West Virginia is a state in the Southern Region of the United States of America. It's often called the "Mountain State", being the only state in the USA to lie completely within a mountain range (in this case, the Appalachians). West Virginia is bordered by five states, on the south and east by Virginia, Maryland to the north and east, the north by Pennsylvania, the north and west by Ohio and Kentucky to the west.
Originally part of the state of Virginia, the residents of the counties that became West Virginia split from the rest of the state in part due to a disagreement over the issues of slavery and secession. These counties elected to remain with the Union during the Civil War, and the new state was born on June 20, 1863. The population of the state today is around 1.8 million people. The capital city is Charleston, and the state motto is "Mountaineers are always free."
- Metro Valley - The state's urban center which includes the capital. This region borders Ohio and Kentucky
- Ohio Valley - Bordering the Ohio River and the western panhandle of the state.
- New River and Greenbrier Valleys - The southernmost part of the state, with whitewater rafting and beautiful parklands.
- Mountains and Lakes Country - West Virginia's technology corridor, bordering the south of Pennsylvania and the central part of the state, with lots of lakes, rivers and streams.
- Potomac Highlands - Tucked away in the Allegheny Mountains and the Monongahela National Forest, with much of the state's skiing and caving, this region contains an important part of the state's Civil War heritage.
- Charleston — the state capital and cultural center.
- Beckley — home to Tamarack ("the best of West Virginia") and an exhibition coal mine.
- Bluefield — West Virginia's highest city, nestled in the East River Mountains.
- Charles Town — a historic town founded by George Washington's youngest brother Charles.
- Harpers Ferry — a major Civil War site and West Virginia's most popular tourist destination.
- Huntington — location of Marshall University.
- Morgantown — stomping grounds of the West Virginia University Mountaineers.
- Parkersburg — location of Blennerhassett Island.
- Wheeling — Victorian architecture and a popular casino.
- Blackwater Falls State Park — the most photographed location in West Virginia, running through a gorge along the Blackwater River.
- Monongahela National Forest — over 919,000 acres of forest stretching from near Elkins to Richwood.
- New River Gorge National River
- Coopers Rock State Forest
Once considered the southernmost of the North, the northernmost of the South, the easternmost of the West, and the westernmost of the East, West Virginia is nestled between the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east and the Ohio River to the west. Rich in natural resources, physical beauty, and traditional culture, West Virginia's charm is that of being "off the beaten path". West Virginia is a destination for white water rafting, kayaking, skiing, climbing, golf, mountain biking, hiking, and off-roading. It is the only state that is entirely contained in Appalachia. Its location between the mid-west and eastern seaboard of the United States means that over 60% of the United States population lives less than 500 miles from West Virginia.
West Virginia is abundant in natural resources, being primarily known as a major producer of coal since the 1800s — in fact, it's the number-two coal producing state in the US. However, it has never been a particularly wealthy state, particularly outside the larger towns; per capita income is quite low, and the poverty levels are some of the highest in the nation. From the point of view of the traveller, this isn't necessarily a negative. The people in rural areas may not have much material wealth, but they're down-to-earth, grateful for what they have, and very friendly and hospitable, and this attitude toward life generally applies to people in the larger cities as well. You'll receive a very warm welcome, as long as you respect their Southern politeness and try to return it in kind (which means: be patient, smile, engage in small talk, and no jokes about hillbillies or inbreeding).
As a visitor, you'll find that West Virginia has a lot to offer. There's beautiful natural scenery, quaint mountain towns, delicious down-home country food, traditional handicrafts, lots of pioneer and Civil War history, outdoor activities of the rollicking and stately varieties, and great cultural opportunities. The pace of life is slow and relaxed, but with so many exciting things to do, West Virginia is a wonderful destination for a quiet getaway or a weekend adventure.
Given its position as a boundary state between the North and the South, your perception of the West Virginia dialect will probably depend on where you're from. People from the North think that West Virginians have a Southern accent, whereas people from the South perceive them as speaking a more Northern dialect. Nevertheless, most West Virginians do have at least a bit of a Southern twang, particularly if you venture into the more remote mountain communities.
There is no single West Virginia dialect. In areas of the state which border Ohio and Pennsylvania, the pronunciations tend to be more northern, with the primary marker being the long "I" sound. Some will voice the diphthong "aye" in the northern style, while others make the "ah" sound. Those in the interior of the state speak in a manner more like people from Kentucky or southern Virginia. In the southern counties particularly, you will find a very pronounced southern twang.
Variations in dialects can be traced to immigration patterns. The coal fields of the southeastern part of the state were the destination of miners immigrating from Ireland, Scotland and Wales. In the more industrialized areas along the Ohio River, the immigrant population was comprised of large numbers of eastern European immigrants.
In the most southern part of the state, there are communities which are almost entirely African-American. During the mine wars of the late 1800s, mine owners hired former slaves from the southern states to replace striking miners. Because these communities tend to be segregated (by choice), the dialects of the southern slaves live on in their speech.
There are three main interstates in West Virginia: I-64 crosses the lower third of the state from Kentucky into Huntington, through Charleston and Beckley, and then past Lewisburg into Virginia. I-77 moves up the western third of the state, from Virginia into Bluefield, through Charleston and then past Parkersburg into Ohio. I-79 begins in Charleston and continues through Morgantown into Pennsylvania.
- Interstates that only cross a piece of West Virginia include I-70, which crosses from Ohio to Pennsylvania through the northern panhandle, past Wheeling; I-68, which branches off I-79 near Morgantown and passes through Preston County into Maryland; and I-81, which crosses from Virginia into Maryland and Pennsylvania through the eastern panhandle, past Martinsburg.
- Amtrak offers two routes that pass through West Virginia.
- West Virginia is served by one major airport:
- There are over 30 smaller airports in the state, six of which offer regular commercial flights to other cities:
- North Central West Virginia Airport (CKB) in Clarksburg. Allegiant Air offers regular service to Orlando/Sanford and seasonal service to Myrtle Beach. Silver Airways offers service to Washington-Dulles.
The best way to see the state is definitely by driving, as West Virginia is generally lacking in reliable statewide public transportation. Many towns are basically inaccessible except by car, as is some of the best scenery. But be careful — off the main highways, the roads often loop around the mountaintops, which makes for some stunning views but also requires careful driving. Hairpin curves around mountain roads are not to be taken at high speeds, and the smaller country roads don't always have guard rails. Many such turns are also at steep inclines - make sure you engine brake and obey all speed limit signs. Do not follow too closely to coal trucks, lest your windshield be cracked by falling hunks of coal.
Motorcyclists will tell you that the best way to see the state is definitely by motorcycle. The warnings about hairpin curves and smaller country roads do apply, but those roads are motorcycling nirvana - endless curves and elevation changes. The state even encourages motorcycle tourism, offering pamphlets with suggested tour routes.
Although there aren't any statewide bus lines, many of the metropolitan areas have their own inter-area bus systems.
There are several scenic train lines, if you want to view some of West Virginia's picturesque landscapes from the comfort of an excursion train:
- The Durbin and Greenbrier Valley Railroad has several picturesque lines that travel through the eastern part of the state.
- New River Excursions offers fall foliage trips through the New River Gorge Valley.
- The New River Gorge Mystery Train boards passengers primarily in Huntington, Charleston, Beckley and White Sulphur Springs for scenic day, overnight or weekend trips to West Virginia beauty spots or historic destinations in the eastern US.
- The Potomac Eagle in Romney follows the course of the Potomac River on weekends from May through September, and daily for three weeks in October.
- The beautiful natural scenery. Just driving around backwoods West Virginia, with its hills and creeks and rivers and forests and mountaintop vistas, is a wonderful experience in and of itself. There are lots of out-of-the-way wonders to be discovered, and quite a few scenic routes, including the Coal Heritage Trail from Bluefield to Beckley, the Midland Trail along route 60 from Huntington to White Sulphur Springs, and the Highland Scenic Highway from Richwood to north of Marlinton.
- Blackwater Falls State Park is named for the falls of the Blackwater River whose amber-colored waters plunge five stories then twist and tumble through an eight-mile long gorge near Davis. The "black" water is a result of tannic acid from fallen hemlock and red spruce needles. The falls are one of the most photographed sites in West Virginia.
- Charles Town was founded by George Washington's youngest brother Charles. Today, the quaint downtown is host to shops, restaurants and antiques. Take a walking tour and see the Courthouse where John Brown was tried for treason or see the Civil War meeting site of Generals Sheridan and Grant where they planned the Shenandoah Valley Campaign. The town is also host to several festivals including the Charles Town Heritage Festival.
- The Greenbrier, in White Sulphur Springs near Lewisburg, is probably the best-known resort and spa in West Virginia. It's a beautiful white building on 6,500 acres of land with golf courses, shops, and even a once-secret underground bunker for the President to use in the event of an international crisis.
- Harpers Ferry was the site of a raid on the US Arsenal by abolitionist John Brown in 1859, an event that was a precursor to the Civil War. Today there's a national historic park on the site.
- West Virginia University in Morgantown has museums, an arboretum, and a loyal football following.
- Visit the Victorian downtown, scenic Ohio River waterfront and Oglebay Park in Wheeling. In nearby Moundsville, you can see the country's largest Adena burial mound, with an adjacent museum explaining the culture and customs of this Native American tribe.
- The Swiss village of Helvetia, founded in 1869, with Swiss-themed events and festivals during the year.
- Paranormal buffs might enjoy visiting Point Pleasant, site of the famous Mothman sightings in the 1960s. There's a Mothman festival every September.
- The state capitol, Charleston, boasts a gold-covered Capitol Dome and some of the best cultural activities in the state.
- The nation's oldest five-and-dime store, Berdine's Five and Dime, is located near Parkersburg in Harrisville.
- Blennerhassett Island is a historical state park near Parkersburg with a mansion, hotel, wagon ride tours and nature walks.
- History buffs will also enjoy touring Jackson's Mill Historic Area, which has links to the family of Stonewall Jackson, near Weston.
- West Virginia is the site of the famous Hatfield and McCoy feud; the Hatfield family cemetery, with a marble statue of patriarch "Devil Anse", is near Logan.
- The Civil War Discovery Trail, which covers 32 states, has 14 sites in West Virginia.
- West Virginia's rugged nature lends itself well to outdoor sports like fishing, hunting, horseback riding, hiking, biking, camping, golfing, windsurfing, water skiing and scuba diving. However, much of West Virginia's outdoor tourism comes from two particular sources:
- If you like to hit the slopes, there are several popular ski resorts in the state:
- White-water rafting is also extremely popular and can be done on several rivers in the state, although the most popular — and the most commercial — are the New River and the Gauley River near Fayetteville.
- West Virginia also has an abundance of caverns and underground grottos to tour.
- There are 48 state parks and forests in West Virginia; some of the notable ones are:
- Berkeley Springs State Park near Berkeley Springs, with its warm mineral-water spas.
- Cathedral State Park near Aurora is a national historic landmark with old-growth forest.
- Hawks Nest State Park near Fayetteville features a tram up to a lodge overlooking the New River Gorge.
- Pipestem Resort State Park near Princeton has scenic overlooks of the Bluestone Gorge.
- Stonewall Jackson Lake State Park near Weston is home to the Stonewall Resort, one of West Virginia's premier resorts and conference centers.
- On Bridge Day, in October, experienced parachutists can go BASE jumping or rappelling from the scenic New River Gorge Bridge near Fayetteville, the longest steel-arch bridge in the western hemisphere.
- Explore West Virginia's coal heritage by driving the Coal Heritage Trail from Bluefield to Beckley, where you can visit the Exhibition Coal Mine.
- Being a coal state, West Virginia gift shops routinely stock coal sculptures, which are surprisingly lightweight and make for a unique souvenir. However, they're frequently tacky (with googly eyes glued onto bears, turtles, what have you), so you'll have to keep your eyes peeled for the really nice ones.
- A major West Virginia industry is handblown glass, with several very nice factories whose wares can be found in gift shops statewide. Some of the major ones are below, although other prominent local glass factories and sales outlets can be found in Weston, Morgantown and Wheeling.
- If you're looking for a one-stop-shop to peruse a variety of local specialties, there are a couple of really good markets in the state:
- Tamarack is a statewide collection of handmade crafts, art and cuisine showcasing the best of West Virginia. It's located in a large complex near Beckley, and is well worth a stop if you're travelling up I-77 and want to purchase something really nice from the state.
- Sutton is home to Poplar Forest, a cooperative representing over 200 juried West Virginia artists and craftsmen.
Traditional West Virginia cooking is broadly similar to Southern cuisine, but it's technically part of the Appalachian style of cooking, which was mostly subsistence-based, meaning that people ate what they could grow or catch themselves. This style of cooking emphasizes wild or cultivated plants, berries, nuts, wild game and corn. While this does mean that some West Virginians eat opossum, squirrel and raccoon, you won't find them on any restaurant menus (unless you visit the Roadkill Cook-off in Marlinton). Foods like fried chicken, sausage, cornbread, green and pinto beans, greens, squash casserole, mashed potatoes, fresh cucumbers and onions, ripe tomatoes, pickles and berry cobbler are commonly found throughout the state.
- The pepperoni roll is an unexpected little West Virginia specialty that was reportedly invented in Fairmont in 1927, and was often used as a miner's lunch in early days. It's a soft bread roll with pepperoni baked inside, yielding a moist and spicy snack; variations include slices versus strips of pepperoni, the inclusion of cheese (pepper jack, mozzarella or provolone), tomato sauce and banana peppers. They're popular throughout the state, ubiquitous in convenience stores, and can be found from small family bakeries up through local eateries. Country Club bakery, the reported home of the original pepperoni roll, is still making them.
One of West Virginia's most famous (or infamous?) foods is the ramp, or wild leek, a wild onion similar to a scallion that is much beloved in the area, even though the flavor is so potent that the garlicky scent will linger on a person for days after consuming them. There are even ramp festivals throughout the state in spring, with the best-known being held in Elkins, Richwood and Helvetia. Usually served family style, typical offerings include ham, fried potatoes, stewed and raw ramps, and soup beans.
- As with many country communities, home canning is a popular activity in West Virginia. You'll see lots of home-canned vegetables, pickles, jellies and jams for sale around the state, with apple butter being a particular favorite. In fact, West Virginia's state fruit is the apple — specifically, the yellow Golden Delicious, which was discovered in West Virginia and has been grown in the state since 1912. There are apple butter festivals every September near Logan and October in Berkeley Springs and Salem, as well as apple festivals in October in Martinsburg and Clay, the home of the Golden Delicious.
- West Virginia has lots of mountain streams brimming with river fish, and the brook trout — the state fish — is commonly found on local menus.
- Buckwheat from Preston County, used (along with local pork) to make their famous annual buckwheat cake and sausage dinners in September.
- Swiss cheese from Helvetia, a local tradition since the 1800s.
- The Dairy Queen in Hinton is considered by some to be the "best Dairy Queen ever." It is well-known, in addition to its chili dogs, for having a far more extensive menu than most Dairy Queens, including steak hoagies and country-fried chicken dinners.
Although most people probably think of home-distilled whiskey and moonshine when they think of West Virginia, the state has a burgeoning wine industry these days. Wineries can be found all over the state; some also produce specialty products like mead and fruity melomel, and cooking wine made from ramps. A small selection of wineries is below:
However, if you really want to sample local moonshine, you can still get it at legal distilleries in the state:
West Virginia also has a number of microbreweries, including:
Most West Virginia telephone numbers consist of +1 304 plus a seven-digit number, but a second area code (+1 681) was overlaid onto the entire +1 304 area in February 2009. A local or in-state telephone call now requires all ten digits of the local number be dialled (omitting just the leading +1 from a local landline call).
Signage on many established businesses may still display the original seven-digit numbers; dial 304 before these if no area code is indicated.
Be careful when driving on mountain roads, especially in the winter. The roads can be very steep, hairpin turns are common, most roads outside main traffic routes are unpaved, and if you're driving in the mountains, you may find yourself on the edge of a very steep drop with at most a guardrail to protect you. In the winter, West Virginia is susceptible to fairly large snowfalls, which can make the roads treacherous if not impassable, particularly if your car doesn't have good traction on the inclines.
As you're driving, you'll also notice road signs at certain locations advising you to be alert for rockfalls in the vicinity. Many of the roads in the state were cut right through the mountains, giving you interesting geological sights as you drive, but bad weather and erosion can lead to rocks coming loose and tumbling down onto traffic below. It's not at all common, but it does occur, so pay attention to the signs and keep alert.
If you're in the state to partake of its outdoor adventures, be sure you follow the usual precautions. During hunting season, wear hunter's blaze orange clothing if you go into the woods. If you're canoeing or whitewater rafting, be sure to keep a lifejacket on. And if you're into extreme sports, don't take unnecessary risks; more than one experienced BASE jumper has perished at the annual Bridge Day festivities, most recently in 2006.
Unleashed dogs are abundant, especially on back roads. Carry a large walking stick and pepper spray when hiking and don't venture uninvited onto posted property.
In the woods, it's also wise to take precautions against insect-borne diseases. Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever are both spread by ticks, and West Nile virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, both of which are common in West Virginia forests. Fortunately, the diseases themselves are fairly uncommon in the state, but it never hurts to stay safe. Wear long clothes that cover your skin, use a good insect repellent, and check your body for ticks as soon as you return indoors. The Eastern Diamond Back Rattlesnake and Copperhead Snake are both indigenous to all forests in the state.
Stay out of abandoned coal mines, which can be full of hazards such as rotten timber supports, unstable ground, rats, snakes, undetonated explosives, blasting caps, explosive methane gas, and pockets of "blackdamp" or air without enough oxygen to support life.
In terms of natural disasters, West Virginia is quite a safe place to be. Earthquakes are practically nonexistent, it's far enough inland that hurricanes are rarely a major problem, and the mountain range seems to discourage tornadoes from forming, although the state does average about two per year. The most common type of natural disaster in the state is flooding, which can be a serious problem, so pay attention to news bulletins during periods of heavy rain, and stay away from affected areas.
- Ohio - The Buckeye State is West Virginia's northwestern neighbor, offering the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland and the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton.
- Pennsylvania - West Virginia's northeastern neighbor is home to Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Known for its revolutionary war era historical sites (mainly in Philadelphia), Gettysburg battlefield, and its steel industry.
- Maryland - West Virginia's eastern neighbor is where The Star Spangled Banner was written and is home to the US Naval Academy.
- Virginia - The state's southeastern neighbor, of which West Virginia was originally a part, has Shenandoah National Park and Monticello, home of Thomas Jefferson.
- Kentucky - To the west, Kentucky is rich in horse related attractions, including the Kentucky Horse Park and the Kentucky Derby, as well as the natural wonder of Mammoth Cave National Park.