North America > United States of America > Florida > Florida West Coast > Southwest Florida > Everglades National Park
Everglades National Park, protecting more than 1.5 million acres, is the 3rd largest national park in the lower 48 states, behind Yellowstone National Park (2nd) and Death Valley National Park (1st). During the dry season most facilities are open and a full range of tours and programs are available to enjoy. During the wet season of June to October, facilities may have restricted hours or close altogether, and recreational opportunities may be at a minimum.
The park has four visitor centers:
- 1 Ernest Coe Visitor Center, Homestead, ☏ . Nov-Apr: 8AM-5PM; May-Oct: 9AM-5PM. Open year round, this center offers educational displays, orientation films, informational brochures and a series of walking trails a short drive away. A bookstore with film, postcards, and insect repellent. Restrooms.
- 2 Flamingo Visitor Center, Flamingo, ☏ . Generally open from 8:30AM-5PM from mid-November to mid-April, Summer hours are intermittent and subject to change. Educational displays, informational brochures, backcountry permits and restrooms. Public boat ramps are also nearby. Several hiking and canoeing trails begin nearby. Campground facilities, a public boat ramp, a marina store, and other hiking and canoeing trails are located near the visitor center. Plan ahead for food and other needs, there are minimal services available. Visitors traveling to Flamingo through the main entrance or by boat, need to bring adequate food and water unless planning to eat at the Food Truck or pick up basic supplies at the marina.
- 3 Shark Valley Visitor Center, Highway 41 (Tamiami Trail) (25 miles west of the Florida Turnpike exit for S.W. 8th Street), ☏ . Daily 8:45AM–5:15PM in winter, 9:15AM–5:15PM in summer. Hours subject to change. In the heart of the "River of Grass", with educational displays, informational brochures, and guided tram tours. Bicycles may be rented at the center. Books, postcards, film, insect repellent, and other items are available for sale. Vending machines dispense snacks and soft drinks. Two short walking trails (one accessible), are located off the main trail for your enjoyment. Restrooms are available.
- 4 Gulf Coast Visitor Center, Everglades City, ☏ . Daily, 8AM-4:30PM in winter; 9AM-4:30PM in summer. The gateway for exploring the Ten Thousand Islands, a maze of mangrove islands and waterways that extends to Flamingo and Florida Bay. Offers educational displays, orientation films, informational brochures, boat tours and canoe rentals. Backcountry permits available. Restaurants, stores, lodging and campgrounds are nearby. Restrooms.
It's flat but don't let that fool you into thinking there is no variety. A couple of inches of height brings a marked difference in flora and fauna. The highest ground is populated by Dade County Slash Pine forest, with underbrush that includes saw palmetto. Both plants encourage fire which keeps the hardwoods out. A little lower "altitude" brings cypress heads, and lower than that swampland (a river of grass). In the swampland, small hills (a couple of inches higher than water level) are covered with tropical hardwoods with dense foliage below. As you get to the south and southwest part of the 'glades, the tides bring in salt loving plants like mangroves and their kin. There is a lot to see but it takes paying attention to it—and it is well worth the time. Things that may seem small at first may be really big and bring fond memories.
Flora and fauna
The area is home to rare and endangered species, such as the American crocodile, Florida panther, and West Indian manatee. Several species of Snakes live there. Most are nonvenomous like the black racer, banded water snake, and the corn snake and several more harmless species. Only 4 are venomous and dangerous which are the coral snake, cottonmouth/water moccasin, Pygmy rattlesnake, and eastern diamondback rattlesnake. Over 1,000 species of plants live here.
Collecting plants and animals in Everglades National Park is prohibited. This includes such things as orchids, airplants, seahorses, starfish, conch, tropical fish, coral, sponges, and driftwood (except for fuel). One quart of non-occupied sea shells may be collected per person.
|Everglades National Park|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Weather is mild and pleasant from December through April, though rare cold fronts may create near-freezing conditions. Average winter temperatures are: High 77°F (25°C); Low 53°F (12°C). Summers are hot and humid, with temperatures around 90°F (32°C) and humidity over 90%. Afternoon thunderstorms are common and mosquitoes are abundant. Hurricane season is June–November. Tropical storms or hurricanes may affect the area. The rainy season is June through October, coinciding with the mosquito season. Average Rainfall: 60 inches (152 cm) per year.
The closest airport to the Everglades is Miami International Airport. It is a hub for American Airlines, which has service within the United States and to the Caribbean, South America, and Europe.
Two US Highways serve the Everglades from Miami: Route 41 which runs west, and Route 1 which runs south.
Fees and permits
Entrance fees valid for seven days. Fees as of 2020 are:
- $8 - Per individual on foot/bike
- $20 - Per motorcycle
- $25 - Per vehicle
- $40 Everglades National Park Annual Pass. Valid for 12 months from the date of purchase. It admits the purchaser and any accompanying persons in a single, private, non-commercial vehicle, or the purchaser and accompanying immediate family (spouse, children, parents) when entry is by other means (bicycle, foot, and boat).
There are several passes for groups traveling together in a private vehicle or individuals on foot/bike that provide free entry to Everglades National Park and all national parks, as well as some national monuments, national wildlife refuges, and national forests:
- The $80 Annual Pass (valid for twelve months from date of issue) can be purchased by anyone. Military personnel can obtain a free pass by showing a Common Access Card (CAC) or Military ID.
- The $80 Senior Pass (valid for the life of the holder) is available to U.S. citizens or permanent residents age 62 or over. Applicants must provide documentation of citizenship and age. This pass also provides a fifty percent discount on some park amenities. Seniors can also obtain a $20 annual pass.
- The free Access Pass (valid for the life of the holder) is available to U.S. citizens or permanent residents with permanent disabilities. Applicants must provide documentation of citizenship and permanent disability. This pass also provides a fifty percent discount on some park amenities.
- The free Volunteer Pass is available to individuals who have volunteered 250 or more hours with federal agencies that participate in the Interagency Pass Program.
- The free Annual 4th Grade Pass (valid for September-August of the 4th grade school year) allows entry to the bearer and any accompanying passengers in a private non-commercial vehicle. Registration at the Every Kid Outdoors website is required.
The National Park Service offers free admission to all national parks on five days every year:
- Martin Luther King Jr. Day (third Monday in January); next observance is January 17, 2022
- The first day of National Park Week (third Saturday in April); next observance is April 16, 2022
- The National Park Service Birthday (August 25)
- National Public Lands Day (fourth Saturday in September); next observance is September 24, 2022
- Veterans Day (November 11)
Activity fees: Camping fees at park campgrounds: $25 per night. Backcountry camping requires a permit for a fee and is allowed at designated backcountry sites only, mostly only accessible by watercraft.
Most people visit the Everglades by car. There is no public transit within the park, unless you count boat tours and the Shark Valley tour shuttle.
There are many hiking trails and canoe trails as well, but you will usually want a car to reach the trailheads. Most viewpoints and other sites marked on the park map are not within easy walking distance of each other.
Cycling is possible (including on some hiking trails), and there are bicycle rentals at Shark Valley Visitor Center and Flamingo Marina. Cycling to Flamingo from the Homestead park entrance will take quite a while, and is not recommended for inexperienced cyclists.
There are some worthwhile parks and points of interest that are not within the park itself but are part of the scenic region.
- 1 Florida Bay. Approximately 85% of Florida Bay is inside of Everglades National Park. Access to boats and tours is available at Flamingo, inside of the park. There are over 200 islands referred to as "keys". It is a salt water body, at the south end of the Everglades, where fresh water meets salt water. The "floating logs" that you likely will see are more likely American Crocodiles or possibly American Alligators. They swim Florida Bay and to the islands.
- 2 Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge (20 miles southeast of Naples, and south of SR 41 near Goodland). A chain of mangrove islets off the coast, one of the largest expanses of mangrove estuary in North America. About 30% of the refuge (8,000 acres) is mangrove forest, 16,000 acres marine water, and 11,000 acres is freshwater marshland and other habitat.
- 3 Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge (Twenty miles east of Naples, in the upper segment of the Fakahatchee Strand of the Big Cypress Swamp; north of I-75 and west of SR 29.), firstname.lastname@example.org. The 26,400 acre (107 km²) refuge was established in 1989 under the Endangered Species Act, to protect the endangered Florida Panther, as well as other threatened plant and animal species. Besides the panthers, the refuge is home to Big Cypress fox squirrels, bobcats, black bears, alligators, swallow-tailed kites and several wood stork rookeries. It is part of a network of private land and government protected areas. To protect the panther and other endangered inhabitants, general public use is only available at the southeast corner of the refuge, on designated hiking trails. All other areas can only be seen by way of limited tours.
- 4 Collier-Seminole State Park (on US-41, 17 miles (27 km) south of Naples). 8AM to sunset. The home of a National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark, the Bay City Walking Dredge used to build the Tamiami Trail through the Everglades. The park includes 6,430 acres (26 km2) of mangrove swamp, cypress swamps, salt marshes, mangrove river estuaries, and pine flatwoods. Among the wildlife of the park are alligators, raccoons, ospreys, and white ibis. Brown Pelicans, Wood storks, bald eagles, red-cockaded woodpeckers, crocodiles, Florida black bears and big cypress fox squirrels also inhabit the park. Activities include picnicking, hiking, bicycling, and canoeing, camping, wildlife viewing, fishing and boating. Amenities include an RV park, four pavilion picnic shelters, a boat ramp, and a full-facility campground with youth, group and primitive campsites. The park has a number of trails. A 13.6-mile (21.9 km) canoe trail that flows down the Blackwater River through a mangrove forest. A 6.5-mile (10.5 km) hiking trail runs through the park. A .9 mile nature trail features a boardwalk system and observation platform that overlooks the salt marsh.
- 5 Fakahatchee Strand State Park, Copeland, ☏ . 8AM to sunset. Approximately twenty miles long and five miles wide, the Fakahatchee Strand is a swamp forest that hosts a number of rare and endangered tropical plant species. It is the only place in the world where bald cypress trees and royal palms share the forest canopy. Wildlife such as the Florida panther, American alligator, White-tailed deer and Black bear may be spotted.
- 6 Billie Swamp Safari, Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation, toll-free: . Swamp Buggy Eco-Tours, Airboat Rides, Animal & Reptile Exhibits, Day/Overnight Packages and Exclusive Tours.
- Ranger-led tours.
- Royal Palm/Anhinga Trail. The best area for easily viewing wildlife, especially in the dry season. The 'glades are a vast, shallow, slow moving river of grass that extends from Lake Okeechobee in the North to Florida Bay and East to West almost the width of the state. During the dry season (winter through May depending on the year) it dries up except for the deeper places. From the main trail the Anhinga are two very productive wildlife areas as they stay wet all year long. If you bring children and childlike adults, please instruct them to walk quietly and keep their voices down so they don't scare the more timid animals. You will probably see alligators, great blue herons, anhingas, double-crested cormorants, garfish, bass, talapia (and other fishes), various turtles (hard and softshell), snowy egrets, tri-color herons, greenback herons- and you might see one or more of the following: deer, stilts, great white herons, bitterns, limpkins, purple gallinules, avocets, roseate spoonbills, ibis, woodstork, snail kites (Everglades kites), sandhill cranes (along the dry bed before you get to the Anhinga Trail), and many other species—and if you are VERY lucky, a Florida Panther. Take your time, bring your binoculars and camera, and enjoy the wildlife and natural beauty. It is also fascinating to come during the night when the alligators feed. Ranger guided tours of the trail are available frequently and can be very interesting as they are usually very knowledgeable about the local flora and fauna and can help spot more wildlife than you would yourself.
- Manatee and American crocodile viewing (At the Flamingo Marina). Crocodiles can usually be seen basking on the muddy banks across the small harbor from the boat docks during low tide. One of the better spots to look, especially if you don't have binoculars, is on either side of the dam behind the marina store. Rangers often give crocodile talks here too. When the tide is higher, you may still see crocodiles swimming around in the waters of the marina. Manatees can also be seen popping their noses and backs out of the water (which is not usually clear enough to get a full view of their bodies). The best views can be had when they come right up to the edge between the docks to eat floating grass that has accumulated there.
- Eco Pond. Eco Pond used to be one of the best areas for viewing birds and other wildlife. However, the 2005 hurricane season transformed Eco Pond from a freshwater environment to a saltwater environment as well as significantly damaging the area. Thus, there is much less wildlife left. However, it is still possible to see some wildlife there as well as all the other trails found in the park. Wood Storks are often seen at Eco Pond (as of February 2007) and it is possible to see Southern Bald Eagles in the southern areas of the park.
- Shark Valley Tram Tours, ☏ . A guided two-hour narrated tram tour along a fifteen-mile loop in the heart of the "River of Grass". Tours depart from the Shark Valley Visitor Center and provide a great opportunity to see wildlife, while escaping the heat and bugs of the wet season. Reservations are strongly recommended for the dry season. Bicycle rentals are also available here.
- Everglades National Park Boat Tours, Gulf Coast Visitor Center, ☏ . A narrated boat tour of the Ten-Thousand Islands. Canoe rentals are also available to explore nearby waterways. Reservations are strongly encouraged during the busy dry season.
- Flamingo Lodge, Marina, and Outpost Resort, ☏ . Offers boat tours through the Florida Bay and Whitewater Bay areas of the park. Boat tours and canoe rentals are based on a first-come, first-served, basis. Tickets for tours can be purchased at the Flamingo Marina Store while rentals of kayaks and canoes are only done early in the morning on each day. Visitors are strongly encouraged to phone for current schedules and pricing. This is also one of the better areas to see American Crocodiles, which are often found on the canal bank opposite the Marina store.
- Cypress Airboat Rides, ☏ . Open year round. Explore this ecosystem on a heart pounding ride, or a more relaxed airboat tour.
- Fishing for tarpon, bonefish, redfish, snook, snapper, and sea trout. Separate Florida licenses are necessary for freshwater and saltwater. There are very few areas where fishing from shore is possible. If you want to fish, consider hiring a local guide. There are plenty of great Florida guides that will meet you in the Everglades for a day of amazing saltwater fishing, whether you want use a fly, conventional tackle, or bait. The back country is word renowned for snook and baby tarpon.
- Boating. Boat ramps within Everglades National Park are at Flamingo, Little Blackwater Sound, and West Lake. Several commercial boat ramps are in Everglades City and Chokoloskee. There are closed areas, motor-restricted areas and no wake zones. See the Park's Boating Regulations.
- Water skiing and use of personal watercraft such as jet skis is prohibited.
- Kayak and canoe rentals. Available at Flamingo Marina.
Everglades City has a few great seafood restaurants that serve local fare, including fried alligator.
- The Seafood Depot, 102 Collier Ave. Everglades City, in a train depot established in 1928. It has wonderful outside dining overlooking the mangroves and water of the backcountry. The food is plentiful and very affordable.
There are no restaurants in the southern Everglades (the stretch from Homestead to Flamingo). The only places to buy food or drinks inside the park entrance are the Flamingo Marina store (more or less a full-service convenience store, open until 7pm in the winter), the Royal Palms nature center (a refrigerator with drinks and a few sandwiches).
There are no bars inside the national park itself, and the only drinks to be had will come from the small stores and vending machines at or near the visitor centers (non-alcoholic, except for the Flamingo Marina Store which also has beer).
Note that if you are visiting the southern Everglades, there is NO POTABLE WATER available anywhere between Long Pine Key Campground and the Flamingo Marina. If you are traversing the park by bicycle or foot, be prepared. The campgrounds do have running water that you can drink.
There is no indoor lodging within the national park, unless you count the "eco tents" (permanent box-like shelters) at Flamingo Campground (see below)
Two drive-in campgrounds are in the park. Both campgrounds can accommodate tents and RVs. A limited number of group sites are also available. Leave-no-trace camping principles apply.
Fees: Nightly fees are $25 per site at either campground (2020). Word is that Golden Age cards and Golden Access cards no longer get a discount now that the campgrounds have been privatized. Owing to limited usage and difficult conditions, camping was at one time free of charge during the wet season - check with the park website or visitor centers to find if this is still the case.
- 1 Long Pine Key Campground (Long Pine Key Campground is located seven miles (11km) from the main entrance to the park near Homestead, just off the main road.). 108 sites, 1 group site. All sites are first-come, first-served. Long Pine Key Campground is open Seasonally November - May (closed June to October.) A popular campground located in a pretty pine forest (though the trees are skinny and don't provide much shade). Facilities are in various states of disrepair, but there are solar-powered hot showers (may not work as well at night), flush toilets, and potable water. This campground is known for having a lot fewer biting insects than Flamingo, but there still are some (even in the dry season). In the unlikely event that there are no spots available campers can continue south to the Flamingo camping area. $20 per site per night, $30 per night for the group site (2020 rates).
- 2 Flamingo Campground (38 miles south after going through the main entrance to Everglades National Park in Homestead.). 274 sites, 3 group sites, 41 sites with electricial hookups. Flamingo is one of two drive-in campgrounds accessible from the Homestead entrance of the park; it is generally a more laid-back and less crowded campground than Long Pine Key. Reservations are accepted. Hot solar showers included (but may not work at night), as well as flush toilets and potable water. About a 20-minute walk from the Flamingo visitor center, marina, and convenience store (open until 7PM in high season). This campground is known for having lots of mosquitoes, even in the dry season. If you're camping in a tent, consider choosing a spot in the tents-only section by the bay shore, where wind keeps the mosquitoes away some of the time. Additional amenities include two dump stations, picnic tables, grills, and an amphitheater for winter programs. Flamingo has several hiking trails and canoe trails, and opportunities for saltwater fishing are plentiful. $20 per site per night, $30 per site per night with electric hook-ups (2020 rates).
Visitors can select between a variety of ground sites, beach sites and elevated camping platforms (sometimes called chickees). Most sites are accessible by canoe, kayak or motorboat, though a few may be reached by hikers depending on trail conditions (ask the visitor centers). None of the park's 47 backcountry sites are accessible by car. Backcountry trips here require more planning than most. Refer to the park'sWilderness Trip Planner.
A backcountry permit is required for all wilderness campsites. Permits are only issued the day before or the day of the start of your camping trip. Permits are not issued over the telephone. Wilderness permits are written from the Ernest Coe Visitor Center only for two land sites in the Long Pine Key area: Ernest Coe and Ingraham Highway. For all other campsites, permits may be obtained at the Flamingo and Gulf Coast Visitor Centers. Winter wilderness users whose trips originate from the Florida Keys can obtain permits by phone by calling +1 239-695-2945 for the following locations only: North Nest Key, Little Rabbit Key, Carl Ross Key, and the Cape Sable Beaches. Permit fees: $10 per permit plus $2 per person per night.
- The American alligator can be a very dangerous predator but it rarely attacks humans. Avoid interacting with alligators during mating season, and you will be fine. It is extremely common in the Everglades and it is estimated that more than 1 million alligators reside in Florida alone- that is more than all other populations of crocodilian species combined- so caution should always be taken. Take those numbers and measure them against the number of people who swim in Florida's rivers each year and you will find that the chance of attack is very low. In contrast, if people swam in northern Australia's rivers as much as they do in Florida's they would have hundreds or thousands of crocodile related fatalities every year. The alligator grows to 14.5 feet, although seeing individuals over 13 feet is extremely rare for this species.
- American crocodiles exist in some parts of the Everglades and can grow considerably larger than their alligator relatives. They are, however, very rare and can only be found in considerable numbers in a few isolated pockets along the southern coast. There have been no official documented attacks on humans in Florida by this species, mainly due to its poor distribution (there are estimated to be between 500 and 1000 crocodiles in Florida). They have been known to grow up to 20 feet in length in Costa Rica, but crocodiles of 15 feet are considered large in Florida. This species, like Crocodylus porosus, can be found out to sea and does occasionally swim between islands in the Caribbean and in Florida.
- Mosquitos: What the species of mosquitoes at the Everglades lack in size, they make up for in quantity. The mosquitoes are abundant during summer months, descriptions include being dense enough to suffocate cattle and camping lanterns. They can make a visit to Flamingo unbearable if one is not prepared. There are restrictions on use of insecticides. Mosquito level information is available at +1 305-242-7700 (8:30AM-4PM), during summer months.
- Raccoons: The Everglades has a species of masked raccoons that grow to be the size of small bears. The mask is very appropriate, as they will quietly burglarize your camp site if given the opportunity.
- Reptiles: The Everglades are home to an extensive variety of reptiles (alligators, crocodiles, snakes and such). Being the cold blooded animals that they are, they are always looking for opportunities to warm up in the Florida sun during the colder months and the heat from the road pavement at night. When driving through the park to Flamingo at the tip of the Everglades, you may encounter large alligators and snakes basking in the sun in the middle of the road or soaking up the heat from the road at night. Alligators will likely move on, others may not. Avoid touching or hitting any, it will not be a good experience.