There are common scams that occur in many places that the traveller should be aware of. These are designed to get your money or business from you under false pretenses. They fall into three categories: overcharging you, deceiving you or coercing you into paying for a service you don't want, and outright theft.
A scam is not necessarily a crime, and police might not have the will or legal ability to help out victims. In the worst case they may even be in on it and some ways of local law enforcement may indeed work with various forms of entrapment or trickery that might fall into a moral category not all that unlike some scams on this list.
Prevention is based on knowledge: researching your destination will both alert you in advance to scams in the area and let you know what the usual prices and truly good sights are so you will be less reliant on the approaches of helpful individuals when you're vulnerable.
At the same time, if you do get stung, don't be too hard on yourself: you were dealing with people who knew the location a lot better than you and with people who were out to deceive you. In some cases, you were dealing with hardened criminals. If you think what happened to you was illegal and the police are trustworthy, report it; otherwise, just chalk it up to experience. If you wish to make a theft-related claim against an insurance policy, you will generally need to make a police report within 24 hours and keep a copy for your insurance company. You will also need a police report to replace some stolen identity documents, such as passports.
The US State Department has a page warning of scams practised on travellers.
|“||Fool me once, shame on you. Fool me twice, shame on me.||”|
Several bits of common sense may help you stay out of trouble without your needing to know exactly what scams are practiced in what areas:
- If you have travelling companions, keep each other informed of the general outlines of your plans for the day
- Don't carry unnecessary amounts of cash or expensive items (e.g., Louis Vuitton purses, iPhones, etc.) around with you
- In high-risk areas, don't draw attention to the fact that you are non-local. Travel light, lose the string of cameras around your neck, dress as the locals do. Avoid typical "tourist" accessories, such as maps or backpacks. Don't be surprised if a vehicle with number plates from some faraway place and prominent rental car firm logos is targeted for break-in or theft as villains realize you have a long trip to come back to testify against them, or even a language barrier.
- Don't have your name printed on the outside of your bags in case someone approaches you using your name pretending to know you (use an opaque luggage tag if you must)
- Alcohol and other drugs affect your judgment and should be indulged in only among people you have good reason to trust.
- Research into your destination, its general layout, and the usual price ranges are helpful in avoiding many scams. When arriving in a new city, have a plan of where to go and be aware that airports, railway stations and the like are often places where touts and conmen wait for newcomers they can offer their "help" to.
- Knowing where you want to go and what you want to do and then sticking to that plan is a good way to avoid getting ripped off
- Knowing the language — even just basics — will make you look less "foreign" and be helpful in getting the help of locals when you're the victim of some malfeasance
- Each country has different high-crime areas. In general, low-income areas, touristed areas, stations for rail and other public transport and nightlife districts have higher crime risk than other areas. While airports themselves are often safe enough, the surrounding community may be dodgy; it's also likely to be far from the heart of the city. Many destinations have a motel strip on what used to be the main road into town; as these roads are bypassed by motorways, the lodgings (or even the local area) may go into decline or become a crime magnet. As each community is different, check the "stay safe" section of the Wikivoyage city article before deciding where to stay.
- Remember that astounding deals and amazing winnings are as unlikely as they seem and likely to be part of a scam.
- Be wary of any stranger who seems to be singling you out for extended special attention, especially if they are trying to persuade you to leave your friends or accompany them to an unknown area.
- Avoid anyone begging, particularly if they're using children to beg on their behalf (a common scam). In China, if you see a child begging, please post a picture of them online, as those children are often victims of kidnapping, and posting a picture online can make it easier for the children to be located.
- Being in any situation where you are among a group of strangers who all know one another, but not youself, provides them a great deal of power over you.
- Avoid sending money via Western Union or similar services to people or businesses you don't know.
- Be wary of attractive-looking strangers trying to raise your sexual emotions, including strippers, prostitutes and touts.
- Always discuss and agree a price before you accept any products, services, or accommodation, and always have some proof of payment
- You are not required to be polite or friendly to anyone who refuses to leave you alone when you request it
- Nor are you required to answer getting-to-know-you questions from random people. These may just be friendly locals, but they might also be scammers looking for information useful to them.
- Walking on when offered some "incredible deal" might seem rude but really is par for the course and many locals have it down pat. Try to learn from them.
These scams are based upon the idea of offering you help or advice that is actually deceptive, trusting that you will rely on the scammer's "local knowledge". They usually involve giving advice that results in you paying for something that you otherwise wouldn't or going somewhere you don't want to go. Some scams in which a helpful local offers to cut you a good deal can be outright fraudulent such as convincing you to buy fake gems for example but many simply get you to pay for something that you wouldn't pay for if you knew the area better.
One of the biggest traps of these kinds of scams is the desire to be polite to people who are polite and friendly to you; and the scammers know this. While you shouldn't become a hard-nosed nasty person, you should receive unsolicited offers of help with polite caution, and, when you are reasonably certain that you're being scammed, there's no need to be polite in fending it off: feel free to walk away or speak firmly at the person. Yelling for help could be necessary, but it will often just attract more (unwanted) attention. Pretending they don't exist, which entails not making eye contact, not walking faster, not saying 'hello' or 'no', will often humiliate them or tire them out without frustration on your part. Do not respond if they call you racist to attract your attention. Another common mistake is to say 'no thank you', in which case they have their 'foot in the door' tactic up and running and feel that they can engage in a conversation with you.
Another trap is the "too good to be true" offers: they are almost certainly not true.
Your driver or guide will tell you that the place you're heading to is closed, no good or too expensive and that he knows somewhere better. While this may be true, it's likely that the 'better' place is giving him a commission for referrals, and his commission is just going to increase your room rate.
You must insist on going to your planned destination. In some cases the driver will not drive you to your hotel even if you insist. In some places, taxi drivers will take you to the wrong hotel and insist it is the one you requested! Get the correct name because there are a lot of copies and similarities in their names.
To avoid being held hostage by a mercenary taxi, keep your luggage with you on the back seat so you can credibly threaten to walk out and not pay. They'll usually back down by the time you start opening the door—and if they don't, get a new driver.
The best thing you can do is avoid using taxis whenever possible. Before arriving in a new location have your accommodation pre booked, find out where it is on the map and see if there is alternative transport such as local buses to get to or near your accommodation. If you do need to book accommodation after arrival, book from a reputable source such as local travel agency or tourism office.
You may arrive at a major tourist destination only to find a very helpful local near the entrance explaining that there's a riot/holiday/official visit at the place you want to go and it is closed. (Sometimes, taxi drivers are in cahoots with these helpful locals and will purposely drop you off to be received by them.) The local will then offer to take you to a lesser known but infinitely more beautiful sight or to a nice shop. Generally, the destination is in fact open for business: simply refuse the offer and go and have a look. Even on the very rare occasions that they are telling the truth, they may not be as helpful as they seem so it would be better to pursue your own backup plan. Just walk away from them and walk towards the main tourist entrance where they stop following you.
The opposite might in fact take place when arriving by car, especially in places like Rio de Janeiro, where scammers might ask for a fee to "keep your car safe" (a widespread scam in Brazil). While sometimes tourist attractions are in fact closed or under maintenance, scammers will state those are open, and demand a small fee in advance. Taxi drivers will also sometimes take a long route to a place and "forget" to mention the place is closed, then suggest an alternative attraction far away from the original place.
You are met in the street by people who say they are art students. They speak English well and invite you to visit their school. Then they will try to get you to buy one of their works for an excessive price. The "students" are usually attractive young women who are employed by the gallery to attract customers and to make the customers feel obliged to purchase "their" works to encourage them and repay them for their friendliness.
Sometimes locals will simply try to force themselves on you to help with a ticket machine, a subway map or directions. They might just be overly helpful but they may also be looking for and demand a small tip for their forced help. In general, be wary of anyone who forces their way into your personal space, and who starts doing things for you without asking you if you need them. If you have received help and then some coinage is demanded, it's probably easier to pay it. However, this kind of situation can also leave you vulnerable to substantial theft so be polite but firm, and then simply firm, by telling the person that you are fine now and that they should leave you alone.
A local eagerly offering to "help" take a photo of you might be unwilling to give your camera back, or might demand money for its return; likewise, anyone too eager to "help" you with your luggage may be intending to steal your valuables for themselves. A local may also offer to pose for a photo; only after you take the photo, they demand money.
Just been robbed
This scam involves persons approaching you and asking you if you know where the police station is. They will seem frightened and shaken and inform you that they have just been robbed of the money he needed to get back home which is very likely to be in a different city or even country. Again, they will get emotional and say the police perhaps won't be of much assistance and they will turn to you for help. Although they only expect you to happily hand over a small amount, the more people they con the more money they make themselves. This scam also takes the form of refugees escaping a war-torn country, a father who needs to get to a hospital to see his sick child and many other variants.
Poipet (on the border between Thailand and Cambodia) is a classic example of the border crossing scam. "Helpful" people will charge you for doing a useless service (like filling out your application form); "friendly" people will charge you twice the normal fee for obtaining a visa (which you can do yourself), crooks will tell you that you must change money at their horrible exchange rates (they will also tell you that there are no ATMs anywhere in the country), and tuk-tuk drivers will charge you some idiotic amount for taking you 100 meters.
The cure is simple: read up on any border crossing before you cross it, know the charges in advance, and don't believe or pay anyone not in uniform. Even then, try to ask another person in uniform to see if you get the same story.
Usually the Wikivoyage country articles have a description of the common procedures at all (major) border crossings in the "get in" section. In the case of huge countries, you may want to look in region and city articles as well.
"Official" asks for souvenir
After an official or someone dressed as one assists you at a transit station such as an airport or train station, that person will ask you for money from your home country as a souvenir. If you pull out less than what they want, they will use an overly friendly yet insistent manner to demand a higher amount, generally in notes. In some countries giving money to an official can be misconstrued as a bribe and can get you in deep water. It's best to limit conversation as much as possible and when asked for money, to feign ignorance or lack of cash. This has occurred in Malaysia and China.
Solicitation of money by photographic subjects
A local in a colorful costume offers to pose for a photo with a traveller, persistently asking "Want to take a picture?". The visitor takes one picture. The local then starts aggressively demanding money. The traveller objects, only to be met with a string of obscenities at best and physical force at worst.
The scam is that neither the price nor the intent to demand money is disclosed up front. Payment is only demanded after the visitor has taken the photo and it's "too late".
The operators are not licensed street vendors (they evade regulations by mischaracterizing their fee for service as a "tip" or gratuity, only to become rude, aggressive or violent when the victim refuses to pay). While they may appear as anything from bogus Sesame Street characters (who typically demand $2-5) to scantily clad women wearing little other than a thong and body paint (who take $10-20), they invariably do not have permission from the creators of any trademarked, copyrighted characters they're impersonating. As solicitations occur most often in high-traffic, touristed areas like New York City whose visitors are already subjected to begging, aggressive panhandling and various scams, their conduct reflects poorly on the city to outsiders.
While the best response to "Want to take a picture?" in some places is simply to walk away, parents travelling with children may find it very awkward to explain to tiny tots why the Cookie Monster was arrested in Times Square for pushing a two-year-old child to the ground (his mother refused to pay for a photo) or why officers carried an emotionally disturbed Elmo out of Central Park Zoo screaming obscenities (he was ejected for begging from the zoo's visitors).
Gifts from beggars
A beggar stops you on the street and gives you a "present", like tying a "lucky charm" around your wrist. Alternatively, they "find" something like a ring on the street and give it you. After a few moments of chit-chat, they start demanding money and follow you until you give them money.
Avoiding this scam is easy enough: remember what your mother told you when you were in kindergarten, and don't accept "free" gifts from strangers. This scam is particularly common in Egypt and Spain. In one variant occasionally seen in particularly large Canadian, American and Japanese cities, the beggars dress as fake monks to solicit these "donations".
Another similar scam involves overly pushy people who pose as collecting money for charity. This is particularly common in developed countries. Usually an old woman will approach you, tie a small flower to your shirt and expect you to "donate" money. They never say the specific charity, they often say "for the children." Inquiring about the specifics of their "charity" may help scare them off. Typically, if they have no name badges or even a charity name, it's probably not a real charity.
Before entering a situation where you might get hassled, set rules with yourself for how and when you will spend money, stick to the rules, and let other people know.
Dirty shoes scam
A shoe cleaner says your shoes need cleaning, and he points out that there is dirt on your shoes. When you take a look, there really is feces or any other kind of dirt on your shoe (a lot usually). He offers to get them clean again for a very high price. What you most probably did not recognize is that a few meters before that cleaner or a helper has thrown that very dirt onto your shoes.
This scam can also be combined with pickpocketing or distraction theft, as has been observed in Cairo and Delhi. A variant in Buenos Aires involves someone throwing mustard or some other paste on your coat and then the helper or a third person pickpocketing you and occasionally stealing your bag.
Begging for medicine to sick family members
This scam is practiced in parts of Africa, where it's well known that tourists travel with their own medicine such as penicillin or anti-malarial drugs. Beggars will approach on the street, telling a sad tale about their little daughter or son who is dying with malaria or some other disease. They will then ask you if they can have your medicine to save them. The sobbing story makes it difficult to refuse the request and they may accuse you of everything from racism to willingly letting an innocent child die. As soon as they receive your medications they will run away, presumably to save their daughter but in reality they will run to the local pharmacy to sell your medications. Expensive drugs such as Malarone may fetch up to $10 US per tablet.
This scam places a lot of emotional stress on the victims, but remember that if a child really was sick, it's highly unlikely that the father would be running around in the streets begging tourists for medicine. The child would have been brought to the local dispensary, and, if there really was a scarcity in drugs, you would probably be approached in quite a different manner. Also, remember that giving up hard-to replace prescription drugs might put yourself at risk if you were to contract any illness yourself. The cure is to not get soft-hearted so simply ignore the person and walk away.
You are pulled over by a vehicle that appears to be a police car, often unmarked. The supposed officer says you are about to receive a large fine and points on your license, but you can avoid this by paying a much smaller fee up front in cash. This is not a tactic used by law enforcement agencies almost anywhere. In countries without high levels of corruption, legitimate police officers care that the law is obeyed, not about the money they will receive. Police will either issue a real ticket that must be paid directly by mail or in person to the department, a warning in which no money needs to be paid at all, or they will let you go completely free. If you are in doubt, you have the right to request for another officer to come to the scene.
In another variant, a stranger at an airport asks an unsuspecting bystander to watch their bag or purse. The stranger leaves, returning with a police officer (or someone posing as one) who claims the bag contains drugs or contraband and demands a bribe to evade criminal prosecution.
It is quite easy to impersonate a police officer. Police vehicles are typically models that are also sold to civilians, and many of these models have not been redesigned in many years, so older ones can be purchased cheaply. Rotating lights like those found on the dashboards of unmarked police vehicles can be purchased easily in electronics or hobby shops, and police uniforms and badges can be purchased from uniform stores. Though a real officer knows the difference, a naive civilian (let alone a foreign visitor) does not.
In Serbia, at least, it is indeed possible and legal in some cases to pay 50% on the spot in cash to a traffic police officer or to pay 100% later in a bank or post office. On the other hand, in countries where police corruption is known to be a serious issue, a real police officer pulling you over may well be trying to extort a bribe—if you believe this is the case, you'll have to use your judgement and knowledge of the country to decide what to do.
"Better" exchange rate
Locals may offer better currency exchange rate than official banks or authorized currency exchange stores. It is best to avoid these offers since you may not know if you are receiving counterfeit bills or obsolete currencies that the government has phased out and no longer has any value.
These scams are based on your ignorance of the area and rely on getting you to pay well over the market rate for goods or services. Some will rely on a helpful local steering you to the goods, but others will simply involve quoting a high price to you. In some countries this is institutionalized: foreigners have to pay more even for genuine sights.
Getting a general sense of accommodation price ranges and the like is the best way to prevent being overcharged. In some places, it's assumed that you'll bargain down overcharged prices, in others, you will just have to walk away or pay up for goods although you should still challenge the amount in the case of a service if it is clearly overpriced.
Rental car claims of damage
When you rent a car or other vehicle, you are rushed through the process of checking for prior damage, including scratches; the agent may not be so happy about you taking your time to do it. The vehicle already has plenty of scratches or dents, so it is impossible for your eyes to catch all of them.
When you return the vehicle, you are hit with a rude awakening. The agency is accusing you of having caused damage to the vehicle, and is now holding you responsible. The agency has pointed out to you damage to a part of the vehicle it is difficult to notice, and it was probably there before. But they will not tell you that. You are charged hundreds, even thousands of dollars for it onto your credit card on the spot. They have probably charged this to multiple customers, even though the money is needed only once to repair it, and the amount they charge greatly exceeds the actual repair cost. In fact, they most likely will never repair it and will sell or trade the vehicle once their time with it is up. It has been reported by industry insiders that the agents who 'notice' the damages are paid commission so they have a very good incentive to not notice small damage then 'discover' it upon return.
This kind of tactic is common across all brands within the vehicle rental industry, with examples of local operators of Europcar UK, Budget Canada, and Hertz Australia having been prosecuted for unconscionable conduct and misrepresentation by fraudulently attributing damages to customers or inflating repair costs.
Variants include charging clients for repairs which were never made, or charging for repairs at inflated prices. In some cases, the repair shop and the hire car agent conveniently turn out to both be controlled by the same person or entity, allowing claims such as $1000 for a windscreen replacement which was never done.
You can protect yourself by taking lots of close-up pictures of the vehicle (inside and out) when you pick it up. If you find yourself in a disagreement over damages when you return the vehicle, the photographic evidence may get the rental shop to back down, and is essential if you have to escalate your complaint with the corporate office.
Legitimate tolls use existing structures. But in some rural areas, primitive makeshift gates are set up on little traveled roads frequented by tourists, and money is demanded in exchange for passage. The appearance is given that it could be a "toll" or park entrance fee. In many cases you have few options besides paying and grumbling, but the mere threat of reporting the situation to authorities might do wonders in some cases.
If you make a payment that requires change, they will refuse it and demand that you pay the exact amount. If you are not very attentive however, they will "forget" to return your initial payment. It may seem strange not to notice this, but in a fast moving and confusing setting, it happens more easily than you think, especially if you are somewhat tired or intoxicated. Incidents like this do also happen in decent looking establishments, such as shopping malls and airport stores. A telltale sign of impending trouble is that the cashier will suddenly lose the ability to speak or understand a single word of English. If you still have all your money in hand, the best course of action is to abandon your goods and walk away.
In another variation, a seller will insist that he does not have change for the item you purchased and that you should accept goods (often of low-quality) in place of your change. If you ask to "cancel" the sale and get your money back, the seller may become quite pushy in insisting that you take the goods or try to make you feel guilty because he needs the money for his family or business is not going well. If paying with large bills, it is best to ask if the seller has change before handing over your money.
Yet another variation involves ticket windows at tourist sites. Ticket sellers will take your money, take a long time stamping your tickets and talking to colleagues, taking your ID as security for audio guides, etc., and simply "forget" to give you your change. They may give you some brief information, smile, and say "okay!" to distract you and send you on your way. Once you leave the window you have no chance of getting your change, so be sure to ask for it and not be distracted by their "helpful information".
While you're waiting in a public place such as a restaurant or bus stop, a friendly well-spoken local approaches you to engage in conversation. After some chit-chat, the individual then shares with you that he is a coin collector and asks if you would like to see his collection. The individual produces from his pocket a small collection of coins and explains with great feigned interest the country of origin of each of his coins. Mixed into the conversation will be questions about the type of money that you use in your home country and a seeming desire to know more. The intended outcome is that the unwitting tourist will show the pocket change they have with them from home and, if sufficiently fooled by the conversation, offer that the local person can keep it for their collection. After the conversation, the 'coin collector' will exchange the money for local currency.
All over the world, but especially Asia, are shops that will give your driver or tour guide a commission to bring in tourists; some tours waste more time at these shops than they spend at actual sights. Often, these shops sell low-quality goods at exorbitant prices; they may claim to be selling handmade cottage industry products or to be child-labor free, but such claims are often false. It is strongly recommended to avoid buying anything from them, especially if you have been directed to the shop by someone.
Alternatively, decide what you want and then come back without a driver and bargain for a substantial discount. In Jerusalem this should be at least 35%, roughly the amount the driver gets. In some Chinese tourist trap stores, it should be at least 60%; the items are marked with "fixed prices" but the clerks are allowed to give up to 20% off and the guide gets 50% of the selling price so the "real" price is 40% of the marked one.
These places often have clean, western-style bathrooms, which can be hard to come by otherwise.
See the Shopping article for some alternatives that are often better than these shops.
If you are persuaded to buy souvenirs or other items from people selling on the street, look at the change you are given from the sale before putting it in your wallet: it may be in a different currency of similar appearance. For example, in China, a street-vendor may hand you a 50 ruble note in change instead of 50 yuan; the former is worth one tenth as much as the latter. In some areas, you may get outright counterfeit currency. Also be careful that the notes you receive are not ripped or damaged as these may not be accepted elsewhere. It is also possible for the vendor to outright steal bills from you in the process of "exchanging" money.
Often, bad money drives out good. Many obsolete currencies which are similarly-named to the modern currency look official but are worthless; governments fuel inflation by printing too much money, then create a "new" currency which merely lops a few trailing zeroes off the denominations of the worthless "old" currency. Governments have also "demonetised" specific notes, deliberately rendering them no longer valid. There are also some countries (such as Cuba) which officially have (or had) two currencies – the Cuban convertible peso (CUC) is more valuable than the regular Cuban peso (CUP), creating opportunities for bait-and-switch on the hapless voyager.
Precious metal items such as gold bracelets are sold as 'dollars per gram' in some countries. Comparing the price between shops and then against the current gold price makes the practice appear open and transparent, so much so that you may rely on the seller to do the calculation. It won't be till later, if at all, that you will realize that the price you were charged is much more than the calculated price.
A vendor may claim to be willing to accept your home currency for a purchase (and most travel venues on an international boundary do so) but their exchange rate is at least 10% worse than any local bank or a dedicated bureau de change. For instance, "US dollars accepted here" by a merchant at $1.10 (when the local currency is trading below eighty cents on the open market) is no bargain. Sub-prime cheque cashing businesses are also infamous for deliberately unfavorable rates on currency exchange.
One pitfall in this respect is dynamic currency exchange: the vendor on a card-paid transaction offers to do the conversion for you and bill your card in your home currency. In most cases, it's best to say "no" and refuse to complete the transaction if the vendor insists, as the exchange rate offered by the merchant is almost invariably worse than whatever's offered by default by your card's issuing bank or credit union. This is a common scam in Europe. The card terminal may be handed to you with the choice of local or your home currency. Always pay in the local currency as your credit card company will invariably provide the better exchange rate. If the vendor has already selected your home currency, cancel the transaction (red key) and ask them to enter again in local currency.
Gem and other resale scams
You are taken to a jewelry shop and offered a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to purchase gemstones or jewels at special discount prices. Another customer in the shop, well-dressed and perhaps from the same country as you, tells how he made incredible profits last year by reselling the gems and is now back for more but to hurry as the sale ends today and you have to pay cash.
Of course, once you get back home and try to sell your booty, it turns out to be low-grade and worth only a fraction of what you paid for it. This scam is particularly prevalent in Bangkok, but variations on the theme with other products that can supposedly be resold for vast profits are common elsewhere too. Another variation involves you exporting the gems for a supposed 'commission' in exchange for the scammer taking a photocopy of your ID cards and/or credit cards, which can of course be used to make a tidy profit via identity theft.
Unfortunately for the traveller, counterfeiting isn't limited to the manufacture of "Relox" watches or knock-offs of random overpriced luxury goods from CD's and DVD's to watches, clothing, bags and cosmetics. In some regions, branded prescription medicines are prone to being copied by rival manufacturers. Knock-offs vary from legitimately useful generics to poor copies with the wrong amount of an active ingredient; many are diluted and some don't work at all. Outdated medications, which can be unreliable, have a knack for turning up at inopportune moments in out-of-the-way places. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates indicate one million deaths are tied to bogus medicine, with fake anti-malaria tablets in Africa of particular concern.
American import law prohibits bringing more than one of any counterfeit item into the country and requires the items be declared. This is especially important when travelling back from Asia, where most counterfeit goods originate. It's assumed that if you are buying more than one, it's for illegal resale. One counterfeit Rolex for your possession is legal, but two fake Rolexes are illegal and subject to thousands of dollars in fines.
Counterfeit currency is also an issue in some regions, particularly in Asia. North Korea is accused by the CIA of printing very convincing (but bogus) US currency, known as "supernotes", for export within the region.
Cruise ship art auctions
Cruise passengers are lured to auctions of supposedly investment-grade, collector painting, which are actually industrial inkjet printed copies, euphemistically called giclée. Free champagne flows like water. The auctions may or may not be conducted by licensed auctioneers and may not adhere to standard auction practices. Since the sales take place at sea, it is difficult for buyers to do due diligence and research on internet prior to making decision. Buyers may have little recourse if the art is misrepresented. Furthermore, in traditional auctions the bidder buys the actual piece on display, whereas cruise ship auctions sell the art on display, but the winning bidder actually receives a different (but supposedly equivalent) piece which is shipped from the auction company's warehouse. Many art buyers at cruise ship auctions have later found that their shipboard masterpieces were worth only a fraction of the purchase price and will never appreciate in value. One major player in cruise ship auction is Park West Galleries.
Art auctions on cruise ships is not investment grade, to prevent being scammed, carefully read any terms and conditions prior to signing anything.
Buying expensive antiques anywhere is risky. Even experts can sometimes be deceived by fakes, and a naive buyer is at great risk of being overcharged nearly anywhere. An additional complication arises in the many countries which, quite understandably, have various restrictions on export of relics of their culture. Egypt and India, for example, have strict rules on export of antiquities and China requires a license for antiques. In Peru it is forbidden to export relics and to buy a relic requires a license of the Ministry of Culture, so always check in the official tourist information office (iperu).
Check the laws in any country you visit before buying antiques. Otherwise, you might have your purchases confiscated at the border and be hit with a hefty fine as well. In some countries, licensed dealers can provide paperwork that allows export for some items, but bogus documents are sometimes provided. Try to deal with someone respectable and traceable.
In some countries, the whole thing becomes a scam. Instead of preserving the confiscated "heritage" items, corrupt border police may sell them right back to the tourist shops so that the shops then sell them to another unsuspecting traveler.
Your own country may also apply import restrictions to items such as animal pelts (for a long list of species, some of which are not actually endangered) or anything containing ivory. Know before you go.
Plastic bag code
In some countries where haggling is common, people at markets may have an arrangement where they will put purchases in different colored bags to signal how much a customer has paid, allowing other vendors to charge accordingly. For instance, at a certain market, a white bag may indicate that a customer paid the usual price whereas a blue bag may indicate that they paid a higher amount - vendors will ask a higher price if they see someone carrying a lot of blue bags. Different markets have different color codes, and some may have several stages of overcharging.
To avoid this, try to figure out how much the usual prices for things are before making your purchase and haggling the price aggressively if they are charging too much, and putting purchases in a backpack or durable shopping bag rather than using the plastic bags provided.
"Low cost" airlines
While low cost airlines are legitimate and often genuinely cheaper operations, some of their (usually totally legal) business practices are similar to scams. A thing that is so common that it shouldn't surprise you is the quoting of prices "from" a certain amount of money. Sure the ticket for London to Milano "from" 19 Euros sounds tempting, but those prices usually refer to a small contingent of tickets that you have to be quite lucky to ever see, let alone get. Besides that prices are almost always quoted for one-way fares (whereas traditional airlines often quote round trip ticket prices) and don't include a variety of fees and taxes. If you really want to go one way on a day of the week that sees little traffic and have little or no luggage and are willing to take it with you carry-on, you may well get the fabled low rates, but otherwise you should read the fine print very carefully.
Some low cost airlines are notorious for outrageous fees, such as 50€ for printing a boarding pass or $100 for half a pound of excess baggage. Another common trick is for "low cost" airlines to fly out of secondary or tertiary "airports" (often converted former military airbases) that - especially in Europe - are not well connected to any sort of public transport and more or less in the middle of nowhere and then proceed to give them deceptive names like "Barcelona"-Girona, "Düsseldorf"-Weeze, "München"-Memmingen, or "Frankfurt"-Hahn, even though those cities are a hundred or more kilometers from "their" low cost airports. In the US low cost airlines often fly to airports closer to the city they are named after, but ridiculous surcharges may apply as well. That being said "legacy" airlines have now copied several of the low cost airlines' business practices, especially on short distance routes and especially in the US.
In short: read the fine print carefully, don't order any "extra services" you won't need (a 10€ insurance for a 20€ flight is getting ripped off and 15€ seat reservation for a 50 minute flight is most likely not worth it) and for god's sake jump through all the hoops the airline makes you jump through, lest you be charged ridiculous amounts for paying with the wrong kind of debit card or sitting in the wrong seat or failing to print out a boarding pass in the right format on the right type of paper.
These scams rely on trapping you in a bad situation and forcing you to pay money to get out of it. They're best prevented by avoiding the situation; once you're in it, you may well have no option but to pay whatever it takes to get out of it safely. Many of these scams are bordering on illegal.
You are offered a "free tour" of a shop or factory way out of town. Your driver may then suggest that you'll need to buy something if you want a ride back. The best prevention is avoidance as if you're stuck out there you might well be compelled to do as he 'suggests'. Don't accept any kind of lift or offer of a tour without having a basic idea of where you're going and how you will be able to get back if your driver deserts you. Of course, if you are strong and assertive from the beginning in dealing with any suspicious characters, you can limit your chances of being involved in this kind of sting. However, always bear in mind that the perpetrator may be carrying a knife or be willing to assault you if the situation arises.
Passport as security for debt or rental
- See also Theft#Passport and identity theft
You rent equipment like a jet ski or motorbike. You are asked to give your passport as a security guarantee. After returning the rented goods, the owner claims you damaged them and will ask for exaggerated prices to compensate or claim to have "lost" your passport (later the police or lost property office want a substantial "donation" for its return). If you do not agree, they threaten to keep your passport. This scam is used in almost all tourist resorts in Thailand and is very effective.
Never hand over your passport as a security or guarantee in any circumstances. Pay cash (and get a receipt), or hand over something comparatively worthless, like your library card. You can also try going elsewhere (often the threat will be enough).
Note that most passports include wording such as this (direct quote): "This passport is the property of the government of Canada ... If your passport is surrendered to any person or agency outside the Canadian government (e.g. to obtain a visa) and is not promptly returned, report the facts to [an embassy or consulate]." At least in principle, no-one — except a foreign government, a travel agent or an employer who needs it to arrange a visa, or someone like a hotel or airline who want it briefly to check you in — can take a passport away, and anyone who does is in violation of international law. Your government can press the host government to fix the problem, and that government in theory has no choice but to do so. Of course, in reality it is far more complex; your government may not be helpful, the host government may ignore them, local cops may ignore a request from the capital, or they may not have an effective way to pressure whoever has the passport.
Overpriced street vendors
You decide on a whim to buy a piece of one of the massive cakes covered in nuts and fruits that are a fairly common sight in the tourist-laden parts of cities in China. You ask the price, and the man tending to the cake tells you it depends on how much you want. You show him how much. Immediately, he slices the cake, weighs it out, and gives you an extremely high price. He tells you that since he already sliced the cake, you have to buy it.
The best thing to do in this or any similar situation is probably to leave your purchase and just walk away. If they hassle you, threaten to call the police. Like the art school scam, this ruse depends on using your guilt to coerce you out of your money.
Rigged gambling games
This comes in many forms, from the three-card monte cup shufflers of Europe's city streets to dodgy gambling dens in the backstreets of South-East Asia. In most cases, the target is alone. The conman strikes up a conversation and then claims to have family in the target's home country. After some "friendly" conversation, the target is then invited to a card game or other some type of gambling: just for "fun" of course.
The target is taken somewhere far from the tourist area. After doing a few "practice" games, then they start to play for real. Of course, the game is totally rigged. After losing, the target will find his "friend" not so friendly anymore, and then a massive amount of money will be demanded (often totaling in the thousands of dollars). Violence might be used to settle the debts. In some jurisdictions gambling of any kind is illegal.
Tourists are by no means the only targets for this. Professional Chinese-Canadian scammers routinely take huge amounts from Chinese overseas students in crooked mah jong games, for example.
Do not gamble for money with strangers or outside of licensed and well-regarded gambling venues.
Cash on the sidewalk
As you stand on the sidewalk studying your map or guidebook, a passerby will point to a roll of bills, wallet, or gold jewelry on the ground nearby and ask if it is yours. They pick it up and offer to split the stuff with you. If you agree, a couple of heavies will soon appear demanding their money back, much more than you originally "found" of course. This scam is most common in Russia and Ukraine but it's also used in France.
Free hair salon treatment
Most commonly in Asian countries, a good-looking hair dresser would stand outside the salon and pass out coupons for a "free" shampoo hair wash and "free" head massage. Even if you decline, they will continue to be persistent. As soon as they succeed in seating you down in a salon chair and start wetting your hair, they'll explain how damaged your hair is and which specific products will help. The prices are absurdly set and often 2 to 3 times more expensive than in the US for a similar salon treatment. It will be much more difficult to refuse then after they've stroked up a friendly conversation and compliments. The best way to avoid this is simply tell them you've just had a haircut and are not interested.
Various scams are outright theft:
- Distraction theft, in its various forms, usually involves one villain distracting the victim while an accomplice steals items of value.
- Payment card thefts include various schemes to steal credit card numbers (card skimming) or copy the PINs and magnetic strips of ATM/cash-point cards. In some schemes the card itself is stolen, in others the card information is stolen and used to make fraudulent transactions.
- Pickpockets steal items (usually wallets, passports or other valuables) from people's clothing and bags as they walk in a public place.
A few scams involve putting you in a position where someone can take your money by force.
Friendly locals wanting to go out for a drink
While walking down the street you may be approached by attractive friendly locals wanting to go out for a beer or a drink. Then they tell you the drink costs way more than it actually does. Or worse, they just wait for you to become inebriated (or tamper with your drink to drug you in some manner) and take your money. See also clip joints, below.
The Maradona is a scam that is very common in Romania, especially in the capital Bucharest. Someone will approach you and attempt to engage you in a conversation (in English), usually about something vaguely illicit. Seconds later, two men will appear in plain clothes but flashing legitimate-looking police badges. They will accuse you and your "new acquaintance" of some illegal activity (usually 'currency swapping'), and demand to see your wallet and/or passport.
Do not hand them these things! Keep your documents and belongings in your pocket and out of sight.
Walk away, or yell, or tell them outright that you do not believe that they are the police or suggest that you all walk to the lobby of a nearby hotel (or police station) because you are not comfortable taking out your wallet or papers in the street. These conmen thrive because the police fail to enforce laws against nonviolent crime and some foreigners are easily fooled. They will not physically attack you: the treatment of violent offenders is severe (these men are professionals, and they would never be foolish enough to chance a physical attack). Do not threaten or try to fight them.
There is a more violent variant of this, observed in Cartagena (Colombia), where you are offered drugs to buy. If you do so, fake police officers emerge immediately and will demand for you to pay a huge fine. They will take you to the nearest ATM and make you withdraw as much money as you can and may even kidnap you.
People will approach you on the street and tell you that their car just ran out of fuel or is broken down and is only a few blocks away. They'll usually first ask for money for gas. If you don't believe them or try to walk away, they may beg you to come with them to the car to see that they are telling the truth. They may offer you some kind of security such as their jewelry and be well-dressed and plausible seeming.
Do not give people money in these and similar scenarios. Do not follow them to where they claim their car is. If you suspect they are really in trouble, you could report their predicament to police.
You are walking down the street alone and all of a sudden you see many people attacking one person (sometimes an old man or a woman). When you want to help, people will make photos of you and will blackmail you afterwards to go to the police. Now you find out that the attacked person, the attackers and the photographer are a group. They will blackmail you for large amounts of money, because if they go to the police, you most likely need to leave the country (for example in China).
Avoid this scam by following this piece of common sense: It is never wise to engage in fights. If you witness a fight, your best bet is to either walk away or alert the police if they're trustworthy. NEVER get involved yourself. Laying your hand on a local may result in deportation in some countries.
Payment card scams
- See also: Theft#Payment card theft
Your credit card number, your debit card PIN, or even the card itself is an obvious target for theft and fraud. Some of these scams are distraction thefts (one person distracts you while the other steals your card), some switch a merchant's debit keypad for a tampered or fake version, some add extra hardware to ATM cashpoints to skim the magnetic stripe from payment cards.
In one variant (which appears occasionally as a taxi scam) a vendor asks for payment by debit card and presents a keypad to enter a PIN. The vendor then hands back a card that looks like the one the voyager originally provided... but it's the wrong card. The scammer now has your card, the keypad was rigged to steal your PIN and the thieves go on a spree from cashpoint to cashpoint, emptying your account. Another variant is the restaurateur who wanders off with your credit card, either to secretly copy your card number or to take out a cash advance at your expense.
Counterfeit tickets and stolen goods
There are multiple variants; someone on-line claims "50% off" WestJet tickets to attendees of a particular convention, but the tickets were purchased with a stolen credit card which is quickly red-flagged by the airline; someone lists hard-to-find tickets to a rock star's concert on Craiglist, but these were printed as an elaborate forgery and fifty other unhappy fans are gathered outside the stadium with their equally worthless "tickets"; someone lists a mobile telephone on Kijiji which a mobile carrier soon places on a national blacklist, so that its electronic serial number (IMEI) can't be subscribed anywhere. If the item was purchased from a web listing and handed off in a public place, the seller is later conveniently nowhere to be found. Another variant is an otherwise-valid ticket which the original issuer won't allow the original buyer to transfer (such as a Disneyland multi-day pass with a few days left, which turn up outside the parks often). The items don't have to actually be stolen; it is not unheard of for a mobile provider to place an IMEI on a blacklist in an attempt to get leverage against a subscriber in a billing dispute, with the subsequent owner of the handset victimized.
Scammers don't rest during the holidays. Sometimes an event organiser will pop up just long enough to announce a big Halloween or New Year's Eve bash, with pricey tickets for admission sold in advance. The buyers of these tickets only find the event doesn't exist, isn't as advertised or that the tickets are counterfeit on the day of the event; at that point, because the vendor was a short-lived seasonal, pop-up operation, they're nowhere to be found. Another variant is a mail order vendor peddling seasonal merchandise (such as Halloween costumes) that either doesn't arrive, are not as advertised or only turn up after the event is over. Try to return the two sizes too small Halloween garb that didn't arrive until November, and the seasonal pop-up merchant is conveniently gone — closed for the season.
There's nothing inherently tying these scams to one specific time of year; the various holidays just provide convenient marketing opportunities.
Sexually attractive people are a fine distraction, and conspicuously available ones even more so.
However, sampling the local streetwalkers puts you at risk of crime. Prostitutes can be used as bait for a variety of scams:
- leading you into an armed robbery
- having a confederate go through your clothes while you are out of them
- taking your hotel room key, which is turned over to burglars or thieves
- "cash and dash", where a provider accepts payment for services that are never provided, then leaves
- advance fee scams, where the pimp (or a thug) arrives without the service provider and demands the cash up front - before vanishing with the victim's money in pocket and no service provided
- a bogus "outraged family member" (or cop) appearing and needing to be bought off; alternately, this person's arrival is carefully timed to occur immediately after the provider has accepted payment and before any service is rendered, as effectively a "cash and dash" scheme
- hidden cameras and eventual blackmail
In many instances, the prostitutes themselves are not there of their own free will, but are victims of people traffickers, organized crime, or under the influence of street drugs.
In almost all cases, the presumption is that victims will not call police; the clients are either ashamed to have to pay for a 'companion', afraid to be outed to a spouse on whom they are cheating, fearful of violent retribution by those running the scams or afraid of legal prosecution as even jurisdictions which nominally do not criminalize prostitution may still outlaw a long and arbitrary list of related activities.
Even if you do not allow one to lead you anywhere, streetwalkers can be dangerous. A person who brings one to his hotel is quite likely to miss his watch or wallet in the morning. In some countries, such as China or 48 states of the USA, prostitution is illegal and hotel staff may have the local police arrive at your room door not long after you check in with one.
In countries where prostitution is not fully legalized (and even in some cases where it is), such establishments may have links with other forms of criminal activity, notably various types of gangs, drug dealers and money laundering. A few are clip joints; as legal restrictions in many jurisdictions make providers claim to sell "massage", "companionship" or just about anything except actual "full-service" prostitution, these folks will gladly take the victim's money, then claim the payment was "just for the massage" and demand more money repeatedly. The mark is unceremoniously ejected from the premises (with no actual service provided) once his wallet is empty.
- See also: Taxis
Airports, stations and other places where people arrive in a new city are favorite places for all kinds of touts offering their (often overpriced) services. This includes taxi drivers and people pretending to be taxi drivers and if you're dealing with a dishonest person, the least bad thing that could happen is that you'll be driven to your destination but at an outrageous price. Therefore; if you need to travel by taxi from there, go to the official taxi line.
Scenic taxi rides
Since you don't know the area, taxi drivers can take advantage of you by taking a long route to your hotel and getting a large metered fare. The best prevention is knowledge: it's hard to learn a new city well enough to know a good route before you arrive for the first time. Always ask your hotel roughly what the taxi fare should be when you book or to arrange a pickup with them if they offer the service. Often you can negotiate a fixed price with a taxi before you get in and ask what the range of fare to your hotel will be. Good taxi drivers are on the route to your hotel every day and can give you a very accurate price before you or your luggage get into a cab.
Taxis not using the meter
In cities where the taxis have fare meters, drivers will often try to drive off with tourists without turning the meter on. When you arrive they'll try and charge fares from the merely expensive (2 or 3 times the usual fare) to fares of hundreds of US dollars, depending on how ambitious they are. If you're in an area known for this scam and you know where you're going and want them to use the meter (rather than arrange a fixed fare), ask them to turn the meter on just before you get in. If they say that it is broken or similar, walk away and try another taxi. They will often concede: a metered fare is better than no fare.
However, an ambitious traveler can actually work this scam in their favor, as in certain countries where meters are required (China) the passenger cannot be forced to pay for an "informal" (that is, unmetered) taxi ride. A tourist is therefore free to walk away after the ride without paying anything at all: once you step out of his vehicle, the driver will have no proof of transaction to show the police. This tactic is, however, not recommended for use by the weak of heart but can save you money as a last resort.
Using the wrong metered rate
A related scam is using the wrong metered rate: setting it to a more expensive late-night setting during the day. You need location-specific information to prevent this one. A typical rip-off scenario involves a device known as "turbine". By pressing specially installed button (usually on the left of the steering wheel, or next to the clutch pedal) the driver starts the "turbine" and fools the meter to charge much faster than the usual speed. The change in the charging speed is obvious, so dishonest drivers talk and show around a lot, to make their passengers keep an eye off the taxi meter. The best way to prevent the driver from starting the turbine is to keep an eye on the meter at all times.
When suspicious, ask the taxi to drop you off at your (or any) hotel lobby. Security at most hotels can intervene if you are being overcharged.
Luggage held hostage
Watch your luggage as it is loaded! Get into the cab after your luggage is loaded and out before it is out of the trunk. If you put your luggage in the trunk, they might refuse to give you your luggage back unless you pay a much higher price the actual fare. Remember to always write down or remember the taxi number or driver's number in case of problems and keep your luggage in your hand at all times if possible. Often, just writing down the taxi number will make them back down if they are keeping your luggage hostage, but be careful that they are not armed or are trying to rob you by other means than just driving away with your luggage.
"Per person" taxi charge
Taxi, tuk-tuk, or auto-rickshaw drivers will agree on a price. When you arrive at your destination, they may or may not tell you that the vehicle is a share vehicle, and they will tell you that the price quoted is per person. The tricky thing is that a per-person charge (or a flat rate plus a per person charge) is standard in some cities and countries, so it's important to research the destination beforehand and make sure you and the driver are both clear on what the price means before you start riding. If you know the driver is trying to scam you, you can almost always just give them the agreed-upon fare and walk away. Just make sure that you have the correct change before departing as in many places drivers are known to come up with any excuse it takes to charge you extra.
Food and beverage scams
From the barkeeper who charges full price for watered-down drinks to the restaurateurs who give themselves generous tips using their diner's payment cards, there are various schemes in which travellers are overcharged for food and beverage service.
A bar or restaurant gives you a menu with reasonable prices and takes it away with your order. Later they present a bill with much higher prices. If you argue, they produce a menu with those higher prices on it. This scam is known in Romania and in bars in China among other places. The best way to avoid this is to stay out of sleazy tourist bars. Another option is to take a picture of the menu with your phone camera. If the restaurant argues, you can always tell them that you want to send it to your friends because they otherwise wouldn't believe the prices are so low. You can then proceed to take a picture of the food for your foodie-blog (which might come in handy if the items on your bill don't match the items you ordered or were served).
You could also try hanging on to your menu or paying when your drinks or food are delivered, preferably with the right change. Watch out for asking for a menu in English, as the prices on the menu are sometimes higher than the menu in the native language, although because of the difficulty of navigating a foreign-language menu and the likelihood that the price even with the foreigner surcharge is still pretty low, non-Mandarin-readers may want to write this off as a translation fee. Another variant is the venue which lists an absurdly-inflated price, then claims to offer a "discount for locals". In some places where there is a common parallel currency (usually US Dollars or Euros) there might be a menu with prices quoted both in local currency and the parallel currency. Prices in the local currency may be significantly lower, especially if there is high inflation, so know the up to date exchange rate. A general rule of thumb is: unless inflation is rampant you will be better off paying lower prices and using local money. In some rare cases "hard" currency may get you things that local money can't buy, but in some of those countries using foreign money or exchanging at the black market rate may be various shades of illegal.
A variation of this scam is ordering off the menu, where your waiter will offer you a "special" that is not shown on the menu. The meal will not be very special but will come with a price considerably higher than anything else on the menu. Also, touts and barkers might advertise low-price offers - or an attractive discount is prominently announced by signage outside the restaurant, but then the bill is calculated with normal prices. If an offer seems suspiciously cheap, read the fine print and once again: If it sounds too good to be true, it probably isn't.
Pane e coperto
A restaurant indicates one price on the menu, but when the bill arrives there's an extra undisclosed cover charge. Restaurants in Italy, where cover charges are common, call them "pane e coperto", an extra charge for bread ("pane") and service ("coperto" or "servizio"). Cover charges are normal in some countries, but they should be disclosed up front. Otherwise, they're generally illegal (and some restaurateurs will try to slip this past by burying a one-line "service not included" in a lengthy menu); it also never hurts to check whether the restaurant is giving you a proper receipt for this extra money (and, presumably, paying the taxes on it). Often, a restaurant will attempt to slip extra charges onto the bill for visitors, but not for locals.
Unlisted cover charges
A fast-talking man (or attractive woman) standing outside a strip club will offer you free entry, complimentary drinks and/or lap dances to get you inside the club. They'll often speak very fluent English, are able to pick your accent, and be very convincing. Of course, they are good to their word with the free drinks and dances, but what they won't tell you (and what you won't know until you try to leave) is that there's a "membership fee" or "exit fee" of at least €100. There'll also be security waiting at the door for non-payers.
A variant of this is practiced in Bangkok, where touts with laminated menus offer sex shows and cheap beer. The beer may indeed be cheap, but they'll add a stiff surcharge for the show. Similarly in Brazil, expect to pay an extra 'artistic couvert' if live music is playing. No-one will warn you of this because it's considered normal there. Ask how much it is before you get seated.
You're approached by an attractive, well-dressed, local gentleman or woman, who suggests going for a drink in a favorite nightspot. When you arrive, the joint is nearly deserted, but as soon as you sit down some scantily clad girls plop down next to you and order a few bottles of champagne. Your "friend" disappears, the bill runs into hundreds or even thousands of dollars, and heavies block the door and flex their muscles until you pay up. A variant is the "B-girl" or bar girl scam, where organized crime recruits attractive women to go into legitimate bars, seek out rich men who display expensive shoes and watches and lure them into "after-hours clubs" which are not licensed (or not otherwise open to the public) and which charge thousands of dollars to the drunken victims' payment cards. Often, the victims are too intoxicated to remember exactly what happened.
This is particularly common in Europe's larger cities, including London, Istanbul and Budapest. Florida is problematic due to a state law which directs police to arbitrarily force victims to pay all disputed charges and then attempt to recover the money by filing a dispute with the credit card issuers—an uphill battle. The best defense is not to end up in this situation: avoid going to bars with people you just met, pick the bar yourself, or at least back out immediately if they want to go somewhere that is not packed with locals. In Istanbul this scam is also common with places packed with locals, where they scam the tourists, but not the locals, as it is a difficult and time consuming process to get the police to do anything. It is best to pay by credit card, so have one ready so that if you do end up in this situation, you can pay by credit card to get out and then cancel your card and dispute the bill immediately. While police in some jurisdictions are unlikely to be of much assistance, filing a report may make it easier to get the charges reversed.
A variety of this scam is extortionate tea ceremonies in Beijing and other cities in China. You will be approached by women who speak very good English, spend 30 minutes in conversation with you and invite you to have tea with them. The tea house they take you to will be empty, and you will end up in a situation of having to pay a huge amount of money for a few cups of tea. This is incredibly easy to fall into, as the scammers are often willing to spend considerable time "chatting you up" before suggesting going for tea. The best way to avoid this would be to not engage in conversation in the first place. Failing that, refuse to go with them to have tea, or if you find yourself having been fooled as far into going to the tea house with them, insist on leaving as soon as you can (e.g. fake receiving an urgent phone call from your friend), and ask for the bill (as each different variety of tea you drink will doubtless add up to the final cost).
Some hotels and motels may be unscrupulous. While independent establishments may be a higher risk (there is no franchiser to whom to complain), there are cases of individually owned franchises of large companies engaging in unscrupulous practices. More rarely, the chain itself is problematic or turns a blind eye to questionable hidden charges; in one 2014 incident, the US Federal Communications Commission fined Marriott International US$600,000 for unlawful, willful jamming of client-owned Wi-Fi networks in one of its convention centres.
Most hotels are honest, and you will not encounter these problems. These are the minority, but the customer should be watchful, and should be aware of what signs to look out for.
It is not uncommon for a guest to check into a hotel when they are tired after many hours of travel, or to check out when they are in a hurry to catch a plane or get to another destination. At these times, a customer is unlikely to argue and therefore more likely to be suggestible or to cave. Guests in the middle of a stay are also unlikely to argue about being cheated due to fear of retaliation from management.
Advance fee scams
You book a room in advance, presuming that you will pay for it on arrival. Soon after, an inquiry arrives - presumably from the hotel - asking that you pay in advance, usually by wire money transfer. You pay, you later show up to find that the hotel denies all knowledge of having requested the wire transfer and demands to be paid again, in full. A less extreme form is that even when you book the hotel in advance, the hotel may attempt to charge for more nights than originally agreed to. They may also insist on payment in cash.
Odds are the hotel or middleman has breached confidential data, either through deficient security or a dishonest worker, giving a scammer the opportunity to hit travellers up for money in advance, take the cash and run. The scammer, officially, does not represent the hotel and the hotel glibly denies that it was their (or their reseller's) negligence which compromised the data; the longer they deny everything, the lower the chance of their being sued. Not only are you out the money, but some scammer likely has your home-country address and info (maybe even the payment card used to make the initial reservation) and can steal from you knowing that you are abroad and unable to do anything about a theft from your home or your payment cards until you return.
In another variant, you see an attractive cottage for rent in an on-line advert, pay to reserve it in advance and then show up - luggage in hand - to see Papa Bear, Mama Bear and Baby Bear seated at their breakfast table wondering why some scammer on Kijiji just rented the cottage they're living in to Goldilocks (you, the unsuspecting traveller) in an advance fee scam. As the scammer placing the ads has no tie to the property, they conveniently are suddenly nowhere to be found and the money is gone. Somewhat more audacious scammers rent out nonexistent cottages, often next to such small roads that they don't show up on Google Street View. Once you're there, you'll find out that there's only wilderness where the cottage is supposed to be, and the photo of the cottage was copied from somewhere else.
It is the norm to receive amenities already in the room at the quoted rate, regardless of whether or not they are used. But some facilities have been known to charge customers additional fees for use of certain amenities, such as a refrigerator, microwave oven, coffeemaker, iron, or safe by surprise. Often WiFi access is advertised on the website, but its high fee is not mentioned. Some will charge if it has been used; others will charge even if it has not been used. In any case, this is a way to nickel-and-dime the customer. This should be clearly advertised before the reservation has been made; unfortunately, groups representing hoteliers (such as the American Hotel & Lodging Association) have lobbied governments aggressively to avoid a crackdown on so-called "resort fees".
Hoteliers are infamous for padding invoices with "incidentals", hidden charges for anything from telephone calls at inflated prices, to high charges for parking, to overpriced pay-per-view television programming to single servings of bottled water at a few dollars each. It is not unheard of for a hotel to charge high fees to call toll-free numbers or block services like "Canada Direct" that let you reach an operator in your home country; some even redirect the number to a competing provider who immediately asks for a credit card number. Some venues may illegally jam mobile telephone data connections to force you to use their overpriced services.
Services ordered from external vendors through the hotel desk, such as car rental, can be from less reputable vendors that overcharge the customer or practice bait-and-switch.
Claims of damage
At check-in, you are required to provide a credit card, and you sign a contract that you can be held accountable for any damages. You do not think anything of this. It seems like routine procedure anywhere. But long after you check out, you find your card has been heftily billed by the hotel. You contact your credit card company to dispute this, but the hotel responds by sending the credit card company a picture of supposed damage, and a supposed bill from a contractor to repair it. This could easily be fictitiously produced with today's printers, but the credit card company accepts this as valid evidence, and sides with the hotel. You are stuck to pony up the charges, plus any interest that may have accrued during the dispute period.
Another variant is for the hotelier to accuse travellers of stealing towels or other small items; instead of making the accusation to the client's face, the charge is merely silently added to the credit card bill. When the traveller disputes it, the hotel backs off... only to try the same scam against subsequent travellers.
Disposal of possessions
You return to your motel for the final night of your stay, only to find the key will not work. You go to the office, and you've been informed you paid for one less night. You are also told the management cleaned out the room and disposed of your possessions you left behind. Management, in reality, has kept your possessions and is planning to sell those which are valuable, all while you are angry and helpless.
You have paid for a lengthy stay at a hotel, but before you have stayed many of those nights, management informs you that you are evicted for some minor offense that you did not know was wrong, did not expect to be enforced, or did not commit at all. But management is adamant and insists you must leave or you are trespassing. Management refuses to refund the remainder of your stay. It is their trick to obtain money from you without rendering services. Perhaps you may contact law enforcement about being refused the refund, but they cannot help. A remedy can be to pay one night at a time unless you know you're staying in a reputable hotel or if booked as part of a packaged deal from a reputable company.
Fake booking site
Online booking sites have become a common method of reserving hotels these days. Commonly known sites include hotels.com, Expedia, and CheapTickets.
But other lesser known sites will advertise the very same hotels, and upon making the reservation, will give you everything that appears normal, including a confirmation number, and will take your money. But upon arrival, the facility will tell you they do not have a reservation made by you, and they do not do business with such a company. Your reservation will not be honored, and your money is lost.
To prevent this, only book through the sites of reputable booking companies – or, better yet, contact the property directly before booking anything. Type the booking company's web address directly into the browser address bar rather than following a link from another site, where the link may direct to a nefarious website.
Common red flags are that you have never heard of the company before and prices lower than reputable booking companies for the same property that are too good to be true. Nonetheless, even major booking companies (which appear prominently in Internet search results) may abuse their position in subtle but harmful ways. Tripadvisor routinely removes a property's direct contact information from user-submitted reviews; a few innkeepers report Expedia displays a description of their property but reports no room in the inn or inability to determine whether any rooms are available when these rooms are indeed vacant. The booking sites, as middleman, bait-and-switch the voyager away from contacting the property directly or even switch the user away to some other hotel willing to pay them a commission or fee for referrals.
Another variant is the hidden middleman, where you think that you've contacted the hotel but you're actually talking to a reseller who is taking a commission for themselves. For instance, +1-800-HOLIDAY (465-4329) is a major hotel chain; +1-800-H0LIDAY (405-4329) is not the hotel chain but an unaffiliated reseller. The reservations created are real, either in the original hotel or a direct competitor, but dealing with a typosquatter instead of someone advertising for business by legit and conventional means might not get the best available rate as it's one more middleman to pay.
The middleman who goes broke after accepting payment but before paying the hotelier can also create a huge problem for the traveller. In one such incident, Canada's Conquest Vacations went bankrupt in 2009, effectively leaving its travellers in Mexican hotels physically held hostage by private security until they paid for the rooms again at a cost of thousands of dollars.
Home stay networks
The Internet has fueled massive growth in hospitality exchange and vacation rentals by allowing homeowners to list rooms or entire apartments for rent with relative ease. These can be an excellent money saver if used cautiously and honestly, but there are risks and pitfalls both for the voyager and the home owner.
The major sites make a token attempt to curb abuse by allowing users to rate their hosts (or their guests) and by handling payments through the platform's own website. These precautions can be circumvented using various schemes.
Scammers often steal login information of a legitimate user and change the profile to make it their own, giving the appearance of an established user with positive feedback. They then list a home for rent, responding to inquiries by directing users away from the original site onto a fake site (so their e-mails in response to your inquiry on airbnb.com send you to airbnb.some-bogus-domain.com, which looks official but contains bogus assurances that any bank transfer you send is "100% secure and protected"). If you make a payment outside the system provided by the real home stay site? Nothing's protected, the scammer has your cash and is gone. Good luck finding them if the entire transaction was carried out using someone else's stolen identity, right down to using a stolen payment card to pay to host the fake website.
Alternately, the scammers steal your home stay website credentials or payment card information, check into a vacation rental as you, wait until the host is away and load the entire contents of the apartment into a truck - never to be seen again. Or they trash the place, leaving others to pay for the damage. Or they attempt to operate a commercial business from the short-term accommodation, such as drugs or prostitution. Or they claim to be the owners of the rented premises and start collecting first and last months rent from prospective long-term tenants for an apartment which isn't theirs to rent. The common denominator? When the police come looking for the bad guys, they're misdirected right to your doorstep because the scammers are using your identity.
All of these scams, from advance fee fraud to identity theft to theft from hosts in transient lodging, are nothing new. The Internet just made it all a whole lot easier.
Higher rates in fine print
A lodging establishment will advertise a low rate in large print. But most will not qualify for this rate. It may, for example, be a senior rate available only to people who are over a certain age, or may be reserved for repeat guests or other who belong to some elite group defined by the establishment. The words "per person, double occupancy" slipped into the fine print mean the actual price for one room is double what appears in the large-print advertising copy. The real rate you are required to pay is only found in fine print after digging deep into the literature. Nevertheless, travellers who just need a place to stay will cave.
Another variant is for an establishment to give themselves a tip or gratuity by silently adding it to your bill without your consent. Restaurants are infamous for doing this to large groups but, unless you actually agreed to the charge in advance, its legality is questionable. Furthermore, tax law considers any "mandatory tip" as a de-facto part of the base price, which infers a hotelier or restaurateur should be paying the income and sales taxes on that money.
A hotel or motel plasters the city with billboards advertising "rooms from $40" or an artificially low rate for that market. The motel has one (or very few) rooms at that price, or it's only available on Wednesday nights in the dead of winter. Once that vacancy is filled, everything else is more expensive, much like a double-decker bus from Montreal to Toronto has "$1 plus 56-cent booking fee" painted on the side in huge letters, but very few actually got that rate if the bus company is still in business.
Alternately, you book a hotel at the low price you find online or in a travel guide; upon your arrival, you are told that room is not available and you must pay more for a higher priced room if you wish to stay. You are left with the choice of paying for that higher priced room, or else finding another place to stay, which may be difficult if you are in an unfamiliar place.
A more subtle bait-and-switch is to claim the room the traveller has requested is not cleaned or ready yet, then offer to switch them to a different class of room at a much higher price as a form of upselling. A traveller who declines the extra expense, especially if they arrived early, is left waiting for hours for the desired room.
Luggage or documents held hostage
A voyager notes currency, wedding rings or other valuables missing from the in-room safe and complains to management. The resort conducts an "investigation" in which they search the victim's belongings (the missing items, predictably, are not found there) and then tells them to leave everything in the room, including passports. The client is moved to another part of the resort, then accused of fabricating the original theft complaint and told they could move back to the room to get their belongings only if the original theft report is withdrawn.
You check into a low quality hotel and find you are unhappy with the conditions, as anyone would be. You promptly return to the office, asking for a refund. But the management refuses you the refund, and gives you the option either to stay there and tough it out, or to leave and lose your money.
It is worth noting that this is considered standard practice, rather than a scam, in a number of countries, particularly with regards to walk-in (no reservation) guests. You should always ask to see the room before deciding whether or not to stay at a hotel. Plenty of bad motels run slick adverts or websites which take an outdated or very carefully selective view of a property. You are also more likely to end up with a nicer room if you check first.
Online reviews are invaluable to the traveller; a hotel with a string of dissatisfied travellers will be exposed by irate reviewers long before locals at the destination (who don't stay in the hotel) notice a new owner has let a once-respectable venue deteriorate into a transient lodger's nightmare. Unfortunately, like any powerful tool, the review website is prone to manipulation and abuse.
For instance, a hotel lets cleanliness standards slip; an irate traveller posts the scathing review "Stayed in this dump once, it made me violently ill. Never again! Signed, A. Cockroach" and promptly reports the innkeeper to the local health department. The innkeeper, seeing negative reviews hurting business, jumps onto the review site themselves to give the hotel a glowing five-star review, leaves disparaging reviews for rival hotels and recruits friends or family to do likewise – or pays spammers to post fake reviews. If the site accepts paid ads from the hotels being reviewed, the hotelier offers to buy an ad if the negative review goes away or threatens to cancel existing advertising if complaints remain online. When that fails, a weasel-worded but official-looking letter threatening that the innkeeper "may consider litigation for defamation" may be trivially purchased from lawyers who conveniently neglect to ask whether the health inspector actually did just leave the hotel in shocked disgust. While threatened lawsuits typically never materialize, upstream Internet providers often cave to these demands (removing legitimate, valuable information) to avoid costly fees for counsel to reply to spurious claims — an expense which cuts deeply into their profit.
Conversely, a bad client could (and occasionally does) abuse an otherwise-good system to harm a blameless innkeeper. The client checks in, invites twenty drunken buddies for a party at the hotel room; neighbouring guests complain to the innkeeper, who ejects the drunken revellers or asks a police officer to do so. The next day, the innkeeper finds a scathingly negative, drunken on-line review of what other travellers welcomed as a fine, quiet hotel. No surprise, but whom is the next voyager reading this mixed bag of reviews to believe?
An estimated 1-16% of reviews are fake; national regulators have only made limited inroads against the most egregious paid reviewers - who operate thousands of sockpuppet user accounts. Automated tools removing reviews from sites such as Yelp often remove valid comments as collateral damage. The rating sites are, at best, in an inherent conflict of interest; it's difficult to warn of crimes against voyagers while relying on advertising or selling travel as a business model. In 2017, the Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel ran a damning exposé of information about sexual assaults vanishing from TripAdvisor as far back as 2010; the US Federal Trade Commission briefly expressed outrage but ultimately any of the major platforms answer only to their owners.
In a few instances, innkeepers slip conditions into the fine print claiming that the traveller "agrees" to pay some inflated penalty if they (or, for wedding parties, anyone in the group) leaves a negative review. When these practices are exposed, they typically do more damage to the hotel's reputation.
Early or no-reservation arrivals
If you arrive very early in the morning, e.g. 2 am, at your hotel..the check-in time is 12:00 noon...so your choices are to do something until noon....or the hotel will rent you a very expensive room for that night...If you arrive at two in the morning you must book your room for the night before..this way they cannot try to upgrade you and overcharge you for that early morning arrival.
A guest without a reservation is also prone to be charged an inflated price (much like factories list an inflated MSRP for goods, from which retailers "mark down" to the real price), assuming that as much as 15% may go to travel agent commissions or middlemen. They then claim to be offering a 10% discount for online bookings, or for automobile association members, or retired persons, or corporate clients or a long list of groups - so that the inflated manufacturer's suggested retail price is only paid by an unfortunate few. If you have a mobile Internet device with you, check whether the price you're being quoted at the front desk is actually higher than the price on the inn's website - you might be in for a sticker shock.
In some jurisdictions, a regulation compels the hotelier to post a standard set of rack rates in the room, in the provincial/state travel guide or some conspicuous place and is (with rare exceptions) legally prohibited from charging more than this posted price - although they may charge less.
Water not safe to drink
Many hotels in foreign countries often toured by westerners will leave signs in the rooms stating the water is not safe for drinking, and that drinking water must be purchased from the front desk or a minibar, often for sky high prices. In many of these countries, water is perfectly safe for consumption by visitors, and the hotel will tell you this in order to sell you bottled water. In some cases, they will give you the water bottles, implying they are free, but then add it on as a hidden charge later. To be on the safe side buy bottled water in supermarkets. To know whether or not the tap water is safe to drink somewhere, do your own independent research, and don't rely on the hotel to provide you with this info. General information on water in several countries is provided on the Wikivoyage article about water as well as the drink section of the individual country or region articles.
Working abroad, engaging in volunteer travel or maybe teaching English in some faraway land can be a rewarding way to experience another culture. But be careful, as the field is littered with a few outright scams, widespread exploitative conditions, and numerous pitfalls. There are few available resources for travellers who are harmed while working abroad.
Some offers are merely advance fee scams or exist only to harvest your data for identity theft. The supposed prospective employer wants thousands of dollars up front for visa, transport, lawyers, training, uniforms, commercial goods for resale or any of a number of items before you can start work... but, once you arrive, the promised job isn't as advertised (or doesn't exist at all) and your money is gone. A variant is the "money mule" who is out of pocket for expenses after the employer pays with stolen money, proceeds of crime, forged cheques or money orders - or the payment fails to clear the bank.
Some offers are simply fake; the name looks official but turns out to be impersonating another company, the addresses are e-mail to some free service or snail-mail to what turns out to be a drop box or a commercial mail receiving agency. Anyone can create a convincing web site for a non-existent firm.
To avoid these scams, do your research before accepting a job, putting in any money, or sharing any sensitive information. Ask to talk to current employees, and look the company up online—if you can't find third-party sources indicating it's reputable, steer clear. It's best to find job listings from a source that vets the companies that it allows to advertise.
In addition to outright scams, some employers abuse the visa system or employment law to inflict conditions on voyagers that local workers would never tolerate. They may take advantage of work visas which are tied to one employer, forget to mention that the cost of housing or other expenses at the destination are exorbitant, promise a reasonable wage per hour but fail to give you enough workable hours to pay for your expenses, hold your passport or other documents hostage, or ask you to work illegally under the wrong visa. Long hours, low wages (or outright wage theft), housing of workers in overpriced and substandard accommodation, unsafe working conditions, maybe even physical or sexual harassment can go on in impunity as the worker who complains is simply deported once the employer revokes the visa. In the worst cases, some employment schemes are bait-and-switch or even human trafficking schemes where the victim is offered a job in a restaurant or hotel abroad, only to find the advertised position doesn't exist, the recruiters are part of an organised crime gang and the prospective foreign worker is forced into prostitution or other forms of slavery.
A full list of pitfalls is beyond the scope of this article; see Working abroad for more information, and if in doubt, obtain specialised advice before considering travel abroad to work or volunteer.
This section uses "he" for the victim and "she" for the scammer since travellers are most likely to see such scams being used against foreign men pursuing women in low-income countries, but the scams are possible for any combination of genders and in any location. Some dating scams are a cover for prostitution or even human trafficking; in addition to the risks of financial loss any foreigner who gets involved in these may face severe legal penalties.
A basic rule, good against most scams, is if it sounds too good to be true, it probably isn't real.
One example is the hot young girl who seems remarkably interested in a much older man. This might be genuine since some girls do prefer older men for various reasons; in particular, especially in low-income countries, honest women may want a rich husband or a sugar daddy and may think an older fellow is a better prospect. On the other hand, it is a common setup for some of the scams mentioned below, and if she is really young it can also set you up for blackmail.
It is fairly common for travellers to use Internet dating sites to meet locals of whatever gender, age group and type they are interested in. This can be a very rewarding endeavor; most of the people on such sites are genuine and some are very nice indeed. However, there are also scammers of various sorts.
The basic rule is do not trust what you see online; you do not actually know until you meet the person. The photo may show a remarkably hot lass, and the online conversation may indicate that she is distinctly interesting and quite interested in you. However neither the photo nor the conversation is necessarily genuine; for all you know "she" is using someone else's photo and your conversation partner is not the hottie you see but a professional scammer who is busy stringing along you and a dozen more, and who could be any age and gender.
Among the scams this can lead to are:
- She'd love to meet you but is in another city; can you send her the fare?
- Of course you have no guarantee she won't just pocket the money.
- She has some complex sob story — lost her job and cannot pay the rent, grandma is sick, ... Can you help, darling?
The rule here is do not send money to someone you don't actually know.
Another rule is do not reveal too much. Suppose you give a lass your online video chat ID. Then she suggests some sexy play on the webcam. After that she has a video of you stark naked and/or masturbating; she threatens to send it to all your Facebook friends unless you pay a substantial sum. This is often reported by Western men using dating sites for Southeast Asia. A particularly insidious variant of the same scam starts with a "show me your tits" request to a teenage girl, then tries to blackmail her into sex; this has ended in suicide in some cases.
In a few scams, the person exists and is actually willing to meet and in some cases to come to bed, but their interest in you is driven only by money. They may even be already married... to another.
One variant is the "pro-dater"; she exists and wants a date with you, in her country, but she will need a translator for the day (which you pay for), a taxi and driver for the day (which you pay for), very expensive dinners in obscure restaurants which aren't where the locals dine (which you pay for), expensive jewelry, electronics or trinkets (which you obligingly pay for) and the list goes on. The vendors of these items are in on the scheme and there are various kickbacks; the trinkets are returned to the store as soon as you leave. The next rich foreigner arrives and the cycle begins anew.
A girl may also say something like "My friend has never had a foreign guy and she's curious. Would you like to do her too?". This is almost irresistible to some men, but it might be a setup for blackmail if one takes photos of you with the other, or the plan may be for one girl to get you out of your clothes and keep you occupied while the other goes through your pockets.
Even a simple dinner date can go badly awry; in one "dine and dash" scam, a lone male invites a partner to dinner, proceeds to order the most expensive items on the menu, then claims to need to make a phone call or retrieve something from his vehicle. He never comes back, leaving his unsuspecting "date" liable to the restaurateur for both meals.
Another variant is the "sanky-panky", a local male who tries to seduce the presumably wealthy female traveller by preying on emotional or romantic vulnerability. The term is used mainly in the Caribbean region, but the phenomenon is common elsewhere as well. An overweight or over-40 lady is often seen as an easy target. Instead of outright soliciting money for sex, the scammer creates a pseudo-relationship which can be continued when the guest returns home. They ask for money wire transfers using elaborate stories of need or seek a marriage visa to the tourist's native country; once they have what they want, the wealthy foreigner is jilted.
As these operators repeatedly perpetrate the same scam on multiple foreign visitors and may have other lovers as well, the health risk of any unsafe sexual relationship in this context is high.
Many hacks/scams are possible against travellers' laptop computers or against mobile phones, especially smartphones. The simplest threat is that attackers may steal your bank access/card information and empty your account.
There are other threats: attackers may grab contact information and possibly passwords for use in identity theft scams, credit card data can let them run up large bills on your account, business data may be stolen, some types of personal information can be used in blackmail, and some governments may use it for surveillance.
Before travelling, give your machine a tune-up; update the operating system, applications and anti-virus to block as many threats as possible. This does not give complete protection, but it will block many of the most common hacks. Also consider giving your machines a thorough cleaning, getting rid of non-essential or confidential data.
For high-risk travel consider getting a laptop and/or a "burner" phone just for the trip, one with no valuable personal information on it.
Aside from government surveillance and blocked pages (including, often, Wikipedia, but only rarely Wikivoyage), the main threats against WiFi connections are:
- Obsolete Wi-Fi security. The original Wi-Fi security standard WEP is horribly flawed and should never be trusted; the later WPA will stop most amateur attackers but is also easily broken by experts. WPA-2 uses better cryptography and is the best of this unreliable lot; academic papers have shown vulnerabilities in some implementations, but it's adequate unless you are worried about really fearsome attackers such as the Chinese government or the American NSA. A more secure standard, WPA-3, was published in mid-2018 but is not yet available on most devices and access points.
- Attacks from the Wi-Fi access point. If the network is compromised, encrypting the wireless connection accomplishes nothing as an attacker can read everything after it is decrypted. Some free Wi-Fi connections in airports, hotel receptions and coffee shops may be monitored. Corporate networks are problematic as many large companies are already manipulating the network to snoop on their own employees.
- Outside interference with client-owned networks. Smartphones may support "tethering" a Wi-Fi device to the handset's mobile Internet connection. This Wi-Fi must be secured as any other, lest someone intercept data in transit or steal your connection for their own use, and some hoteliers are not above deliberate interference with mobile Wi-Fi as a means to force convention goers to use the hotel's own overpriced services.
- Open servers or network shares. A laptop configured for use on your own trusted home or small business network may have hard discs or other resources shared to other users of the same local area network. If you're connecting to a public network, wired or wireless, shut off these services (Windows 7 and its successors will display a park bench icon on the connection settings to do this) or your PC may be open to the entire café or hotel.
- Fake Wi-Fi networks. Some hackers set up their own bogus network in hotels and airports in order to steal information; this tactic has also been used by extremists to set up fake Wi-Fi hotspots outside medical clinics to broadcast anti-abortion propaganda. Scammers often name their Wi-Fi networks similarly to the real one; check with the venue's owner to confirm which Wi-Fi network is legitimate.
Any of the "man in the middle" attacks may also work against wired connections. If you plug into a hotel's network, whoever controls that network can monitor you. At some hotspots, everything sent unencrypted by one user may be visible to other computers on the same local area network (there's a promiscuous mode in networking that's as risky as it sounds).
If the malicious actor is literally between you and the server you're attempting to reach, they may be able to manipulate unencrypted (http:) web connections to censor or modify content, inject unwanted advertising or replace legitimate downloadable applications with look-alike malware, spyware or ransomware.
The countermeasure is to use encrypted traffic and identify the other endpoint with cryptological certificates. This is what is done with VPN, https and ssh. The programs cannot force a connection to the intended endpoint when somebody is directing you somewhere else, but they can warn you when they cannot establish a secure connection. If you get such warnings, assume somebody is manipulating the connection, and do not resort to trust it or to use non-secured alternatives (such as plain http). Also make sure you are talking not only to a certified host, but to the right host.
There is basically no defense against an attacker who controls the machine you are working on, or the one you connect to. If you use a machine in an Internet café, then either that machine or the network can monitor you. Unscrupulous Internet café operators have been known to steal credentials when customers do Internet banking or make credit card purchases from their machines. Key loggers or other malware on the local machine may steal your credentials and "phishing" scams may try to trick you into connecting to bogus sites that look almost exactly like the real thing.
As with any other open computer in a public place, anyone who wanders by can see everything you read or type.
There's also the risk of leaving sensitive information behind in browser history, temporary files or anything left on the hard drives. Many public library computers are specially-configured with software that discards everything and reboots the entire machine at the end of each session, but the "stock" unmodified install of most consumer desktop operating systems does not include this safeguard. If the last user downloaded malware, you get malware.
The same considerations apply to rental devices or second-hand devices on which anything has been left behind by a previous owner.
Protecting the connection with https does no good at all if the attacker is on the machine.
Using encrypted connections (https instead of plain http for the web) will block most man-in-the-middle attacks from a firewall or access point. Most common browsers show a green padlock icon to indicate that https: is in use; some show "not secure" if it is missing. The original protocol that introduced the feature was SSL; newer versions use TLS. The current standard, as of mid-2016 is TLS 1.2; older versions of SSL or TLS should be disabled in the browser to protect against downgrade attacks.
Any legitimate, secure banking or e-commerce sites will use TLS for sensitive information, as will almost any web site where you need to login to access personal information. Web email providers normally use this encryption for the entire session, so that everything passing between the browser and server is encrypted; this blocks any snoop between the two, such as a subverted WiFi access point or China's Great Firewall.
You should quickly run away from any site that does not implement these basic precautions.
EFF (an electronic civil rights group) offers HTTPS Everywhere, an extension to Chrome, Opera or Firefox browsers which makes them try secure HTTP first on every site. Arguably, everyone should install this and users with browsers that do not support it should install another browser.
Even with https: there are vulnerabilities.
- The protocol relies on X.509 certificates to identify the server; a typical browser trusts over a hundred certificate authorities or CA's, some of which will happily sell certs to anyone with cash while others are controlled by untrustworthy governments. Bogus certificates can be used to bypass security; this was done by some governments during the Arab Spring troubles and is routinely used by companies to monitor employees.
- The protocol only verifies the integrity of the connection; it does not verify the integrity of the vendor, your local machine or anything else. It's trivial to register a name 'one character off' from a well-known site (so "wíkipedia.org" instead of "wikipedia.org") with a certificate for that name. Obtaining a secure https: connection to "relox-watches.com" does nothing to verify Relox's reliability as a vendor nor the accuracy of their timepieces.
Virtual private networks
An easy solution to using unencrypted/poorly encrypted sites is a Virtual Private Network (VPN). All data gets sent through a secure "tunnel" directly to the VPN provider; upon arrival at their servers, it's forwarded on to the rest of the Internet. This protects against Man In The Middle (MITM) attacks, where an attacker could "grab" unencrypted data packets.
VPNs may offer some defence if you're using your own machine and your VPN provider is reliable; it can also disguise your geographic location. VPN is highly recommended for use in public locations like airports, hotels, and libraries; it's indispensable to the business traveller accessing the home company's network while on the road.
Sadly, VPN access may not always be possible; firewalls and filters may be set up to block traffic destined for known VPN servers (source and destination information must remain unencrypted for routing purposes) in order to prevent traffic bypassing them, and some public Wi-Fi hotspots block everything except a plain web server connection. Some oppressive régimes (such as communist China) are attempting to keep VPNs out of the hands of Internet users to curb free speech.
Everything above about Wi-Fi connections applies to phones which use those. There are also a number of phone-specific attacks, discussed here.
- Cell phones are inherently usable as tracking devices. Some have GPS which gives precise positioning, and even without that an approximate position can be calculated from data about which cell towers they can see. Both snoopy governments and companies like Apple have been accused of misusing such data.
- Bogus mobile base stations for intercepting phone calls, often known as "Stingrays" (after one common manufacturer's brand), are widely deployed by American and likely other police forces. In a country like China, they may be unnecessary since the government can just access the real cell towers at will.
- In most cases, phone encryption cannot be trusted if you need real privacy. Some of the encryption methods used (especially in older standards like the original GSM) are deliberately weak and the encryption is generally not end-to-end; only part of the connection, such as handset to cell tower, is encoded.
- The use of mobile SMS text messaging as a recovery mechanism for lost passwords is not secure. On most online services, there's somewhere to claim "I lost my password" to regain access to an account; this may include a series of obvious questions like mother's maiden name (which many make public on social media), this may be an e-mail with a "change password" link (so a scammer who breaks into your webmail can use it to gain access to everything else), this may be an automated SMS message with a random numeric code. If someone steals your handset, even if it's locked, they can pull the SIM and place it into any unlocked handset to gain control of your mobile number; alternately, they impersonate you to your mobile carrier for long enough to have their employee move your number to another phone. Your handset goes dead (as if you'd cancelled your subscription) and they now have your number for use to impersonate you and request "lost password" access to all of your other accounts.
- A more primitive attack uses a USB charging point; if the phone is set to expose its memory over USB – as many phones are for convenient transfers to a computer – then the charging device can read all of your stored information and maliciously write to the device, deleting information, adding incriminating contacts and images or even installing spyware. "USB Condoms" are sold online; these small adapters simply terminate the data pins on the USB bus, allowing only power to flow. Another option is to bring or buy a simple charger for use on local power instead of plugging into unknown or dodgy computers to recharge devices.
Signalling System 7 (SS7), the underlying protocol behind the network, has known weaknesses; a snoop with access to other parts of the phone network certainly can wiretap you. Edward Snowden revealed widespread US surveillance that was horrifying enough, but more authoritarian governments are almost certainly much worse. There are companies like Silent Circle who offer credible secure phones using strong end-to-end encryption, but of course these are premium priced.
- See also: telephone service
If you use the landline in your hotel room, odds are that the hotel has a list of every call you make – in or out. The connection is just as vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks or wiretaps as any other unencrypted communication.
However, the greater risk is that you will simply be overcharged; see #Amenity fees, above. The same issue exists with mobile telephones and inflated roaming fees. Off-brand payphones (COCOTs, client-owned coin-operated telephones) can also be problematic, depending on the provider. Some do offer a legit and valuable cost savings over their incumbent rivals, but others may severely overcharge you on card-paid calls.
If you are using prepaid cards or telephone company "calling cards", there is a risk that anyone who can obtain your card number can make their own calls on your dime. While some of these cards provide good value for money, many carry absurdly-high costs or hidden fees so check the fine print before you buy.