- Dumaguete - capital and largest city.
- Our Dumaguete article includes some of the suburbs:
- Bacong - on the coast, to the south
- San Jose - a seaside town of about 20,000 north of Dumaguete
- Sibulan - on the coast, to the north
- Valencia - inland, to the west
- Other suburbs have separate articles:
- Dauin - on the coast, south of Bacong
- Amlan - north of Sibulan and San Jose, a town of twenty-odd thousand on the coast north of Dumaguete
- Bais City - known for whale and dolphin watching, north of Dumaguete
- Bayawan - on the southwest coast
- Canlaon - inland at the northwest tip of the province
- Guihulngan - north of Bais
- Mabinay - up in the mountains, known for its many caves
- Siaton - near the southern tip of the island
- Tanjay - on the coast, between Dumaguete and Bais
- Zamboanguita - on the coast south of Dumaguete
The main language of the region is Cebuano.
See the Dumaguete article for the main routes into the province.