- For other places with the same name, see Fife (disambiguation).
Fife (Scottish Gaelic: Fìobha) is a county in the north east of Scotland, with a population in 2019 of 371,910. It's a lowland peninsula, with the broad Firth of Forth to the south and the smaller Firth of Tay to the north, and great bridges for its gateways. Its name may derive from the Pictish kingdom of Fib. It's not related to the fife musical instrument, which derives from the German Pfeife, a pipe.
"The Kingdom of Fife" is a mix of urban and rural, in three areas:
West Fife has the Forth bridges to the south and the medieval town of Dunfermline and the village of Culross to the west.
- 1 Culross is a gem, a charming 16th / 17th century restored coastal town.
- 2 Rosyth has a navy base and is mostly nondescript housing.
- 3 Dunfermline is a former capital of Scotland, with seven monarchs interred in its Abbey.
- 4 North Queensferry is below as you cross the bridge. Turn off and descend for Deep Sea World and vistas of the bridges.
- 5 Aberdour is an attractive village with great beaches and a castle.
Central Fife is a former mining area with small rust-belt villages. The larger towns are:
- 6 Burntisland and Kinghorn are seaside settlements with views across to Edinburgh.
- 7 Kirkcaldy was the birthplace of Adam Smith, "the father of modern economics".
- 8 Glenrothes is a "New Town". Though it's not normally a place people visit, it has good parks and a local venue, Rothes Halls.
- 9 Leven is a faded seaside town with a long sandy beach.
North East Fife is a rural area that hasn't had to cope with the decline in industry and mining.
- 10 Falkland is a must-see for its ruined palace and gardens.
- 11 Anstruther is the largest of its fishing villages, bracketed by Elie, St Monans, Pittenweem, Crail and Kingsbarns.
- 1 Isle of May, five miles out to sea, is a nature reserve swarming with birds and seals. It's usually visited by boat trip from Anstruther.
- 12 Cupar is the historic county town. Overshadowed by its famous neighbour St Andrew, it's a pleasant town with parks, a path along the River Eden and independent shops.
- 13 St Andrews is the home of golf and has the oldest university in Scotland.
"It taks a lang spoun tae sup wi a Fifer" so the saying goes, to illustrate the independent and guarded nature of folk of Fife. Fife is a peninsula between the Forth and Tay estuaries, so it was detached from early transport routes and in Pictish times may have been a semi-independent kingdom. It became more important from the 11th century when the main royal residence moved from Scone near Perth to Dunfermline, and St Andrews grew as a pilgrimage centre then university town. Fife produced grain and was industrial from an early stage through salt-panning, quarrying and coal: the same coalfield that outcrops near Edinburgh stretches under the sea to outcrop in Fife. A string of little harbours along the Forth exported these goods, and when the ships returned unladen from the Low Countries they used roof tiles for ballast. These were re-used for local building so Fife acquired its townscape of red-pantiled villages, crow-stepped in Dutch style. Its barons were wealthy and powerful and the county was informally referred to as the "Kingdom of Fife".
The big growth was in the 19th century, through deep mining for coal and other heavy industry. Ships were broken at Inverkeithing, Kirkcaldy supplied linoleum to the world, and Rosyth became a navy base. Fife miners tunnelled out under the sea, thinking one day to meet their colleagues approaching from Monktonhall, but the seams were poor and the national coal industry collapsed in the 1970s. A greenfield "New Town" was established at Glenrothes but central Fife became a rust-belt. This however preserved the picturesque East Neuk, as its railway closed and it didn't attract new housing.
The Forth railway bridge opened in 1890, replacing the railway ro-ro ferry that from 1850 had carried coal trucks from Burntisland. Still the road crossing was by ferry until 1964 when the Forth Road Bridge opened (replaced in 2017 by the "Queen's Crossing"). This was connected to motorways and Fife suddenly became commuterland for Edinburgh, with the town of Dalgety Bay popping up out of nothing. It also made Fife the county you quickly motor across to reach Perth and the Highlands; but it's well worth pausing to explore.
Famous people from Fife include the architect Robert Adam (1728-1792), the writer Iain Banks (1954-2013), Prime Minister Gordon Brown (b 1951), philanthropist tycoon Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), economist Adam Smith (1723-1790), and Alexander Selkirk (1676-1721) the inspiration for "Robinson Crusoe".
1 Edinburgh Airport (EDI IATA) has a good range of flights across Europe, to London and elsewhere in UK; and it's west of the city so you can continue to Fife without getting embroiled in city traffic. The Stagecoach Jet 747 bus from Airport Stop G runs across the old Forth Road Bridge to Inverkeithing and Halbeath Interchange, 45 min. It costs £6.50 single and £12 for a return within 28 days, and runs daily 24 hours, every 20 mins daytime. Change at Inverkeithing for trains across Fife and at Halbeath for buses, see below.
Otherwise, take the airport bus or tram to Haymarket for transport north. Or with a hire car, turn west and within ten minutes you're crossing the new Forth Bridge into Fife.
Glasgow Airport (GLA IATA) has good connections across Europe, but it's wrong side of Glasgow for Fife: reckon a 90-minute to two-hour drive to most parts of the county. However a direct bus X24 runs hourly from the airport via central Glasgow, Dunfermline, Halbeath and Glenrothes to St Andrews.
LNER daytime trains run from London Kings Cross via Peterborough, York, Newcastle and Edinburgh to Dundee and Aberdeen, stopping at Inverkeithing, Kirkcaldy, Markinch (for Glenrothes) and Leuchars (for St Andrews). Leeds-Aberdeen trains join this route at York. From Birmingham, Manchester or Glasgow, change at Edinburgh Waverley or Haymarket. Overnight from London, take the Lowland sleeper from Euston towards midnight, arriving in Edinburgh around 07:00, and change to a daytime train to Fife. The Highland sleeper also stops at Inverkeithing, Kirkcaldy and Leuchars but ejects you onto a bleak platform at 05:00.
These train thunder non-stop through the smaller stations in Fife. For those take the Scotrail trains from Edinburgh towards Inverkeithing, where they branch either to Rosyth, Dunfermline, Cowdenbeath and Glenrothes, or hug the coast through Dalgety Bay, Aberdour, Burntisland, Kinghorn, Kirkcaldy, Markinch and Ladybank. There they again branch either to Perth or to Cupar, Leuchars and Dundee. They no longer run a loop through Kirkcaldy and Glenrothes back to Edinburgh - this "circle" or loop service was axed in 2022.
Passenger trains to Leven are expected to resume in 2024 after a 55 year gap. The Fife railways are being part-electrified, the plan being to use battery trains that can run across gaps that are impractical to electrify, such as the Forth Bridge.
Stagecoach is the main operator. The principal bus routes into Fife are:
- from Edinburgh X55 to Rosyth and Dunfermline, X54 / X59 to Halbeath, Glenrothes and Dundee or St Andrews, and X58 / X60 to Inverkeithing, Kirkcaldy, Leven and St Andrews.
- from Glasgow X24 / X26 to Dunfermline, Glenrothes and St Andrews, and X27 to Dunfermline, Kirkcaldy and Leven.
- from Inverness and Perth change at Halbeath on the outskirts of Dunfermline.
A driverless bus from Edinburgh to Fife is under trial in 2023. From 15 May it started to take passengers on the 30 minute 14 mile journey between Ferrytoll Park & Ride and Edinburgh Park - don't worry there is a "safety driver" sitting at the wheel ready to take control.
From the south cross the Forth on M90 (no toll) and take A823(M) for Dunfermline, A921 for Aberdour and Burtisland, and A92 for Kirkcaldy, Leven, Glenrothes and St Andrews.
From the north come through Dundee onto the Tay Bridge for St Andrews and the East Neuk, but follow M90 for everywhere else.
From Glasgow take M80 then M876 over Kincardine Bridge then A985 towards Dunfermline.
Train is quickest along the Fife coast and to Rosyth and Dunfermline.
Buses radiate from Dunfermline, Glenrothes and Kirkcaldy as above. Others you might use (and see town pages) are:
- Bus 7 along the coast from Dunfermline to Inverkeithing, Dalgety Bay, Aberdour, Burntisland, Kinghorn, Kirkcaldy and Leven;
- X4 Glenrothes - Leven and X37 Glenrothes - Kirkcaldy;
- Bus 342 Perth - Glenrothes via Falkland Palace;
- Bus 99 St Andrews - Leuchars - Dundee (with night buses F Sa) and Bus 95 St Andrews - Anstruther - Leven.
The main highways are M90 north-south, A92 Dunfermline - Kirkcaldy - Glenrothes - Dundee, A915 Kirkcaldy - Leven - St Andrews and A91 a northern alternative from M90 at Kinross to St Andrews. The coast highway is much slower, which (as A917) is fine for the scenic East Neuk, but (as A921 to Kirkcaldy then A955 to Leven) otherwise drags you through places that are no great shakes to look at. However the cycle route across Fife and the Fife Coastal Path parallel or share these highways.
- Culross is a gem, a well-restored 16th / 17th century village.
- Dunfermline has a ruined abbey and the birthplace of Andrew Carnegie.
- The Forth Bridges can be viewed from east or west, but to walk across start from North Queensferry.
- Kirkcaldy is industrial but has a good museum and art gallery.
- Falkland Palace was beloved by the young Mary Queen of Scots.
- The East Neuk are a string of picturesque fishing villages.
- The Secret Bunker was a control bunker for a nuclear war.
- St Andrews is a pleasant historic university town.
- Scotland's Gardens opens up private gardens once a year in summer, with all proceeds going to charity. There are about 25 participating gardens in Fife, dates staggered so there's one open most weekends.
- Fife Coastal Path is a 117-mile trail from Kincardine Bridge through North Queensferry, Kirkcaldy, East Neuk and St Andrews to the Tay estuary. See individual towns for the local route, but check the website for occasional disruptions and diversions. You can easily walk a section one way and ride back on the bus or train.
- Golf: St Andrews is the big, big name: you won't get onto the Old Course unless you're a top pro or celeb, but there are several more championship courses that you can play with prior booking and a suitable fee. Other towns have plenty of courses where you only pay double-figure green fees but can lose your ball just as irretrievably.
- Beaches get better the further east you go - from Leven onto Lundin Links, say.
- Boat trips to the Isle of May usually sail from Anstruther: they may land, or just circle to view the bird life.
- Football: there are pro soccer teams in Dunfermline, Kelty, Kirkcaldy and Leven.
- Highland Games are held in June at Markinch, in July at Thornton, Burntisland and St Andrews, and in August at Inverkeithing. Fife County Agricultural Show is in Cupar in May.
- All the towns and villages have cheap and cheerful places, but the best settings are along the East Neuk. Fish & chips in Cowdenbeath in November is not the same experience as fish & chips in Anstruther in high summer, even if the gulls are equally predatory.
- St Andrews has the best selection of dining. Peat Inn in Cupar and Cellar in Anstruther get great reviews.
- Bananas: coffee and a banana are what Fifers like other commuters grab before heading to work in the morning. (Anyone remember "Go to work on an egg" and "Breakfast is the most important meal of the day", those 20th century marketing tropes?) Bananas, like coffee, only became mainstream British diet from the 1960s thanks to fast refrigerated boats from the Caribbean, docking at south and west coast ports such as Preston, but "The Kingdom of Fife" became dubbed "The Banana Republic" through allusion to Fyffes the leading banana importer into Britain, and industrial Fife's left-leaning politics. This moniker has fallen out of use as both unionised coalfield labour and Fyffe's brand have faded, and no-one can think of a spoof on "Chiquita".
- As with eating places, there are pubs in all the towns, and it's the ambience that counts, especially the little places along the East Neuk. These are usually part of hotels or restaurants, as the smaller villages can't support a free-standing pub.
- Who knew? - Japanese whiskey is made in Dunfermline and rum is made in Leven.
- Fife has lots of business hotels along the M90 and A92 - clean and efficient, but chain offerings.
- B&Bs mostly didn't open in 2020 or 2021 because of covid.
- The East Neuk has most caravan sites, though most are just static holiday homes, with only a few accepting tourers or tents.
Fife is lowland and pretty safe. Take care on the water but the main hazards are man-made: safeguard valuables, steer clear of idiot drunks, and always beware traffic.
- Dundee is north across the Tay, with Captain Scott's sailing ship Discovery, the V&A, and Verdant jute mills.
- Angus the county around Dundee has ancient artwork by the Picts, just about the only remnant of these mysterious people.
- Perth is a historic market town at the edge of the Highlands.
- Edinburgh, visible across the Forth, is Scotland's must-see capital.