- For other places with the same name, see Macedonia (disambiguation).
Macedonia (Macedonian: Македонија, Makedonija, FYROM and FYR Macedonia) is a landlocked country in the heart of the Balkans. It is bordered by Serbia and Kosovo to the north, Albania to the west, Bulgaria to the east, and Greece to the south. It is planning to change its name to the Republic of North Macedonia (Severna Makedonija) to settle a dispute with Greece.
The majority of the population is ethnic Macedonian and Orthodox Christian but there is also a significant Albanian Muslim minority. One can expect a wonderful mix of architectural and ethnic heritage. The country represents the Balkans in the truest sense, consisting of a fascinating mix of Macedonian, Albanian, Turkish, and Mediterranean influences.
|Currency||Macedonian denar (MKD)|
|Population||2.1 million (2013)|
|Electricity||230 volt / 50 hertz (Europlug, Schuko)|
|Emergencies||112, 192 (police), 193 (fire department), 194 (emergency medical services)|
|edit on Wikidata|
Macedonia is a country with several ethnic minorities. There is still some ethnic tension between Albanians (who form majorities in areas in the northwest) and Macedonians, so this is a subject best avoided.
Macedonia has warm, dry summers and autumns, and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall.
Macedonia is covered by mountainous territory marked by deep basins and valleys. There are three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line, and the country bisected by the Vardar River.
Macedonia is blessed with outstanding natural beauty. Do not miss a trip to one of the large lakes, Pelister Mountains, Shar Planina in the West, and the fascinating rolling hills and mountains of the East with its rice fields.
Macedonia is dotted with beautiful Orthodox churches, monasteries, and Ottoman mosques. The territory of the Macedonia has a proud history. Being under the Ottomans for 500 years caused legendary Macedonian revolutionaries such as Goce Delcev, Nikola Karev, and Pitu Guli to lead uprisings to free Macedonia.
Macedonia has been part of many countries, but until its incorporation into Yugoslavia by Tito in 1945 it was never acknowledged as an administrative "state." Macedonia prospered under Tito's rule, especially when the capital Skopje was rebuilt after a severe earthquake in 1963 and the Yugoslav government invested heavily in the subsequent infrastructure rebuilding. This may explain why many Macedonians are somewhat nostalgic for Tito's Yugoslavia.
International recognition of Macedonia's independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 was delayed by Greece's objection to the new state's use of what Greece considered a "Hellenic name and symbols." Greece finally lifted its trade blockade in 1995, and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, despite continued disagreement over the use of "Macedonia" in the name. Greece is now the largest investor in Macedonia. Due to the naming dispute, the country is sometimes referred to as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" - often shortened to "FYROM" - while many Macedonians dislike this moniker, it leads to such oddities as the UN delegation of the country being seated under "t" (for "the") as a compromise. In June 2018, the leaders of Macedonia and Greece signed an accord to resolve the dispute by having Macedonia change its name to "the Republic of Northern Macedonia". The accord must be ratified by the parliaments of both countries and by a referendum in Macedonia.
Macedonia's large Albanian minority (about 25%), an ethnic Albanian armed insurgency in Macedonia in 2001, and the status of neighbouring Kosovo continue to be sources of ethnic tension. There were also tensions during the last parliamentary elections on 2 June 2008, although they happened between supporters of the two biggest rival Albanian political parties.
This central region consists of most of the area along the Vardar River, which somewhat bisects the country. Skopje, Macedonia's capital and largest city, lies in the north of this region.
|Western Macedonia |
Full of the bulk of Macedonia's tourist attractions, in particular the three national parks and the World Heritage Site of Ohrid. Two of the country's three major lakes lie at the southern area of western Macedonia. Many of the countries larger cities, such as Bitola and Tetovo, are situated in the country's western region.
|Eastern Macedonia |
Not as many tourist attractions, but some spectacular vistas of rural life.
- 1 Skopje (Скопје) — the nation's capital, home to many historic landmarks and architectural monuments, and a great number of cultural places of interest
- 2 Bitola (Битола) — Macedonia's most "European" town, with an ancient city, Ottoman monuments, a lovely shopping promenade, great nightlife, and more
- 3 Kratovo (Кратово) — a picturesque town situated in an extinct volcano crater
- 4 Kruševo (Крушево) — a museum-city nestled high up in the mountains of southwestern Macedonia; it is one the most historically significant destinations in the country as it was the site of a revolt against the Ottoman Empire; also home to great skiing
- 5 Ohrid (Охрид) — a lakeside resort and UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is considered the jewel in Macedonia's crown
- 6 Prilep (Прилеп) — tobacco fields, medieval monasteries, and strange rocks
- 7 Strumica (Струмица) — a city with one of the highest concentrations of historical sites in Eastern Macedonia
- 8 Veles (Велес) — in the center of the country, a dense city situated on hills on both sides of the Vardar
- 1 Galičica National Park — consists of the mountainous land between Lake Ohrid and Lake Prespa.
- 2 Mavrovo National Park — the largest of Macedonia's national parks. It is home to the country's highest peak, Golem Korab, as well as several picturesque villages and monasteries.
- 3 Pelister National Park — separates Bitola from Prespa. It covers the Baba Mountain area and features two glacial lakes known as "Mountain Eyes" that feed multiple rivers.
- 4 Prespa (Преспа) — contains most of the Great Prespa Lake, shared by neighbouring countries. Galičica to the west and Pelister to the east complement the scenery provided by the lake.
- 5 Stobi (Стоби) — an ancient city that is now one of the largest archaeological sites in the country.
- 6 Vevčani (Вевчани, Vevchani) — historic mountain village known for its natural springs, its 1,400-year-old annual carnival and its attempts at autonomy
Citizens of the European Union and of the countries signatories to the Schengen Agreement can enter with just a valid officially issued ID card or a passport.
Visas are not required by nationals from the following countries:
Albania, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Bosnia and, Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Holy See, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Serbia, Switzerland, Sweden, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, UK, USA, Uruguay and Venezuela.
The period of stay is regulated under the issued visa, but is no longer than 90 days. The visa free stay is 90 days, with the exception of Turkey, Japan and Montenegro where the visa free stay is 60 days.
Any foreign national possessing a valid multiple entry short stay Schengen type C visa (valid for the entire territory of the Schengen zone) may enter and stay in Macedonia up to 15 days without having to possess a Macedonian visa. Visit this page for more details. Please note that border guards may not be fully aware of this information, and they might tell you that you require a visa to enter Macedonia. Stay calm and politely ask them to recheck their information. They will fill a form with your passport and car registration information which can take up to 1 hour!
Macedonia has two international airports, the main airport in the capital Skopje International Airport (SKP IATA)and another in Ohrid St.Paul the Apostle Airport. (OHD IATA) There are around 150 flights a week from different European cities to Skopje. The Macedonian Government awarded one Turkish Airport Operator Company (TAV) a contract to construct a brand new Terminal building in Skopje Airport. Construction was completed in October 2011. From the low-cost airlines, only WizzAir flies directly between Skopje and London (Luton Airport), Barcelona (El Prat), Venice (Treviso Airport), and Milan-Bergamo in Italy.
Another option to travel into Macedonia is to fly to Thessaloniki (SKG IATA) or to Sofia (SOF IATA) and get a taxi or bus from there. There are 5 buses from Sofia Central Bus Station to Skopje, leaving at 09:00, 12:00, 16:00, 17:00 and 23:59. The two bus companies which operate these services are MATPU and Kaleia, both of which are located outside the main bus terminal. Single ticket is approximately €16 (32 denari). There are also services from Skopje to Sofia at similar prices and times for a return flight home.
Additionally, if you contact the Sofia Tourist Information Service, they can normally put you in contact with private transfer companies who will pick you up at the airport and take you to Skopje. Prices range from as little at €60 to €160. Negotiating with taxis can be trickier but may be able to get a cheaper price.
If you fly to Thessaloniki, you can go by public bus (24/7) for €0.50 to the train station and catch a train from there (€14 one way).
Regular train services used to connect Macedonia to Greece in the South but all international trains to Greece were stopped until further notice in February 2011. Services to Serbia in the North are still running.
A cheap way of travelling to or from Macedonia might be the Balkan Flexipass.
Be sure your Green Card (International Insurance Card) has an uncancelled "MK" box. The guards almost always want to see it, unlike those in Serbia and Greece. Try to get a good map of Macedonia and/or try to be able to read Cyrillic letters. Although most street signs are printed in Cyrillic and Latin letters it can be helpful to have a little knowledge of the Cyrillic alphabet, especially in small towns.
The border guards often make a big deal about having the original documents for the car (no copies). The enforcement rate about this is 50-50 and if you have a rental car this can be a problem as you usually have a copy. Tourists have been told in the past to drive back several hundred kilometres over this detail by certain power hungry guards.
- EuroBus Macedonia, ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com. almost daily in modern coaches from Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Slovenia. Stops in the major cities Skopje, Tetovo, Ohrid. €75/€140rt from Vienna.
There are bus connections from Serbia, Kosovo, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Croatia and Turkey to Skopje. In addition some buses, those operated by Drity tours at least, run from Tirana to Pristina via Skopje (don't expect them to wake you up or stop anywhere near Skopje bus station though)
In Skopje, there are two bus terminals. Most buses come to the new terminal, but some connections (for example to Pristina) are serviced by the old one, which is located at the city centre. If you need to change the terminals, you need to walk to the stone bridge over Vardar and cross the bridge (about 2.5 km) or take a taxi.
At both terminals, you will be constantly nagged by taxi drivers, who will try to convince you to use their services. Unless you have too much money to throw away, you shouldn't take their advice. The taxi is likely to be heavily overpriced, especially for foreigners, while the buses are cheap, clean and safe.
In this mountainous developing country, the roads are often narrow and not very well maintained, with warning signs for the quite frequent sharp turns rarely provided, and the safety barriers between your tires and high cliffs often rusty, or sometimes completely absent. In the north, there is a short network of motorways with separated directions and a posted speed limit of 120kph, linking Skopje with Tetovo and Gostivar in the west, and with the Alexander the Great Airport and Kumanovo in the east, but the surface quality is hardly better than the rest of the roads. The toll collection on the motorways depends on a system of toll stations (PEAGE) situated every 20 km or so (typically after leaving and on approaching major towns, which means you will pay twice for the route, say, between Skopje and Tetovo, two neighbouring cities), where all through traffic comes to a complete halt (as opposed to only those leaving and entering the motorway) and pay according to the type of the vehicle (for motorcycles and cars, which is often 20 or 30 den).
All directional signs in the country show the town names in Macedonian Cyrillic and their Roman transliterations, sometimes accompanied by a second local language, which is often Albanian.
Renting a car is cheap. With Upgo Car Rent (+389 78 662 299, English spoken), you can get a good car for 20 euros a day (10-2017). He will bring the car to, and get it back from your hotel.
National trains are slow, but they are nonetheless a nice alternative to hot, crowded buses in the summer. The main train line runs from Skopje to Bitola and Skopje to Gevgelia. No trains run to Ohrid.
Perhaps the most common way of travelling in the country, the buses are frequent and quite reliable, if sometimes a bit slow and old (though not exactly dilapidated). The tickets are typically printed in Macedonian, with English translations or even Roman transliterations rarely provided. Here is a quick guide to reading your Macedonian ticket: The destination will be printed on the top (best to refer to the Wikivoyage article of the town in question for the Macedonian name of it), Дата (Data) translates, non-surprisingly, date, and Час (Čas) is the time of the departure. Перон (Peron) indicates the number of the platform your bus will be departing from, which is usually well-signed in the stations, and Седиште (Sedište) is your seat number, although on less travelled routes, this will typically be assigned to the seats 3 and 4, which means you are allowed to sit whatever place you like. It's possible to hail buses directly on the streets, in which case you will pay to the driver on board, but if there are no free seats available, this means you are making the whole journey standing—which is unlikely to be the best travel experience. The bus companies often prefer to inscribe their names in the Roman alphabet in the livery, but the tickets will indicate them in the Cyrillic. Common national companies include Rule Turs (Руле Турс), Galeb (Галеб), and Classic Company (Класик Компани). The destination signs in front of the buses are provided in Macedonian, and in the other common local language of the destination if there is one, this in most cases being Albanian.
See also the article on bus travel in the former Yugoslavia for deeper details.
Taxis are perhaps the most common mode of transport in Macedonia among tourists. Most will usually charge a flat rate of 30 denari (in Skopje 50 denari) with the extra kilometres added on. Be careful when negotiating the price of the fare beforehand. Within city limits, prices over 100 denari are considered expensive even though the amount only converts to a few American dollars. Macedonian cities are much smaller in comparison to most western developed countries and would only take approximately 10–15 minutes to travel from one side of the city to the other by car. In Skopje, the capital and largest city, this should work out to an amount of about 100-150 denari.
A general exception to this rule is during peak tourist seasons particularly in the town of Ohrid. The summer months are the most profitable for many small businesses in Ohrid (and for some businesses, the only profitable months) including taxi drivers. For this reason many drivers will charge up to three times the flat rate for the same distance. Most taxis will insist on driving for no less than 100 denari which can be heard as "sto denari" or a "stotka" (slang term for a 100 denari bill). Generally this is excessive but you can either negotiate the price down to 80 or even 70 denari to be reasonable, or else simple bargain hunting is all that is required. During the peak seasons it is possible to find drivers willing to go as low as 40. Never feel pressured to take a taxi that seems overpriced.
There are plenty of boats for charter around Lake Ohrid and will show you the whole lake for a cheap price.
Despite often challenging (but also scenic) terrain, Macedonia is, generally, a pleasant destination for bicycle travel. An idea of Macedonia's geography can be given by the local toponymy: in most countries, mountains and hills are named, while areas of flat land often lack specific names; in Macedonia, flat land is precious, and every area of it has an individual name, such as Bitolsko Pole ("the Field of Bitola"), Prilepsko Pole ("the Field of Prilep"), etc. Many bookstores are decorated with a country's 3-dimensional map, which is quite impressive.
There are many paved country roads that are in good condition, but see little traffic. Main roads betwen major cities may be busy, with narrow lanes and no shoulders; however, in many cases the busy new road (avtopat) is parallelled by the old road which now sees very little traffic, but is still maintained to some extent. This is the case, for example, for roads between Skopje and Veles, between Prilep and Bitola, or between Bitola and Resen. Some of these older roads are paved with stone, rather than with asphalt. As more expressways are built (e.g. the one from Kičevo to Ohrid is under construction as of 2017, one may hope that more of today's busy main roads will be relegated to the status of older low-traffic roads.
Macedonia's air quality is pretty good, and even busy roads have much less dust and exhaust than roads in e.g. China. Unlike China, in Macedonia one very rarely sees pedestrians or moped riders wearing face masks.
Lots of people ride bicycles in cities (both for transportation and recreation), and one can see recreational bicyclists in the countryside as well. Strangely, one can see stores selling new bicycles (along with other products) much more often than stores selling spare parts. Still, major cities, such as Skopje and Bitola, have specialized shops for bicycle parts and repairs; in smaller towns, one may look for a vendor of spare parts, or a bike repair man, in a local bazaar. Gas stations may or may not have air pumps.
In the past, it was possible to take a bicycle on a train. As of 2017, train stations in Macedonia display an order (dated 2016) which prohibits taking bulky items, "including bicycles" on trains. However, in practice bicycles are often still allowed on older trains, even if they may be fully prohibited on new ones.
A national 1:300,000 map, as well as maps of some national parks and some regional and city maps, are published by Trimaks, and sold in Trimaks stores and by other book vendors in major cities.
A word of caution: very occasionally, a road shown on a map may not exist, or may not allow bicycles. For example, looking at a map, one may be tempted to take a scenic route from Skopje to Ohrid, along the Kozjak Reservoir (Ezero Kozjak) and the valley of the Treska River, via Makedonski Brod and Kičevo. Some maps show such a road running along the east coast of the reservoir; unfortunately, although it exists (as of 2017, it's a single-lane road, and cars are allowed to travel on it in different directions during different hours), bicycles are not allowed to proceed beyond the gates of the Jasin Nature Reserve. Other maps show such a road running along the reservoir's west side; alas, in reality (as of 2017) it does not exist at all, and to fill the missing piece (a section from the Kozjak Dam to Zdunje) would require remarkable feats of engineering.
- See also: Macedonian phrasebook
Macedonian is the official language of the country, and is spoken by almost everyone. Albanian, Turkish and Serbo-Croatian are spoken by ethnic minorities. Whilst many young people can speak English, many of the older generations do not. Most people related to tourism can speak at least basic English, particularly in Skopje, Ohrid, and Bitola. Speakers of Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian and Slovene should have no problem getting by. Some older people may speak Russian, as it was a compulsory second language in schools during the communist era.
This lovely, compact country has a surprising myriad of attractions to offer. It's a fascinating mix of the ancient Balkan, the laid-back Mediterranean and the hip and happening vibe of modern Europe.
It all starts in lively Skopje, the country's main city and the centre of its economy. It offers great shopping and party opportunities, but also grand historic monuments. The 5th century Tvrdina Kale Fortress is one of the main landsmarks, together with the beautiful Sveti Spas Church, the charming old Ottoman bazaar Čaršija and the Kameni Most. This 600 year old Stone Bridge will take you right onto the city's main square, where a gigantic statue of Alexander The Great awaits. If you're up for a hike, make your way up to the enormous Millennium Cross on top of Vodno mountain, or take the rope railway to get the same views with less effort. If summer makes the city hard to bear, follow the locals to the cool shores of Lake Matka just out of town, where you can explore the gorge and caves through hikes and kayak tours.
Smaller but a visitor's favourite is the city of Ohrid, famous for its countless Byzantine churches. Beautifully situated on Lake Ohrid, this place is listed by UNESCO as both a cultural and a natural monument. It's home to one of the most prominent collections of Byzantine icons in the world, second only to that of the famous Tretiakov Gallery in Moscow, as well as to the oldest Slavic monastery in the country and the picture-perfect Church of St. John at Kaneo right on the edge of the lake. The city's little sister on the lake, Struga, offers similar charm but is less overrun with visitors.
Still, many will argue that Macedonia's best experiences can not be found in its cities, but rather in the stunningly beautiful mountain landscapes, remote monasteries and friendly rural villages. In any case, a tour of the countryside is a must-do for any visitor. Pelister National Park is the oldest of the country's three national parks and a popular destination for its typical Eastern European flora and fauna. The larger Mavrovo National Park offers great landscapes year round and is popular for winter sports in winter. It also holds the impressive Sveti Jovan Bigorski Monastery and a relic of its namesake patron. There are dozens of other monasteries to see, of which the Monastery of Bogorodica and the Zrze Monastery are good picks. For true nature lovers, the little known Public Enterprise for Managing and Protection of the Multipurpose Area Jasen is an excellent and off the beaten track reserve with great wildlife spotting opportunities, and yet located right next to the capital.
There are plenty of other attractions to choose from, if you have enough time to spare. Consider a visit to the Stone town of Kuklica, which is only a short ride from the charming little town of Kratovo. Or, head over to the ancient Towers of Marko near Prilep.
- Taksirat Festival. One of the biggest winter festivals in Eastern Europe, which happens at the end of November and beginning of December.
Exchange rates for Macedonian denari
As of January 2018:
Exchange rates fluctuate. Current rates for these and other currencies are available from XE.com
The official currency of Macedonia is the denar (plural denari), denoted by the abbreviation "ден" (den) (international code: MKD). Many Macedonians quote prices in euro (€). The new denar replaced the old denar in 1993 at a rate of 100:1.
Most cities have ATMs where you can withdraw money with cheap commission rates, although there are also plenty of banks and exchange booths where you can easily change money. While banks often offer slightly better rates, you need to register with your passport which may take up to 10 minutes. Changing money in the exchange offices, on the other hand, is fairly straight forward, painless and quick. Do not change money on the street. Shops may accept euro but it is technically not allowed for them to do so.
Macedonia is full of markets and bazaars well worth a visit. The bazaars of Skopje, Tetovo, Ohrid and Bitola are the largest selling anything from dried peppers to fake designer sunglasses. While much of the merchandise may not be worth buying, there is normally a good selection of shoes, fruit, and vegetables of good quality, depending on the season. Merchants are generally pleasant and welcoming, especially to westerners, who remain something of a rarity outside of Skopje and Ohrid.
Ohrid is famous for its pearls and there are dozens of jewellers in the old town that will offer good products at decent prices. The Macedonian Orthodox paintings in old Ohrid are also worth a look.
Tipping is not seen as essential, but it is always welcomed.
If you are on a tight budget, try one of the Skara (grill) places. There are quite a few up-market restaurants serving better quality food on the waterfront, but these cater to tourists, so don't be surprised by a rather sizeable bill at the end of your meal.
Service at the restaurants and cafés nationwide tend to be slow-ish, either because these businesses are chronically understaffed, or because of the general laid-back culture. Consider yourself lucky if your food is served within half an hour after you get seated.
Typical Macedonian food resembles the food of the southern Balkans, meaning loads of grilled meat (known as skara). Side dishes usually have to be ordered separately. Macedonia is also famous for its shopska salata, a mixed salad of cucumbers, tomatoes and grated sirenje. Sirenje is a white cheese similar to feta cheese. Usually Macedonians will translate the English cheese to sirenje. Another local speciality is ajvar, a red paste made from roasted peppers and tomatoes, which is either used as an appetizer or side dish. Another typical local dish is tarator which is comparable to the Greek tzatziki. It is made of yoghurt, cucumbers, and garlic and it is served as a cold soup.
The most popular street food is either burek (бурек) which is a flaky phyllo-like pastry filled with melted cheese and/or ham, or pressed, panini style sandwiches, called toast (тост).
Stobi Flips are a ubiquitous snack food found in supermarkets and corner stores, with the shape and texture of a cheese doodle, but a salty peanut flavour.
Tavče gravče or тавче гравче in Macedonian is the national dish and unique to Macedonia. It basically consists of beans, paprika and is traditionally served with cut sausage mixed in.
Macedonia, being landlocked, does not offer a great variety of fresh fish. A notable exception is Ohrid, where fresh fish from the local lake can be enjoyed. If you have no objections to eating endangered species, the Ohrid trout is a local delicacy.
Rakija is a strong grape brandy that has the best claim to being the republic's national beverage.
Macedonians boast the largest winery in the Balkan area—the Tikveš (Tikvesh) winery in Kavadarci. Red wines are usually better than white ones. Try T'ga za Jug Macedonian favorite affordable red wine made from a local grape variety called Vranec. Local white wines include Traminec and Temjanika.
The local beer market is dominated by Skopsko (Скопско, "of Skopje", following the Slavic convention of naming beers after their origin), a drinkable, if not entirely distinctive, lager. There are also many breweries which brew surprisingly good-tasting beer.
Sale of any alcoholic beverages from the stores end by 21:00 all over the country, but in the restaurants and cafés, it's business as usual.
Unlike much of the rest of the Balkans, sparkling water or water with gas is instead mineral water, or kisela voda.
The most common coffee drink in cafés is the macchiato (макијато, espresso topped by a foamy cream), which can be ordered as a single shot, small, mali macchiato, or double shot, large, golem macchiato. Cold cappuccinos with flavoured creams coming in large glasses are also popular in summer.
Tea is pretty much limited to the black and green varieties, and served in bags. Those longing for strong brewed black tea should head for the tea-houses run by the local Turks in the old town of Skopje or Ohrid.
Being the national tourist attraction, Ohrid is obviously more expensive than any other destination in Macedonia. Note that hotel prices are very expensive throughout the country and charge double rates to foreigners. It is therefore advisable to stay in private accommodation. If someone does not ask you at the bus station, you can always consult one of the many travel agencies in and around the centre. If you do opt for private accommodation make sure you see the room first and then decide. Payment is normally made in advance and should cost no more than €10-15 per night per person in peak season and half that during the rest of the year. Note: finding suitable accommodation in July and August is not easy, so try and book through a travel agent in advance.
When visiting Lake Ohrid, staying in nearby Struga as opposed to the more popular Ohrid is a wise alternative for the price and tourist-trap conscious.
For those interested in learning the Macedonian language, the options are the official Center for Testing and Certifying Macedonian as a Foreign/Second Language CETIS MAK  [dead link]. You can also get certified with the Test in Macedonian as a Foreign Language - TEMAK, and get a certificate issued by the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University.
You can study in many of the state and private universities listed below in English, Macedonian and Albanian.
- University for Information Science and Technology "St. Paul The Apostle" - a new state university located in Ohrid. The university's language of instruction is English. International students are required to pay a tuition fee of 4000€ per year.
- Ss. Cyril and Methodius University - the biggest state university in Macedonia, founded in 1949, located in the capital Skopje. Today it represents a family of 23 faculties, 10 institutes and other institutions.
- Goce Delčev University - the second biggest state university, located in Štip with many branches in other cities in Eastern Macedonia. It was founded in 2006.
- St. Clement of Ohrid University - is one of the fifth state universities, located in Bitola with branches in other cities in Western Macedonia. It was founded in 1979, but the name St. Clement of Ohrid was not given until late 1994. The current number of enrolled students exceeds 15,000.
- State University of Tetovo [dead link] - is a state university located in Tetovo. The university was established in 1994, however, it was not officially recognized as a state university by the government of Macedonia until January 2004. The languages of instruction are Macedonian and Albanian.
- South East European University - is a not for profit private university in Tetovo. It was founded in 2001 and is a member of the European University Association. The languages of instruction are English, Macedonian and Albanian.
- FON University - a modern private university.
- European University Republic of Macedonia - a modern private university
- University American College Skopje - a modern private university.
- International Slavic Institute - a private Russian university located in Sveti Nikole and Bitola. With majors in Psychology, Finances and credit and Management.
- University for Audio-Visuel Arts - European Film Academy ESRA - a private university, part of the French Film School Ecole Supérieure de Réalisation Audiovisuelle  located in Paris and New York.
Macedonia is a safe country. Driving is not ill-advised, but it's recommended for foreigners to try and use taxis and public transport wherever possible. As in all countries, keep an eye out for pickpockets and all valuables safe. Hotels and most private accommodation will offer a safe to store valuables and cash in.
Most people are very friendly and hospitable.
Water is safe to drink and there are public drinking water fountains in most public places. It is advisable to wash all fruit and vegetables.
As with any other country, use caution when eating red meats at restaurants. Although Macedonian cuisine typically revolves around grills ("skara") there are some restaurants that do not use proper or clean methods of cooking, which if practised in many Western countries would be seen as a violation of certain health regulations. Bad restaurants can be spotted easily; they will probably not look very appealing and will not have many customers. However, the vast majority of restaurants in Macedonia serve good quality food.
It is not advisable to refer to the country as FYROM (fee-ROM). Macedonia is directly transliterated from the Cyrillic as Republika Makedonija, and is pronounced roughly how it would appear to an English speaker: "reh-POO-blee-kah mahk-eh-DOHN-ee-yah".
Touchy topics are Macedonian-Bulgarian, Macedonian-Albanian, and Macedonian-Greek relations. Most Macedonians can hold strong political opinions regarding their neighbours and won't shy away from expressing their views in most cases. Politics often finds its way into conversation over a cup of coffee. To keep from upsetting your hosts or new-found friends, avoid topics such as the 2001 war against the NLA, Macedonia's partition during the Balkan wars and Macedonia's pending membership into the European Union or NATO. Don't worry about talking about the Communist period or about Josip Tito.
With the current situation in Kosovo, be very careful when talking about politics, as there is also a significant Albanian minority here. Ask as many questions as you'd like (within reason), but don't make any statements. Best to keep in mind that roughly one in four people you see on the street are likely to be Albanian, with far higher percentages in the west, and tensions are at times high between the Macedonian and Albanian communities. In short, keep your political opinions to yourself.
Domestic telephone service is available in all inhabited towns, via the PSTN or VoIP. The PSTN network is run by T-home . There is an affordable fixed phone service (wireless and easy to install) from the mobile operator ONE , available prepaid (without a monthly fee, 12 months availability without recharge, recharging for only 500 denari/€8) and postpaid.
Mobile phones are widely spread and the coverage is excellent. There are 3 mobile networks (T-mobile , One  and VIP ), all using the GSM/3G standard. You can buy a pre-paid SIM card from T-mobile for 295 denari (€5) with 250 denari free talk time, from ONE for 190 denari (€3) with 250 denari free talk time, and from VIP for 300 denari (€5) with 300 denari free talk time. You may need to show your ID card or passport when buying.
Internet access is widely available throughout the country. Almost all hotels provide internet access, either free or paid. Local coffee shops usually offer free Wi-Fi access, as many other public places do. Feel free to ask for the password, if the network is locked. Broadband internet is available through cable, ADSL, WiMax and LAN connections. You can also access internet with your mobile phone, via GPRS or 3G.
ONE offers both internet for home and mobile internet. More information here. T-home offers ADSL internet for 599 denari/month (€10) - 30GB bandwidth, 6Mbit/s speed - you need to have PSTN connection from T-home.
Internet cafés are available in most cities and in some villages.