipes of their home land. Each ethnic group has brought their unique flavour and recipes to Saskatchewan, and these are celebrated today in folk festivals across the province.
Saskatoon berries (also known as serviceberries, or juneberries) are used in saskatoon berry pie, jam, wines, cider, beers, and sugar-infused berries similar to dried cranberries used for cereals, trail mix, and snack foods.
The drinking age in Saskatchewan is 19. Great Western Brewing operates the old Molson brewhouse in Saskatoon. They produce beers ranging from extra-gravity malt liquor to mid grade amber and pale ales. There is a provincial law basically giving anyone that operates a "brewpub" automatic off-sales privileges. Because of this, many bars have started extract-based "brewpubs" in order to acquire their off-sales licence. These beers are very poor quality compared to beers made from true ingredients. In small towns, locals prefer cheap beer and rye whiskey. One local favourite is Old Style Pilsner, a no-frills brew with a most unique label. Water quality in Saskatchewan ranges but is generally above average.
Saskatchewan is generally a safe place to visit and most people are generally friendly. Some parts of the larger cities, such as Saskatoon, Regina, and Prince Albert, have seedier areas that should be avoided at night. Most tourists have no need to be in those parts of town anyway.
Winters can be extremely cold, and when combined with heavy snowfall and wind, blizzards can make driving dangerous. Many of Saskatchewan's highways have been poorly maintained, and when combined with icy pavement or heavy traffic, they can be dangerous for inexperienced or inattentive drivers. Many rural roads are unpaved, so drivers unfamiliar with gravel roads should take their time.
Saskatchewan, unlike the rest of Canada, does not participate in Daylight Savings Time. (The Lloydminster area is an exception, as the town is divided by the province's border with Alberta.) This means that in the winter, almost all of the province is the same time as Manitoba on Central Standard Time, and in the summer it is the same time as Alberta, which has caught up to Saskatchewan by switching to Mountain Daylight Time. Lloydminster keeps the same time as Alberta year-round, including Daylight Time.