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French cuisine

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Many people of France regard their cuisine to be the best in the world. France is the origin of the Guide Michelin rating system, and ties Japan (which has twice the population) for the highest number of stars in the guidebook.

French cuisine has set a standard for fine dining around the world, and menus in Western restaurants are often printed in French.

Understand[edit]

French cuisine has roots back to the Roman Empire. Influenced by Italian cuisine as well as local traditions, haute cuisine was created in Paris during the Early Modern times. The French Revolution put an end to guilds and the privileged noble class, expanding fine cooking and dining to common people.

While foreign cuisines such as Mexican food, American fast food and Chinese food have been less successful in France than in other parts of Europe, they can be found in Paris and the other more cosmopolitan cities. North African, Vietnamese and Middle Eastern cuisines are among those that have been imported from former French colonies and taken root in the former mother country. At least some North African food has been fully assimilated, as a survey in the 1990s found that couscous was the most popular French food (so described by the respondents) in France.

Meals[edit]

Breakfast (petit dejeuner) in France isn't the most important meal of the day, and is usually very light. The most typical breakfast consists of a coffee and a croissant or some other "viennoiserie", but since it implies going to the boulangerie early in the morning to buy fresh croissants, it's typically reserved for somewhat special occasions. On normal days most people have a beverage (coffee, tea, hot chocolate, orange juice) and either toast ("tartines" made of baguette or toast bread with butter and jam/honey/Nutella) that can be dipped in the hot beverage, or cereals with milk. People who eat healthy may go for fruit and yoghurt. As a general rule, the French breakfast is mostly sweet, but anything can change and you can have savoury breakfasts everywhere today.

Both lunch (dejeuner) and dinner (dîner) are traditionally full meals. They often consist of an appetiser (entrée or hors d'œuvre), a main dish (plat), and a dessert (dessert) or cheese. Restaurants usually serve dinner between 19:30 and 21:30.

Ingredients[edit]

  • Bread (pain) is the classical side order in France. The baguette, a plain wheat roll, is the archetypal bread.
  • Cheese (fromage) comes in hundreds of varieties, and can be included in most dishes. It often makes up a dessert. Here is a far from exhaustive list of what one can find:
Bleu des Causses Livarot Roquefort Bleu du Vercors Morbier Saint Nectaire Boulette d'Avesnes Maroilles Salers Brie de Meaux Munster Sainte Maure de Touraine
Brie de Melun Murol Selles-sur-Cher Broccio Neufchâtel Saint Marcellin Camembert Ossau-Iraty Sainte Maure de Touraine Cantal Pelardon Tomme de chèvre
Chaource Pérail Tomme des Cévennes Comté Picodon Valençay
  • The main dish usually contains some kind of meat. While vegetarianism certainly exists in France, it was unusual until very recently to abstain from meat, and few traditional restaurants serve vegetarian main courses. Vegan visitors will have a hard time in France, with the ubiquity of cheese and other dairy products.

Regional dishes[edit]

Every French region has dishes all its own. These dishes follow the resources (game, fish, agriculture, etc.) of the region, the vegetables (cabbage, turnip, endives, etc.) which they grow there. Here is a small list of regional dishes which you can find easily in France. Generally each region has a unique and widespread dish (usually because it was food for the masses):

  • Cassoulet (Southwest France) : beans, duck, pork & sausages
  • Choucroute, or sauerkraut (Alsace) : stripped fermented cabbage + pork
  • Fondue Savoyarde (central Alps) : melted/hot cheese with white wine
  • Fondue Bourguignonne (Burgundy) : pieces of beef (in boiled oil), usually served with a selection of various sauces.
  • Raclette (central Alps) : melted cheese & potatoes/meat
  • Pot-au-feu (found all over France) : boiled beef with vegetables
  • Boeuf Bourguignon (Burgundy) : slow cooked beef with red wine gravy
  • Gratin dauphinois (Rhône-Alpes) : oven-roasted slices of potatoes with sour cream and cheese
  • Aligot (Aveyron) : melted cheese mixed with a puree of potatoes
  • Bouillabaisse (fish + saffron) (Marseille and the French Riviera). Don't be fooled! A real bouillabaisse is a really expensive dish due to the amount of fresh fish it requires. Be prepared to pay at least €30 per person. If you find restaurants claiming to serve bouillabaisse for something like €15 per person, you'll find it to be of a very poor quality.
  • Tartiflette (Savoie) : Melted Reblochon cheese, potatoes and pork or bacon.
  • Confit de Canard (south west) : Duck Confit, consists of legs and wings bathing in grease. That grease is actually very healthy and, with red wine, is one of the identified sources of the so-called "French Paradox" (eat richly, live long).
  • Foie Gras (south west) : The liver of a duck or goose. Although usually quite expensive, foie gras can be found in supermarkets for a lower price (because of their purchasing power) around the Christmas season. It is the time of year when most foie gras is consumed in France. It goes very well with Champagne.
  • Moules marinière (Brittany) : Mussels steamed in cider or wine with cream normally served with crusty bread.

Beverages[edit]

France is one of the world's most prominent countries for wine (vin).

Coffee (café) is drunk at the end of a meal, occasionally with liquor.

See also[edit]

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