Travel topics > Transportation > Flying > Flying on a budget
Thanks to ongoing liberalization of air travel markets, growing competition, increasing efficiency of airline operation, and government subsidies, air travel has become more affordable, but it can still be a large part of your travel budget. Below you will find some advice on how to reduce your air travel cost to make it fit your budget.
Plan well in advance
Start your planning well in advance give you enough time to do your research, and to maximize your options.
Although it is a good choice to book your flights well ahead, it does not always guarantee you the cheapest fares. If there is nothing particularly cheap when you first look, and there is a long time before your trip, you might be better off waiting for a seat sale. Sometimes the airlines will reduce the prices of the remaining seats if they haven't been successful in selling them, so you may be able to find a great deal if you're prepared to leave soon.
Check your options
- See also: Planning your flight#Airlines
On routes between major airports, there are two main types of airlines. A legacy carrier, also known as a major airline, full-service carrier (or flag carrier if founded by or connected to a national government), is usually an older airline, where cost, comfort and service are usually above average, even in economy class.
A budget airline, also called a no-frills airline or low-cost carrier, usually has cheaper tickets, but less included service. They usually take a surcharge for things such as baggage, and meals.
But the distinctions between airlines have been blurred, and the final cost for a budget airline ticket may not be less than similar service on a legacy carrier. Especially in the United States and to a lesser extent Europe, particularly on short-haul routes or even long-haul domestic routes, many legacy carriers now provide the same level of service as budget airlines in economy class; "full service" only applies if you are flying in first or business class. Sometimes legacy carriers have wholly owned subsidiaries that operate on a no-frills basis. While such experiments in the US were mostly withdrawn after the 1990s and 2000s, Eurowings (owned by Lufthansa), Transavia (owned by Air France / KLM) and Vueling (owned by British Airways / Iberia) seem to still be going strong as of 2017 and help keep the original brand relatively free of no-frills practices.
Popular destinations are also served by charter airlines booked through travel agents.
With the number of airlines and scheduled flights, there is almost always more than one option to complete your desired journey by air for most destinations. Using flight search websites should be your first step to find out what your choices are. Do not assume that the most direct flight is the cheapest, or that an airline known for low prices will be the cheapest.
Apart from the most obvious airports, do also look at airports close to your origin or destination - they may broaden your options with some more economical ones. Air rail alliances may provide extra options in the form of a ground connection from a more distant airport. Wikivoyage's destination guides usually cover the airports with good ground transportation to a given destination. Secondary airports may sometimes be quite far from the city, so consider any additional transport costs and time. It may be cheaper to fly to the primary airport after all. However, sometimes the secondary airports are closer to the city center and offer cheaper flights.
Domestic flights are, especially in countries with relatively low income, usually cheaper than international flights for the same distance travelled. See #Take domestic flights when possible below.
Currency fluctuations affect pricing; taxes and airport fees also vary widely between departure points.
Airlines take advantage of increased demand on tickets during school holidays to increase ticket prices. Flights to Salzburg Airport from London Stansted with Ryanair go up two - threefold during the February school holidays, whereas British Airways flights from London Heathrow to Munich are half of what Ryanair demands. Of course if you have the time, a train ticket through Deutsche Bahn from London to points in Germany can actually be cheaper than any flight offer, particularly if you add in luggage or if your final destination is not close to a major airport.
Friday and Sunday evening flights tend to be more expensive. Early Sunday morning and late night flights can be cheaper.
- See also: Flight baggage
Depending on how and where you are travelling, you may be able to fly with carry-on baggage only. There are airfares which do not cover any extra baggage and are thus cheaper. Do always check for size and weight restrictions on hand baggage, as they vary between airlines. Those offering especially low fares tend to more diligently check whether your carry-on fits their limits (in practice - for size rather than weight) and charge quite a bit for extra baggage, especially if only paid for just before the flight when you have few other options. On the flip side, many airlines also allow an extra "personal item" on board, which can be anything from a purse to a laptop bag - check with the airline as to what is allowed, as this can help you bring those extra few items on board.
If you cannot fit all the stuff you need into your hand baggage, you must have the airline transport one of your bags in the hold of the aircraft. This baggage must be "checked in" at the airline counter and transported from there to the aircraft by the ground crew. When booking the cheapest fares, you often must pay extra for checked baggage. You can still economize when you have to pay for checked baggage- if you are traveling as a pair or in a group, check whether you cannot pack into one bag or at least fewer bags than the number of passengers. The size and weight allowances for checked baggage are usually quite generous, but check those diligently as well, and whether weight limits apply to one bag or the total weight of all of your bags. Checked baggage is always weighed, and being heavier or larger than the limit will usually mean you will have to pay a lot extra. Some airlines also charge vastly different rates depending on when you book your baggage. It may be more expensive if later "added on" and even more so if you have to buy it at check in. Do make sure that whatever you buy is enough, but don't err too much on the side of extra baggage - you can reduce the amount what you carry if you follow our packing list advice.
The cheapest route may not be the most direct. As flights requiring stopovers are less convenient and take more time, airlines sometimes price them cheaper than direct flights from other airlines. This is especially true for flights booked within a short time from travel dates.
You can also use this option to have an extra long stopover that is enough for sightseeing. In many cases nothing but Immigration prevents you from getting out of the airport and exploring the adjacent city during a stopover, but you need sufficient time to do that and return safely in time for your connecting flight, which is usually at least 8 hours. Do check the times needed to get from the airport to the city and back and advice at minimum times needed to clear security given in our destination or airport guides. Some Icelandic airlines have turned their unique geographic situation into a sales point, offering "mini vacations" of a few days layover at Keflavik at no additional cost compared to a flight with a same-day layover. Flights via KEF can also be cheaper due to the possibility to use short range planes otherwise rarely seen on transatlantic routes.
You may have to choose an late evening arrival and an early morning departure to be able to take advantage of a stopover. Some airlines automatically require you to take the next available flight when connecting, but third-party websites and travel agents might be able to get around those restrictions.
"Fifth-freedom" refers to the right for an airline to carry revenue traffic between two foreign countries as part of a service connecting the airline's home country. For instance, Chile's LAN operates a flight from Santiago to Sydney (Australia) with a stop in Auckland (New Zealand), and is permitted to carry passengers between Sydney and Auckland. It carries passengers between Sydney and Auckland (who don't continue to Santiago) as a fifth-freedom right. As airlines are often desperate to fill up seat vacancies in the fifth freedom sector, and are typically not allowed to advertise the route as much as the airlines of the two foreign countries, these flights are often cheaper than those operated by other carriers.
Examples of some popular fifth-freedom routes include:
- Air France between Los Angeles and Tahiti; Port-au-Prince and Miami; Buenos Aires and Montevideo; Jakarta and Singapore.
- Air China between Munich and Athens; Madrid and Sao Paulo; Barcelona and Vienna; and between Montreal and Havana.
- Air New Zealand from Los Angeles to London and Rarotonga.
- British Airways between Singapore and Sydney; New York to Toronto; Johannesburg (as a hub) to Harare, Livingstone, Maputo, Mauritius, Victoria Falls, Windhoek; Colombo and Male; Doha and Bahrain; Abu Dhabi and Muscat; Antigua and St Kitts, Trinidad-Tobago, San Juan, Punta Cana; Nassau and Grand Cayman; Nassau and Providencia; St Lucia and Port of Spain.
- Cathay Pacific between Vancouver and New York City; Bangkok and Singapore; Taipei and Tokyo, Seoul, Fukuoka, and Osaka.
- Delta Tokyo Narita (as a hub) to Koror, Guam, Manila, Saipan, Shanghai, Singapore & Taipei.
- Emirates between Brisbane and Auckland, Sydney and Auckland, Melbourne and Auckland, Bangkok and Sydney, Singapore and Brisbane, Singapore and Melbourne; Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires (EZE); Abdijan and Accra; New York JFK and Milan; and there numerous other routes between Australia and Southeast Asia.
- Ethiopian Airlines from Dublin to Los Angeles; Hong Kong to Seoul and to Tokyo; Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur; New Delhi and Hangzhou; Harare and Lusaka; Stockholm and Vienna; Lome (as a hub) to Dakar, Kinshasa, Sao Paulo and to Newark; Malabo and Douala; Kigali and Entebbe; Abdijan and Cotonou; Bamako and Dakar.
- Latam between Sydney and Aukland; Frankfurt and Madrid; New York and Toronto; Miami and Caracas.
- Korean Air Los Angeles and Sao Paulo; Vienna and Zurich; Honolulu and Tokyo; Colombo and Male.
- KLM Kuala Lumpur and Jakarta; Doha and Bahrain; Denpasar and Singapore; Kuwait and Dammam.
- Pakistan International Airlines operates between New York and Leipzig/Halle; Beijing and Tokyo.
- Qantas between Dubai and London.
- Singapore Airlines between San Francisco and Hong Kong; Los Angeles and Tokyo, Seoul; New York and Frankfurt; Manchester and Houston; Moscow and Stockholm; Canberra and Wellington.
- Turkish Airlines Bishkek and Ulan Bataar; Bahrain and Muscat; Dijibouti and Mogadishu; Ho Chi Minh and Bangkok; Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires.
- United between Koror and Manila; Koror and Yap; Kwajalein and Kosrae.
There are many other airlines that fly fifth-freedom routes. The de facto hubs for fifth-freedom flights with multiple airlines are in Hong Kong and Tokyo-Narita in East Asia, Singapore and Bangkok in SE Asia; Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Bahrain in the Middle East; and all over Europe (and to some extent including Morocco and Israel) in different city combinations.
Take domestic flights when possible
In general, international flights tend to be more expensive than domestic flights of the same distance. Thus, if you are flying from a city near an international border, it might be worth considering crossing the border and catching a domestic flight in that country, if a city in that neighboring country is your intended destination. For instance, if you are in Hong Kong and wish to head to Shanghai, you should consider crossing the border into Shenzhen and catching a flight from there, or using China's excellent high-speed rail system. Likewise, if you are in San Diego and wish to get to Mexico City, it might be worth considering crossing the border to Tijuana and flying from there. Even if both the origin and the destination cities are further away from the international border it can still work out less expensive to fly from the origin city to the city nearest the border in the first country; cross the border to the next country by surface transport; and pick up another domestic flight to continue onward from the other side. An example of this is if you're traveling from Lima to Santiago de Chile you would fly from Lima to Tacna in Peru, take a bus over the border into Chile, and fly from Arica down to Santiago.
Similarly, if your intended destination is at the border with the neighboring country of the country you are in, you may wish to consider catching a domestic flight to the border and crossing the border by surface transport. For instance, if you are in Penang and wish to head to Singapore, you should consider flying to Johor Bahru and catching a bus across the border. Likewise, if you are in Bangkok and wish to get to Vientiane, you might want to consider flying to Udon Thani and taking a bus across the border into Vientiane (just over the border).
Air rail alliances
- Main article: Air rail alliances
While package deals aimed at German travellers are often sold with rail&fly included anyway, air rail alliances are still a means of saving considerably on airfare that most travellers (and even some search engines) seem unaware of. If you can extend the range of airports from which a flight makes sense by the radius of - say - a five-hour high speed rail ride, you won't be bound to oligopolies at certain airports, you might even arrive quicker as there are several trains a day and usually fewer flights, meaning your connection time might be shorter. Last but not least, you might be earning considerable miles. However, while usually cheaper than buying both tickets separately, sometimes it does make sense to get the whole deal unbundled.
Intermediaries (such as travel agents) and many airlines will charge extra fees for bookings made over the phone or in person at their desks. Booking online is usually the cheapest or at least not more expensive. But sometimes using an intermediary or talking to a live person may open up some interesting options
A special group of intermediaries called "consolidators" by the trade have wholesale contracts with airlines allowing them to sell airline tickets at prices that sometimes might be lower than what the airline itself might quote. This can be especially true on connecting flights.
Travel agents have similar rights and often have access to more fares or are able to structure more intricate flight ticket and rate combinations than the airline's consumer website would allow. If your itinerary is intricate and unusual, a knowledgeable travel agent might be able to lower your total bill. They may also be able to take advantage of youth or student discounts or similar promotions.
Use the exchange rate to your advantage
Most flights booked from the airlines' websites are sold in the currency of the departure port. Two one-way flights will usually be sold in two currencies, whereas a return (round-trip) flight will be sold only in the currency of the origin. The airlines price into a market, and the airfare will rarely be the same after taking currency conversion into account. The saving (or premium charged) can often be as much as 20%. Similarly if you have a stopover, check the fare if you book the same flight originating from your stopover point to the fare if you book all the way through.
Sometimes combining a few especially low-fare flights may be cheaper than any multi-leg ticket you can get from any airline. However, the airlines offering the lowest-priced tickets tend to be point-to-point carriers, not offering connecting tickets and not interlining with other carriers (so their flights cannot be combined with other airlines' flights on a single ticket). This also means any checked baggage is only checked to the connecting city and cannot be checked to the final destination. This will require that you claim your baggage from the baggage carousel (usually outside the secured area), and then go to the next airline's check-in desk to re-check the baggage to the next destination. This adds extra time to your transfer.
You are the only person responsible for your flights misconnecting, and cannot get compensation for a missed flight. You could be stranded and pay more to get to your destination, or may not be able to get there until the next day. Factor in the possibility of a delay in getting to the connection city. Make sure you know which airport you arrive at and which airport you leave from if the connecting city has multiple airports. You may also need a visa if if the connecting airport is neither your origin nor destination country.
Skipping the last leg
If your journey involves a stopover and transfer to another flight, it has more than one "leg". For example, if you fly from Los Angeles to Sydney via Wellington, then your flight has two legs, even if the airline has issued you only one ticket. This same procedure is also known as "hidden city" in US parlance.
Ticket pricing is not always a straightforward issue and often less popular destinations may be priced lower than a popular one, even if the former require extra connecting flights. Therefore, you may find that a flight ticket to Karlsruhe with a transfer in Munich airport will be cheaper than a flight to Munich airport only. If you want to go to Munich, you can buy a ticket to Karlsruhe, and not board the plane there while in Munich, but simply leave the airport. This is possible and not disallowed.
But you will have not completed your flight, and airlines can impose various consequences. First, if the ticket is a round trip ticket to Karlsruhe, you would be required to board your return flight in Karlsruhe and usually will not be able to do so in Munich. Or, the airline could cancel the remaining part of the ticket without any refund.
Further consequences to serial offenders by especially vigilant airlines include removal of loyalty program privileges or denial of service. Local law in many jurisdictions allows airlines to deny flying particular individuals.
There is usually enough small print for the airline to be able to retaliate, so game the system at your own risk.
Another problem might be (depending on where and with which airline you fly) that your checked baggage is "checked through" meaning you don't have access to it during layovers. This is often the case on flights through Europe.
There are specialist websites that "scrape" the airlines' booking systems for such connections. If you want to take the risk, the trick is often called "hidden city" and you will usually find those sites searching for this phrase.
Airline consolidators are brokers who buy seats in bulk from the airline, then resell them to travel agents, often those who specialize in discount international travel (known as "bucket shops") or sometimes directly to the public. Often, purchasing from a consolidator results in a lower fare than offered by the airline.
With more tickets being sold online, in many locations, physical bucket shops have become less numerous and more expensive than those on the internet. Only distant international destinations are sold on a consolidation basis. In the USA, this means Alaska, Hawaii, Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, and the continental U.S. are excluded. In Asia, however, the distances do not have to be so great.
Some countries do not allow consolidators to operate (especially in the developing countries), and airline tickets are sold only according to published tariff rates. However, this applies only to residents of that country (and its visitors who fly to a secondary destination as a local traveller would).
The countries with the most airline consolidators, and the least expensive international airfares, are the United States, UK, Germany, Thailand, and Hong Kong. In addition, Canada also has consolidators, though its international fares tend to be higher than those in the USA. A few other countries in Europe also have them, but tend to be more expensive than the UK or Germany with the exception of flights from France to its former colonies.
When booking with an airline consolidator, it is usually best to book three calendar months ahead. For example, if you wish to fly on 21 June, you may book on or after 1 March. Prior to that date, it is unlikely any arrangements between the airline and its consolidators have been made due to uncertain demand and fuel costs. However, many consolidators will still be willing to sell you a seat many months in advance at higher price, with no hint that prices are likely to go down if you wait. On the other hand, if you wait until the last minute, it's likely that all seats will have been sold out. Sometimes you can get a great deal if the plane is still half empty, but that's the exception. Of course, this doesn't mean that you should wait until three months prior to book travel to a high demand event such as the Olympics. For something like that, it's highly unlikely that the airlines are going to release any seats at all to consolidators, as their whole purpose is to sell excess seats the airlines are unable to sell themselves.
Traditionally, when you first begin booking with a consolidator, it is on a "request only" basis. This means the consolidator must first check your request with the airline before you get your confirmation—usually in two to three working days. With the world now more computerized, sometimes, but not always, you can get instant confirmation. After receiving your ticket (or e-ticket), call the airline to verify that everything matches. If they don't have your record (and you're not flying immediately), try again in a couple days.
Payment is expected soon after confirmation and there are hefty penalties for changes and cancellation. After flying just one leg of the ticket, nothing is refundable. There may be a small surcharge for credit card payments, but it is often advisable to use a credit card (not a debt card tied to a checking or savings account) to provide protection in case of bankruptcy. Not all airline consolidators (or those representing themselves as such) are honest, and they should be checked thoroughly before any money is exchanged. In the United States, many of the largest consolidators are members of the United States Air Consolidators Association (USACA). They require each member to conduct at least US$20 million in sales annually, be incorporated in the USA for at least two years, and have never filed for bankruptcy or ceased operation. However, some of these consolidators are wholesale only, and they just resell to travel agents.
Some travel agencies have recognized the value and convenience of booking online. It's a good idea to look for travel agencies who book consolidator tickets and have their own booking engine set up on a company website. You'll have access to three sets of fares through their booking engines, which will give you three chances of finding the lowest fare for international travel. You'll have access to consolidator fares, published fares offered by airlines and online only special fares. If you have a favorite travel agent already, check out their website and see if they offer this option.
Booking online will still give you the convenience of buying your ticket at your own time, at your convenience and still taking advantage of all possible avenues of finding the lowest cost. If you see an itinerary and cost you like, but shows as unavailable on the booking engine, call your travel agent with your desired itinerary. They may be able to waitlist your flight and still get seats confirmed at the desired cost for your desired itinerary. Travel agents are also able to hold your reservation anywhere from 3 to 10 days before you have to purchase and pay for your reservation. This gives you time to apply for visas and get any other paperwork in order.
Airline miles are available in most, but not all, cases. Paperless e-tickets are becoming more common even for international destinations. If a paper ticket is required (either by you or the airline), it will be shipped by express mail or air courier service at an additional charge. A paper ticket may show a fare much higher than what you actually paid, and not the airline's cheapest fare (or fare class in coach). This is to your advantage. In case of overbooking, you'll be more protected from getting "bumped," and you'll probably get more or better airline miles. This applies equally to e-tickets, but won't be as obvious.
A legacy airline usually has a heritage from the time when flying was a luxury. Their prices have lingered at the high end.
As of the 2010s, these airlines have reworked their ticket classes. Some of them now have a low-budget ticket class, which is usually on sale. The characteristics of budget airlines (extra cost for personal ground service, seat assignment, baggage, meals, etc.) increasingly apply to the low ticket classes of legacy airlines.
Flag carriers might provide resident discounts for rural or island destinations.
The cheapest tickets are often offered by budget airlines, which tend to have restricted service compared to full-service or legacy carriers. Usually the most pronounced difference is the type of aircraft and seat pitch (i.e. the distance between seats). Low-fare carriers usually pack the most passengers possible in their aircraft, which means only offering one class of seating and service, and offering very limited seat pitch and legroom.
Budget airlines often fly as early and as late in the day as possible. Many European airports have limits on night flights, which means you will probably not have to fly before 5:00 AM (check whether there is any transportation to the airport at this early hour). In the US the "red eye" flight has become somewhat of an institution for cost- and time-conscious travellers, meaning a flight where any sleep you might get is on the plane. As those flights are usually not popular, deals tend to be best for them.
Reserving specific seats with more legroom is usually possible for a sizable fee. Depending on the airline, you may find nothing in terms of entertainment or conveniences, but free WiFi and power sockets at your seats. Parents with small children should call the airline and ensure any special requirements are available prior to booking. Change facilities may be simple or non-existent.
Increasingly budget airlines offer "premium" packages, which usually include priority boarding, a baggage allowance, or even a seat near an exit row.
Finally, meals and drinks are almost always sold on board at inflated prices, although this is becoming the a norm for airlines offering cheaper rates. Check the airline's website for information regarding services, and make an informed choice.
Never assume that budget carriers will be the cheapest. Particularly in the United States, the legacy full-service carriers offer the same, or sometimes even less service than some budget carriers for domestic economy, and their fares are often competitive with what the budget carriers are offering. Elsewhere, after factoring in the costs of extras, it can sometimes work out cheaper to fly on a full-service airline, especially if you are booking a trip at the last minute. The only way to be sure you are getting the best deal is to shop around.
Budget airlines often impose (very) low baggage allowances. These can be as low as 10–15 kg for one item only, and some do not allow any free check-in baggage at all, but some carriers offer generous allowances. Check the carriers' rules carefully before booking. They generally enforce excess allowances at check-in even for very minor amounts over the limit and require cash or credit card payment or they will refuse boarding. For airlines that do not offer free check-in baggage, they usually allow you to purchase check-in baggage allowance either online in advance, or at the counter on check-in. More often than not, purchasing it online in advance is the cheaper of the two options, usually by a significant amount.
When buying tickets on a budget airline, be sure to calculate how much you end up paying for the total fare, including additional charges, and compare them with the price of a full-service airline. Some budget airlines are also impose additional fee for passengers who carry a child below 2 years old, however no additional seat provided for the child.
Many budget airlines do not provide meals, water or in-flight entertainment. Some sell these on board. Meals or beverages are often overpriced. Some entertainment systems offer pay-per-view content.
With security arrangements changing around the world do not assume you can bring food or water on board. An empty bottle is usually fine with airport security though, and if the airport has any potable water air-side, it's worth a shot. Check their website prior to booking. Some airlines permit pre-booking of upgrades for meals, baggage and other services at a discount at booking. Walk-up payment is often over-priced or the quantity not available to meet demand. Be flexible and prepared prior to your flight. (Tip - Take tissues in case of low toilet paper supply.)
Many budget airlines avoid major airports as they tend to have higher landing fees. Especially in Europe, this often means budget airlines fly out of airfields in the middle of nowhere like Hahn, that can be difficult and expensive to reach. If you factor in those costs at both ends of your flight, the major airport may end up being cheaper after all. In North America however, many secondary airports are closer to the city they serve, reducing this problem.
- See also: Aircraft seating
Seat allocation for budget airlines is generally either pre-booked as a preference at the time of booking or is not available until check-in. Once again, check the airline website carefully and read the terms and conditions prior to providing credit card details. To obtain best seats it is essential that you arrive as early as possible to the airport for check-in and seat allocation.
While business class is usually absent on these airlines, there can be several sub-classes of seating, where you usually get what you pay for.
Discount carriers don't always offer credit for missed flights and may even then not offer a discount for travel at short notice. The $50 fare you prepaid may be lost and a new fare of $450 be your only option. Always ensure you know what the airline policy is if you arrive late to check-in as well as sicknesses, illness etc.
Read the fine print
Low service airlines are notorious for their practice of advertising extremely low fares that suddenly stack up with a lot of surcharges once you book them. They justify it by saying that they only sell one ticket for one person sitting in one seat flying with no baggage and anything beyond that should be paid for if you want it, but some push it to the point of absurdity, when entering data in one form automatically checks a box in another that makes you buy (almost certainly useless) travel insurance. Common (almost always inflated) surcharges to avoid are levied on the "wrong" form of payment (try to have the right kind of debit or credit card handy), failing to print out a boarding pass, check-in that isn't done the "right" way (usually online), assigned seats, unaccompanied minors, baggage and - most absurd of all - carry-on bags. Before you book, make absolutely sure that you know what you will need and book it as early as possible, to avoid having to pay multiples of the normal price when you suddenly notice at the gate that 15 kilos of checked baggage isn't going to be enough, and you'll possibly have to pay 100 Euros for excess baggage.
See also Common scams#"Low cost" airlines.
- See also: Shopping
The ride to and from the airports (or between transit airports) might be a significant portion of the total cost (and time). If you ride a budget airline to a far-out airport (such as Stockholm-Skavsta near Nyköping, which is 100 kilometres from Stockholm), the bus ticket might cost more than the flight. If urban rail or local buses are available, they are usually the cheapest option.
Alternatives to flying
- See also: Transportation#Choosing your vehicle
While there are hardly any practicable alternatives to a trans-atlantic or trans-pacific flight (unless you seriously consider traveling on a freight ship and even that is usually more expensive than a flight) the shorter the distance, the more alternatives open up.
Ground transportation options obviously include rail travel and bus travel. While airplanes fly much faster than even the high-speed trains run, do note the time needed for getting to and from the airport, waiting to embark and disembark and baggage handling as well as the time consumed by the - often onerous - security procedures. Most of the time railways go directly to the city center, and the same is often the case with buses. You can also often enjoy more space and comfort on board of a train, and more of your time is spent actually travelling and not queuing up, so you can simply sleep, relax or work longer.
In many cases bus or rail travel is cheaper than a flight covering the same distance, as long as it stays under a roughly 1000 kilometer threshold. However on longer distances the economies of scale tend to work against ground transportation and in favor of flying, but be sure to check prices regardless, as sometimes even a "short hop" flight may be cheaper than the alternative and sometimes even a long overland trip can be a bargain in terms of price. Even though you might reconsider if the cheapest rail or bus fare involves a 30 hour ride and no bed or couchette. While sleeping in coach class is doable and easier on a train than a plane (reclining seats, more legroom, less noise etc.) sleeper trains were invented for a reason.
If your flight is across a body of water, you may want to see if there is a water connection as well. Water-based transportation is usually much slower than overground transport or flying, but its has some advantages. For smaller bodies of water, those are the sights and the experience other means simply cannot afford. For larger bodies of water requiring a long crossing, it is often done by means of ferry ships which contain sleeping facilities, so you get your transport and accommodation at one go (and at one price). Generally the largest (and some would argue the best) ferries crisscross the Baltic. They can also be remarkably cheap (cheaper than most standard hotel rooms) if you bring your own food and resist the urge to load up on booze and cigarettes. See Ferries in the Baltic Sea.
Other options to consider
- Tips for rail travel
- Rail travel in Canada
- Rail travel in Europe
- Rail travel in Germany
- Rail travel in India
- Rail travel in Japan
- Rail travel in the United Kingdom
- Rail travel in the United States
- Trans-Siberian Railway
- High Speed rail in China
- High Speed rail in South Korea
- Bus travel
- High-speed rail