The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, commonly known as East Timor (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), is one of the world's youngest countries: after a long struggle, it gained independence from Indonesia in 2002 and is now an off-the-beaten-path destination for diving and adventure.
East Timor sits at the transition area between Southeast Asia and Oceania. A former Portuguese colony, it is one of only two countries in Asia with a Roman Catholic majority, the other one being the Philippines.
|North Coast |
Home to most of the East Timorese people, the North Coast is rich in cultural and historical attractions. The island of Atauro is famous for its dive sites.
|South Coast |
The laidback South Coast stretches the length of the mainland, with coffee plantations, trekking and beautiful scenery at every turn.
The mountainous exclave of Oecussi is truly off the beaten path, with ruins of the Indonesian occupation still visible and friendly locals who rarely see travellers.
- 1 Nino Konis Santana National Park (basically whole eastern tip of East Timor), email@example.com. East Timor's first national park, a place rich in biodiversity (esp birds), indigenous culture, prehistoric rock art, and marine life (esp coral and coral fish). Includes the wetland-like Lake Ira Lalaro with estuarine crocodiles, Com Beach, a portion of the Coral Triangle, and the mystic, uninhabited Jaco Island.
|Currency||United States dollar (USD)|
East Timor centavo coins (TLD)
|Population||1.2 million (2017)|
|Electricity||220 volt / 50 hertz (Europlug, Type E, Schuko, AS/NZS 3112)|
|Time zone||UTC+09:00, Asia/Dili|
|edit on Wikidata|
The eastern half of the island of Timor, East Timor, is a former Portuguese colony that declared itself independent from Portugal on 28 November 1975. Nine days later, Indonesian forces invaded and occupied East Timor, with the tacit approval of the United States and Australia. By July 1976 it had been annexed as the province of Timor Timur.
Over the next two decades, Indonesia integrated the colony, with many significant positions of authority being occupied by Indonesians rather than the East Timorese. An estimated 100,000-250,000 individuals are believed to have lost their lives during a campaign of "pacification" during this time.
The United Nations supervised a popular referendum on 30 August 1999, in which the people of East Timor voted for independence from Indonesia. After the results were announced, gangs of independence opponents, supported by the Indonesian military, terrorised the population in a civil war that destroyed much of the country's infrastructure. Nevertheless, Indonesia grudgingly accepted the result and withdrew their forces in favour of a United Nations peacekeeping force led by Australia that was sent in to re-establish a civil society and reconstruct the nation.
On 20 May 2002, East Timor was internationally recognized as an independent state under the official name of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste.
East Timor has a hot and humid tropical climate. November to May is the wet season. The dry season lasts for about 6 months from June to October. The temperatures average 30°C year round in areas close to sea level, though the weather is far cooler at higher altitudes.
The wet season can damage the roads in East Timor, making travel to remote areas difficult.
Tetum (understood by almost all East Timorese) and Portuguese (understood by a minority of people, but the number is increasing) are the official languages, but Indonesian, which is widely spoken by adults, and English, which has a reasonable number of speakers in Dili but not many in the rest of the country, are working languages according to the constitution. There are also about 37 indigenous languages; Galole, Mambae and Kemak are spoken by significant numbers of people.
A person who is proficient in Indonesian can get around quite easily, while those who speak English or Portuguese will be fine in Dili but will face difficulties in remote areas.
Generally visitors from any country can easily obtain a 30-day tourist and business visa on arrival to East Timor at Dili Airport or Dili Seaport by filling in a simple form and paying US$30 in cash. "Visa on arrival" is not available at the land border, where most travellers apart from Indonesian and Portuguese nationals must have obtained a visa or "visa application authorisation" in advance. In May 2015, Timor-Leste signed an agreement with the EU that allows passport holders of Schengen countries to enter Timor-Leste without a visa at any entry point, including land borders.
There is a poorly publicized government policy that you need at least 2 blank pages in your passport when arriving (the visa on arrival stamp takes up one whole page). It is usually not a problem at immigration, as long as you have one whole blank page; however, airlines have been known to reject people with fewer than 2 blank pages.
Check out the Immigration Department of East Timor, and specifically the link to the Tourist Visa page for details on visa requirements, and for details on how to apply for a "visa application authorisation" (which may be obtained via email before you travel), or how to apply for a visa at an Embassy or Consulate should you want to enter at a land border crossing.
Apart from Tourist & Business Visas, other visas that are available include the Transit Visa, Work Visa, Study Visa, Cultural, Scientific, Sport & Media Visa and Residence Visa.
Tourist Visa requirements as stated by the Immigration Department of East Timor are as follows:
The applicant must:
- Demonstrate intention of a genuine visit (as tourist or business trip).
- Demonstrate sufficient funds for period of proposed stay (access to US$100 on entry and US$50 for each day).
- Demonstrate accommodation arrangements.
- Hold a return ticket, or show ability to fund own departure.
Applicants must also be assessed as being of good character and health before they will be granted the visa and/or permitted to enter East Timor.
All foreigners seeking to enter East Timor on a temporary visa are required to have a valid national passport with an expiry date not less than 6 months from the date of entry into East Timor and must have at least one blank page available for Visa stamp.
Where applied for on arrival, the visa will be granted for the duration of stay up to 30 days, and is only valid for single entry. Extension after arrival – US$35 for each extension of 30 days, or US$70 for extension of 60 days. Extension of a tourist visa beyond 30 days requires a sponsor, East Timorese citizen or work-permit holder, to complete a Termo de Responsabilidade, guaranteeing your conduct and compliance with East Timorese laws for the duration of your stay.
Those who apply in advance for a tourist visa at an Embassy or Consulate, or who apply by email direct to the Immigration Department for a "visa application authorisation" may request a visa allowing up to 90 days stay, with single or multiple entry.
Visitors are advised to hold the necessary amount for the payment of visa fees in U.S. dollars cash upon arrival at the border. There are no ATM or credit card facilities inside the airport or at border posts, hence visitors must have US$30 in cash to pay for their visa.
Portuguese passport holders do not need a visa for short stay entry (max 90 days).
International airlines that serve Dili directly include:
- Airnorth from Darwin, Australia
- Air Timor (operated by TransNusa) from Kupang, Indonesia, and Singapore
- Citilink from Denpasar, Indonesia
- NAM Air from Denpasar, Indonesia
- Sriwijaya Air from Denpasar, Indonesia
No airport departure tax is charged.
The main land border crossing with Indonesia is at Mota'ain (or Motain), 115 km (71 mi) west of Dili. The nearest East Timorese town is Batugade, 3-4 km away. The nearest Indonesian town of consequence is the West Timorese town of Atambua. There are also land border crossings at Salele (near Suai) on the south coast, and into Oecussi at Bobometo (Napan on the Indonesian side) and Wini on the north-east coast of Oecussi.
As of July 2016 it was not possible for most passport holders to cross the border at Wini: Indonesian and East Timorese passport holders could cross the border at this location. However, in August 2015, a new visa waiver rule for passport holders of countries in the Schengen Agreement meant that those travelers can enter Timor-Leste without a visa at any entry point, and travelers at that time reported no problems at the Batugade border point. See the Immigration Department's Tourist Visa link for details on how to apply for a "visa application authorisation" (which may be obtained via email before travel) or how to apply for a visa at an embassy or consulate should you want to enter at a land border crossing.
There are East Timorese consulates in Bali and in Kupang where you should be able to purchase visas.
- Consulate General Denpasar, ☏ , .
- Consulate Kupang, Jl. Eltari II, Kupang, NTT, ☏ , .
The same problem exists in the other direction. Even though people of many nationalities can get Indonesian visas-on-arrival when flying into Bali or other Indonesian airports, they cannot get them when traveling from East Timor to West Timor by land, and are required to have visas in advance.
However, for those going the other direction, Indonesian visas must be obtained beforehand as there is no VoA (Visa on Arrival) facility at the border. Getting a visa at the Indonesian Embassy in Dili is possible; it takes 3 working days to issue a 30-day tourist visa and it costs US$45. Standard Index B-211 60-day tourist visas seem to be issued on a case-by-case basis and obtaining one is not guaranteed.
Indonesian VoAs and Visa Waiver entries are available at El Tari Airport, and Tenau harbour in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia for nationals of eligible countries. There are no scheduled flights operating between Dili and Kupung.
There is a direct bus service daily between Dili and Kupang in West Timor, Indonesia. Journey takes 12 hours. There are many land travel minibus services to cater for individuals or groups travel from Dili to Kupang (West Timor) and return. Timor Travel, Paradise Travel, Leste Oeste Travel are few of the minibus companies that provide travel services to several different destinations along the Dili-Kupang route at a very affordable prices.
From Dili, catch a bus to the border (US$3, three hours). Once you get off the bus, go through East Timorese customs and immigration, walk across the border into Indonesia, go through Indonesian immigration and catch another bus for your onward journey to Atambua or Kupang.
From Atambua, regular mikrolets (vans) or ojeks (motorcycle taxis) run to the border at Mota'ain Land Border for 15,000-20,000 Indonesian rupiah. Once you cleared immigrations on both sides, you can ask for the bus in the parking lots for a seat to Dili, US$10 per person (as of Dec 2018).
There are no regular international passenger ferries servicing East Timor.
There are regular barge services for vehicles and goods from Darwin in Australia, Surabaya and Bali in Indonesia.
Recreational vessels often visit Dili harbour.
Buses, mostly of the small variety found on remote Indonesian islands, run to most parts of the country and main cities like Dili, Baucau, Maliana, Los Palos and Suai are quite well linked. Indonesian-style bemos (vans) and mikrolets (minibuses) - legacies from its 24-year rule - run from these cities to nearby villages.
Most departures take place very early in the morning and drivers have a tendency of doing keliling (Indonesian for "going round") where they spend considerable time combing the streets and scouting for passengers before actually departing.
Fares are about US$2 or US$3 for journeys over 100 km. For example, Dili-Baucau (123 km (76 mi)) costs US$2 while Dili-Mota'ain (115 km (71 mi)) costs US$3.
Taxis are one of the best means of transport in and around Dili. Fares are not very steep (US$1-3) and there are lots of them.
You can hire a vehicle (4WD) in Dili for around $85 a day. However, do be prepared for adventure - besides the tricky roads there is the lack of road signs to contend with. It is possible that you will get so caught up with driving that you miss out the great scenery around you. Most reputable car rental companies offer 24/7 roadside assistance anywhere in the country. If you are out in a remote district, your help, dispatched from Dili, will take a while to arrive.
While in Dili you will need to confine yourself to a speed limit of 40 km/h. On open roads you may rev up and touch 50-60 km/h. Tourists from the west might find the going slow but that is the maximum speed that can be achieved on Dili roads.
Ensure that you are carrying a valid driving license or permit with you. This can be either from your country or you can have it issued in East Timor. Your licence should specify the kind of vehicle you are allowed to drive. Do drive carefully and remember that there is no provision here for third-party motor insurance.
The Oecussi Enclave, Atauro Island and Dili are well connected by ferry. A boat ride to Jaco Island will prove to be a memorable experience. An added attraction here is that the fishermen also cook fish for you on request.
Although there are airports in Baucau, Suai and Oecussi, there is no regular domestic air service within East Timor. There are small MAF planes that can be chartered to fly to these destinations, which are normally utilised for medical evacuations.
Tiger Fuel in Dili, rents motorcycles for US$25-35 per day. Motorcycles/scooters are a good way to see the country: you'll be able to travel wherever you want at any time, and will have a rather small responsibility in terms of a bike to park over night. Bungee cords may be purchased from Star Moto in Baucau to fasten your luggage to the bike.
- A total solar eclipse crosses the eastern part of East Timor on 20 April 2023, starting at 13:20 local time (04:20 UT). Maximum totality of 1 min 17 sec is along a track from Watulari moving northeast to Lautém. But April is rainy season so the viewing prospects are at best 30%.
- Carnival de Timor is the annual festival held in Dili in middle of April (sometimes in May, depending on rain season). Initiated by the Ministry of Tourism in 2010, the carnival is all about fun, music and multiculturalism. Both modern and traditional costumes, East Timorese and foreign minorities, even embassies participate in this annual festival. The parade starts at a landmark and ends at Palacio do Governo, greeted by bands and awards for the best dressed group. The crowd continues to dance into the night with live music and other attractions.
Tourists in East Timor are a rare breed. Traveling from village to village, you're likely to hear choruses of "malay" (the East Timorese word for foreigner) and folks will want to engage you in conversation. One could spend several days just enjoying the feeling of being a very welcome stranger.
East Timor is at the end of the Indonesian archipelago, north of Darwin, Australia and at the base of the Coral Triangle, which hosts the highest diversity of coral and reef fish species on earth.
East Timor offers a rich cultural heritage spun from tens of thousands of years of human habitation, the Portuguese and Indonesian colonial periods, and from the depths of a society which has cultural traditions as the fabric of that bonds society together.
East Timor is well positioned for community-based ecotourism, which has been written into the nation's tourism strategic plan. The Nino Konis National Park (situated in the eastern part of the country) is a well protected area and considered as some of the last surviving zones of tropical lowland rainforest in the world with rich coastal environment. The national park accommodates bird-watching, diving, trekking and pre-historic archeological sites.
Atauro Island and Jaco Island in Tutuala attract divers, snorkelers and green tourism enthusiasts. Both destinations provide eco-lodge facilities with some support from local NGOs in the region. A must-see attraction is the local divers and fishermen in Atauro, who fish using only traditionally made goggles and spear guns. Atauro is also well known for its distinctive wooden sculptures and is an excellent place to buy variety handicrafts.
For more adventurous tourists, East Timor offers world-class trekking, which can be experienced near places such as Mount Tatamailau (± 3000 m above sea level), Ainaro, Mt. Matebian (Baucau) and Mt. Kablaki (in Same district).
While trekking East Timor, you can keep busy by looking for some of the 260 species of birds on offer (the entire continent of Australia has some 650 resident species), 32 of which are endemic and 8 of which are exclusive to the island of Timor and found nowhere else in the world.
For example, the Timor Bush Warbler was recognised as a distinct species in 2001 and it is likely that the elusive montane species can be found in the hills of East Timor. The Bush Warbler is one of the many endemic birds that will be the focus for intrepid birdwatchers coming to East Timor.
Portuguese fortresses, churches and other monuments are scattered throughout the nation. For history enthusiasts, East Timor's resistance tourism which worth exploring are the Xanana Gusmao's (current Prime Minister of East Timor) hiding place, Balibo (known for the killing of 5 journalists by the Indonesian soldiers), Santa Cruz (known for a massacre in 1991), Japanese caves in Baucau and many more.
Coffee had been the main export commodity for East Timor since the colonial period. To visit East Timor is to taste its coffee grown in several regions such as Ermera, Maubisse, Manufahi and Liquisa. Travel to the coffee plantations takes you through winding mountainous roads, until over 1,000m above sea level altitude, cool climate (as low as 15°C), and greeted by smiling farmers who are more than willing to welcome you to their homes. Other alternative is to contact one of the organizations dealing with coffee for a field visit to their cooperative farmer member's coffee plantation. They are: CCT/NCBA, ELSAA Cafe, Timor Global, Timor Corp, Peace Winds, PARC-IC and Alter Trade Timor.
Timor's coffee is now well known around the world and amongst organic coffee drinkers. It is sold in Starbucks Seattle as 'Arabia Timor' brand. Several organizations are promoting East Timorese coffee as Fair Trade Coffee in U.S., Japan and South Korea. One Japanese coffee expert praised about Timor's coffee as, 'one of the remaining original species in the world today.' (Horiguchi-san, 2005).
East Timor also produces various types of weaved textiles and products for export and unique souvenir. High end and expensive tais (East Timorese traditional hand-weaved textile) are made from nature-produced colors, while more economical textiles use chemical dye. 13 districts in the nation produce distinct design and colors to another. Tais markets are available in Dili; however, for antique collections, one must visit the districts.
East Timor has some of the best scuba diving in the world, and this is a major draw for tourists with East Timor shore diving becoming known worldwide amongst the diving community. Pristine beaches and coral reefs stand in stark contrast to one of the poorest populations on Earth.
- Dive Photo Contest of Timor-Leste [formerly dead link]. In 2010 and 2011, see world-class divers and underwater photographers from all over the world participated in East Timor's first ever underwater photo contest, an initiative of the then President José Ramos-Horta.
Dili offers the diver some great close dives. Only 5 min from the centre of town is Pertamina Pier. One of East Timors best dives for critters, octopus and schooling Barracudas.
10 min west of Dili is Dili Rock (east & west). This is one of Timor's most popular dive sites as it acts as the main training dive site. Known for its easy access and great conditions Dili East also offers great opportunities to see Leaf Scorpion fish, Angler fish and Ghost pipe fish.
As you head further west towards Liquica you come to such dive sites as Bubble beach (known for its amazing bubble fields and spectacular deep dive) the gravel pit and Devil ray point.
East of Dili divers can experience shore diving at its best. Easy access along the coast allows divers safe entry to great wall dives. Secret garden, K41, Bob's Rock and Lone Tree are some of the amazing dives that can be done within an hour of Dili. Approximately 40 min east of Dili the diving starts and continues as far as Com some 200 km away.
The variety of dives along this stretch of road is endless yet K41 and shark point are among the favourites of the local divers.
Without a doubt, Atauro Island is East Timor's most pristine diving area. Around the island is a large variety of dives suitable for every level. Visibility is always excellent, and the abundancy of fish life and coral is simply overwhelming.
Dive site information
Dive Sites of Timor-Leste contains detailed descriptions of all popular dive sites, with links to maps and scuba resources.
Marine life of East Timor
Wikimedia Commons has pictures of some of the stunning marine life at marine animals of East Timor
Exchange rates for U.S. dollars
As of 04 January 2021:
Exchange rates fluctuate. Current rates for these and other currencies are available from XE.com
The U.S. dollar is the legal tender currency in East Timor and all transactions are in dollars. U.S. banknotes issued before 2006 are not accepted. $5, $10 and $20 notes are the most common and useful. They do not need to be in great condition but may be difficult to use if torn - the exception is $1 notes, which get torn and filthy within a few months of arriving in Dili and can be easily spent in that condition (small notes, or coins, are particularly useful for taxis, warungs and street sellers). Don't bring $2 notes (unless you want to bewilder the locals). Timor-Leste has issued its own coins denominated in centavos, which are equal to U.S. cents. U.S. coins are now rarely accepted.
Several banks and ATMs (all dispensing US banknotes) can be found in Dili, for example in the Timor Plaza shopping mall. Overseas withdrawal fee would be $7 per withdrawal, and maximum amount withdrawn per transaction should be US$300. ANZ used to have the most reliable ATMs for international visitors, but it is no longer operating. The next only option is BNU-Loos24 ATMs, which accept Visa and Plus (no ATMs is working with Master Card) (as of Dec 2018). In some cases, the ATMs are not compatible with Asian banks; in this case, it is perhaps recommended to bring the approximate amount of money needed in cash with you, as problems with ATMs can jeopardize your travel plan.
What to buy
Aromatic coffee beans and colourful hand-woven cloth called Tais are the two items that should be on your must-buy list when shopping in East Timor. All convenience stores and even some roadside stalls sell excellent coffee. Just as Scottish clans have specific patterns for their tartans, families in East Timor have Tais in specific patterns and colours.
Roasted coffee beans will be a great gift item. Some countries have strict rules about importing any food item.
East Timorese coffee is grown organically and tastes fabulous. Coffee was introduced in East Timor by the Portuguese. The local way of making coffee is to roast the coffee beans till they turn black and let out a great aroma. Low acidity levels ensure the excellent taste of East Timorese coffee.
A few of the coffee varieties like robusta have very high levels of caffeine. A late night cuppa might keep you up for hours, which might put you in a fix, as East Timor doesn't have nightlife options outside of Dili.
Be sure to buy your coffee in a traditional market rather than Dili's grocery stores, where the product will often be pre-ground and very stale.
Tais come in different designs and colours, depending on the region they are from, and they represent a distinct family. In Dili you should visit the Tais market to buy Tais and local silver jewellery. Tais can also be bought from street vendors. Local Handicrafts
The other items that will interest you are ethnic woodcarvings, batik cloth and embroidered fabrics sporting regional patterns. The ethnic woodcarvings available here are somewhat like the ones you might get in Africa.
A market can be found in every main town on the island. You may not find the huge array of shops in East Timor that you are accustomed to. These markets, however, cater amply to local needs. The marketplaces give the locals a chance to meet and interact with others on a daily basis. A walk through an East Timorese market will help you learn about the local produce of the region. Tourists attract a lot of attention so be prepared to be stared at. Also expect to be overcharged as many tourists before you have paid exorbitant prices willingly.
Fruit on the Dili Waterfront
Along the waterfront, you will find many fruit stalls. These stalls are mostly run by women and are stocked with delicious local fruits. The papayas, mangoes and bananas are really tempting; make it a point to try out any unfamiliar local variety.
The East Timorese, like the Indonesians, have a staple diet of rice and spices. Even though there is trouble in obtaining supplies from outside due to political unrest, many restaurants in Dili serve Western cuisine. Significant numbers of foreigners living and working in East Timor ensure a loyal clientele for these restaurants.
The East Timorese palate includes a taste for several international cuisines in addition to the traditional East Timorese cuisine. Portuguese, Indonesian, Chinese, Italian, Western, Japanese and Thai cuisine have made their presence felt in East Timor.
The staple food in East Timor is rice. Commonly grown food crops include taro, cassava, sweet potatoes and maize. Beans, cabbage, cowpeas, onions and spinach are well-liked vegetables. People also rear poultry, goats and pigs. Fish forms an important part of the diet and acts as a supplement to any meal. Most traditional East Timorese recipes use a generous dose of spices. Mangoes, watermelons, papayas, bananas and coconuts are the most commonly cultivated fruits here. Carbohydrates like sago or other grains form the main dish for many an East Timorese meal.
Fried fish is a very popular dish, with prawns being considered a delicacy. Curries are a standard dish, with chicken curry topping the list as a favourite. Several authentic Indonesian, Japanese, Portuguese and Chinese dishes find favour with many East Timorese.
Coffee is grown organically in East Timor and the level of caffeine in this variety is very high. Those looking for something other than coffee can have beer, which is widely available in both pubs and restaurants in East Timor.
Bills presented in East Timorese restaurants do not have a service charge added to them. If you feel like tipping, recognise that even a 10% tip is a lot of money to a local. In any case, the service is typically so comically bad that you should not be rushing to tip.
Explore the flavours of East Timorese cuisine
Restaurants in East Timor and local food joints around this new nation offer the traditional Asian curries with their fragrant spice pastes and fried accompaniments. The East Timorese local restaurants specialise in fresh grilled fish and excellent curries, and also provide a chance to fully experience local cuisine and hospitality. Local food also lends itself to Papuan influences, so you will find yam and sweet potato on the menu when you stop at rural food stalls.
Numerous beachfront bars and nightclubs provide the nightlife in Dili. Both food and drinks are served and the bars/nightclubs are kept open till late. Some very nice inner city restaurants include Nautilaus, Diya, Ocean View Hotel and Gion Japanese Restaurant. In the Meti Aut area is the newly renovated Atlantic Bar and Grill which is arguably amongst the best service and quality in Timor. Another is the Caz Bar where kayaks can be hired late in the night and a barbeque serves fried fish and all the beach side meals such as sizzling garlic prawns, hamburgers and a large range of cold beer.
Dili has a wide range of hotels at every price level.
Outside of Dili, there are really only two other bona fide hotels in the country, at Baucau and at Com. However, there are plenty of creative options if you don't insist on luxury, and these range from guesthouses to convents to camping.
Official working hours are generally 08:30-17:30, with a break for lunch from 12:00-13:30. Because most people go home for lunch, the actual lunch break is often 12:00-14:00. Some organisations work on Saturday mornings, but generally the weekends are free.
Public holidays East Timor national holidays—Law signed 19/07/05
- New Year's Day—1 January
- International Labour Day—1 May
- Restoration of Independence—20 May
- Popular Consultation Day—30 August
- All Saints Day—1 November
- All Souls day—2 November
- National Day of Youth Santa Cruz Massacre—12 November
- Independence Proclamation Day—28 November
- National Heroes day—7 December
- Day of Our Lady of Immaculate Conception—8 December
- Christmas Day—25 December
Tolerance Days (national commemorative days)
- International Children's Day—1 June
- Falintil day—20 August
- Mothers day—3 November
- International Human Rights day—10 November
- Ash Wednesday – (46 days before Easter)
- Holy Thursday – (Thursday before Easter)
- Ascension Day – (40 days after Easter)
East Timor continues to face sporadic internal ethnic & political tension and related violence may occur. This may not be targeted at foreigners or tourists, but follow the guidelines below. There is still a considerable international presence in East Timor, including a United Nations mission and international police and military (mostly conducting capacity building and training for national security forces).
Foreigners or tourists have been targets for violence in East Timor, so visitors should be responsible and adhere to standard precautions as in any developing country. Remember, that you are travelling in a poor country, and crimes such as assault and theft do occur. The key to avoid such crime is to apply common sense and reduce your exposure to possible opportunity crime such as:
- Avoid large gatherings (demonstrations have had the potential to escalate with little or no warning in the past).
- Remove any visible valuables from your car if leaving it unattended.
- Women should avoid travelling alone in taxis at night.
- Women should avoid walking alone at night in quiet streets.
East Timor travel advisories
- Australian Government Travel Advisory
- Canadian Government Travel Advice
- US Consular Information on Timor Leste
- UK Government Travel Advice
Malaria is prevalent in East Timor.
Tap water is not safe to drink. Boil it or treat it before consuming, or drink bottled water..
Hospitals and doctors
There are hospitals in main centres, and clinics in many sub-districts elsewhere but medical care is not up to dealing with sustained or complex medical emergencies. Medical evacuation is often the only option in the case of complex surgery, trauma, or major illness. Travellers are strongly advised not to enter East Timor without some form of medical insurance which will cover medivac by air ambulance, be this travellers insurance from your travel agent or an employer if you are entering for professional reasons.
Dili - Dili National Hospital, in Bidau Santana.
Pante Makassar, Oecussi - in town near the port.
East Timor was devastated by the Indonesian occupation that may have killed up to 200,000 (or 1 in 5 of all people in East Timor) East Timorese. Many East Timorese were forced to abandon their traditional animist beliefs for Roman Catholicism during the Portuguese colonial period. Speaking well of Suharto's Orde Baru or of the idea of East Timor becoming part of Indonesia may not be well received by the East Timorese people. Many East Timorese are sympathetic or even outright nostalgic about the period of Portuguese rule over East Timor, where they were generally left to their own devices by the Portuguese colonial government. As with discussing politics abroad in all places, if you aren't sure a discussion about sensitive topics will go over well, don't bring it up.
Timor Telecom  has a monopoly on landline and mobile phone services in East Timor, and charges accordingly; expect to pay up to US$3/minute for international calls into East Timor. Calls out of the country are far cheaper with on average 40cents/minute to Australia, Indonesia, Portugal and USA.
It is recommended that you buy a local pre-paid phone for US$10 (which includes phone, charger, sim card and US$3 credit) on arrival from any Timor-Telecom store (there is one in Landmark Plaza on way into town from the airport). Local prepaid SIM cards can be picked up for around US$3. Please remember that whilst international phones work in East Timor, the global roaming fees are very hefty, hence the recommendation to purchase a cheap phone package, even for a short visit.
In 2012 the National Numbering Plan (NNP) was changed and all mobile phone numbers now require an additional '7' be added to the front of the number making a total of eight digits. Land lines remain unchanged.
Emergency contact numbers
- UNPOL Emergency (Police Emergency), ☏ 112, (mobile).
- SOS Emergency Medivac, ☏ .
- Dili National Hospital, ☏ .
- Bombeiros Fire Rescue, ☏ (ext 203), , toll-free: 115.
- Timor Ambulance, ☏ (mobile), .
- Dili National Ambulance, Emergency, ☏ .
- UNMIT Telephone Switchboard Nos, ☏ (From East Timor), (From New York).
Internet in East Timor is slow and limited. Timor Telecom holds the monopoly for this as well, and tries to block voice-over-IP services like Skype.
Internet cafes are available throughout Dili, Baucau, and some other smaller cities: look for Timor Telecom outlets.