Tierra del Fuego is a large archipelago off the south of South America, divided between Argentina and Chile by the 1881 Treaty. The archipelago is a panoply of pristine, mostly uninhabited and innaccesible islands, and includes the famed Cape Horn at the southernmost tip of the archipelago.
- Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego — the main island, with an area around 48,000 km² whereby 38.6% belong to Argentina, is commonly referred to as Tierra del Fuego or as Isla Grande. The argentine fraction is shaped like a triangle with its base at the Beagle Channel. Over 90% of the island's population live in Ushuaia and Rio Grande, both on the eastern, Argentine side.
- Isla de los Estados — 530 km², unpopulated, 30 km off the south-eastern edge of Isla Grande.
- Small, unpopulated islands facing Ushuaia — Les Eclaireurs, Bridges, Hache and others
- Other islands on the Beagle Channel — Gable Island (20 km²) and other small islets, all uninhabited
- 1 Río Grande — the economic capital of Argentine Tierra del Fuego, its industries include oil, electronics and cattle breeding. It's traditional estancias and trout fishing are touristically notable.
- 2 Ushuaia — tourist centre of Tierra del Fuego, and base for most excursions, treks and trips to Antarctica. Arguably the southernmost city in the world.
- 3 Porvenir, capital of the Chilean Tierra del Fuego, a town of 6,800 people (2017), has museums, hotels, restaurants and other services of tourist interest.
- 4 Cerro Sombrero, a town of 700 people (2017) that is a residential and service center for the Bational Petroleum Company.
- 1 Tierra del Fuego National Park — a rugged, mountainous national park with great views of Lapataia Bay.
- 2 Yendegaia National Park protects a representative sample of the ecosystems of the south-central sector of the Big Island of Tierra del Fuego. Its main attractions lie in the pristine characteristics that the area still maintains, which leads to the survival of the characteristic species of the Fuegian fauna.
Tierra del Fuego (translation: "Land of Fire") got its name from Ferdinand Magellan who, on passing the archipelago in 1520, spotted a number of fires burning along the coastline. These fires may have been made by the archipelago's aboriginal inhabitants: the Ona, Alakaluf and Yahgan (commonly called Yámana). Four aboriginals were taken from Tierra del Fuego in 1830 by Robert Fitzroy, and were sailed to Britain to meet the King. The three survivors later returned to Tierra del Fuego on the Beagle, with Charles Darwin, who believed the native Fuegans to be "the missing link". The arrival of missionaries, introduction of sheep farming and the discovery of gold in the 1880s led to European, Argentine, and Chilean immigrants, which gradually killed off the native Fuegans.
An excellent book on the history of the Yámana and their demise is The Uttermost Part of the Earth by E. Lucas Bridges, the son of one of the early missionaries. His father, Thomas Bridges, documented what he could of the Yámana language and found that it had a larger vocabulary than the English language.
Today, the economy is based on petroleum, tourism, textiles, electronics and, to a decreasing degree, sheep-farming.
The western parts of the archipelago form the southernmost tip of the Andes range. The eastern parts are an extension of the Patagonian plateau. Based in the south of Patagonia, the climate is cold but warmer than many assume; in winter, the average temperature is -2°C (28°F). In summer, it can climb to 30°C (86°F), although in reality it rarely rises far beyond 10°C (50°F). There are frequent high winds and much rainfall, especially in the coastal areas.
Argentine National Route 3 connects Buenos Aires to the Chilean border near Tierra del Fuego. There is no road from main cities of Chile to Tierra del Fuego, so the Argentine road must be used. To reach Tierra del Fuego by car the ferry service must be used.
There is also a ferry at the narrowest part of the Strait of Magellan that connects Tierra del Fuego to mainland Chile at Primera Angostura (between Punta Delgada and Cerro Sombrero), with many departures from 8:30AM (mainland) to 11:00PM (island) every day. The crossing takes approximately 20 minutes.
Roads are poor in Tierra del Fuego, and apart from the tourist tour train, there are no railways. There is little public transport. However, tours and transport can be booked through the Tourist Office (on San Martin, Ushuaia) or through many of the hostels.
- Estancia Haberton — open only in the summer months, Estancia Haberton is a worthwhile trip for those interested in the Bridges family and their role in local history
- Museo Marítimo — located in Ushuaia's old prison, this excellent museum displays a collection of the history of Tierra del Fuego
- Fernando Cordero Rusque Provincial Museum, Porvenir. It exhibits a photographic and archaeological sample of the Selk'nam (extinct Aborigines of the island), information on the discovery and exploitation of gold from 1881, a remarkable collection of altarpieces of the most notable houses in Tierra del Fuego, and a section on natural history, archeology and ethnography.
- Catamaran trips — catamaran trips will take you around the Beagle Channel and give you nice views of the mountains, cormorants, sea lions and penguins
- Cerro Castor — this centre for winter sports offers skiing and snowboarding. Nearby, you can also ride snowmobiles or husky sleighs during the winter
- Fin del Mundo Train — a steam train running from Ushuaia to the national park
- Hike the Glacier Martial — provided that you wear comfortable shoes and have the patience, a hike up the Glacier Martial will provide a very beautiful view of Ushuaia and the Beagle Channel
- Hike around Lakes Escondido and Fagnano — beautiful spots to walk, relax, fish, or ride a horse
- Kayak the Beagle Channel — Kayaks can be hired near Ushuaia's Aeroparque, on the promontory
- See king penguins — at Parque Pingüino Rey, on the eastern shore of the Bahia Inutile
- Take a cruise — several cruises operate from Ushuaia, taking in the Beagle Channel and some islands, such as Los Lobos Island
- Take a trip to Cabo San Pablo, Ojo del Albino or Laguna Esmeralda — these sites offer more stunning and rugged scenery
- Tierra del Fuego National Park — this national park provide some nice day hikes on well-marked trails
A regional specialty is king crab, called centolla in Spanish, and seafood is usually excellent. Otherwise, local cuisine follows the general Chilean and Argentine traditions. Fruit and vegetables have to be transported from thousands of miles away and, as such, are rarely tasty and rather expensive.
Ushuaia has several bars and one nightclub.
Crime rates in Tierra del Fuego are very low. If hiking or trekking, it is important to take warm, waterproof gear.
Flights can be booked from the Aerolineas office in Ushuaia. Buses to Buenos Aires and other destinations (apart from Puerto Natales) all stop at Rio Gallegos. It can be cheaper to just buy a ticket to Rio Gallegos and purchase an onward ticket from there.
Most Antarctic cruises either start in Tierra del Fuego, or go through it, so Antarctica is another destination accessible from Tierra del Fuego.