Zoos are where you can see wild animals in captivity.
Zoos are artificially created enclosures where a traveller can see captive wildlife. Generally, zoos have an entrance where you pay, and behind the entrance are several trails that lead to the different locations of particular kinds of animals. Zoos can vary from somewhat compact affairs with modest enclosures to large expanses that are akin to small reserves in approach.
Whilst animals commonly associated with zoos include species from African habitats (such as elephants, lions, giraffes, monkeys, and apes) because Africa has a diverse range of large mammals that until the modern era were unknown to much of Europe, many zoos have attempted to better reflect bio-diversity, by including species from a wider range of habitats.
Zoos are popular family destinations, because children like to see all the different kinds of animals.
Many zoos are involved with or aim to support conservation efforts, and in response to animal welfare concerns, they have implemented more appropriate enclosures or animal care practices, openly giving explanations for the approaches taken. At others, however, poor animal accommodation and questionable practices remain an active concern.
A safari park or wildlife park is a facility larger than a zoo, usually a drive-through attraction.
Conversely, a petting zoo is a small local attraction in which a few domesticated animals (such as goats) live in small, often overcrowded pens. Most are privately-owned and not notable outside their local communities.
Zoos can be combined with living history museums which display both natural and cultural heritage.
- 1 Skansen (Stockholm/Djurgården). Founded in 1891, Skansen is the world's oldest open-air museum, containing a zoological garden specializing in Nordic fauna, such as moose, reindeer, bear, wolf, lynx and wolverine. It features over 150 historic buildings from previous centuries, from all parts of Sweden. Guides in historic costumes further enhance this attraction, and demonstrate domestic crafts such as weaving, spinning, and glass blowing. The Skansen area is fairly large (700 metres across) with steep slopes and limited public transport (there is a funicular and an escalator to the upper area) so be prepared for long walks.
- 2 Bronx Zoo, Bronx, New York.
- 3 Oakland Zoo, Oakland, California (in the hills east of the Oakland urban area).
- 4 San Diego Zoo, San Diego, California.
- 5 San Francisco Zoo, San Francisco, California.
- 6 Toledo Zoo, Toledo, Ohio.
- 7 Bristol Zoo, Bristol, firstname.lastname@example.org.
- 8 Chester Zoo, Chester.
- 9 London Zoo, London. One of the first zoos in the world.
- 10 Marwell Zoo, Marwell.
- 11 Paignton Zoo, Paignton.
Larger reserve-style zoos
- See also: Dangerous animals
Even though the animals are captive, that doesn't make them tame or domesticated, and a degree of caution is still advised. A captive lion or tiger still has all the killer instincts of its wild counterpart, even if it seems somewhat docile. Responsible zoos have obvious barriers, warning signs (and other measures) around the enclosures of certain animals with good reason, but still be extremely careful when it comes to potentially dangerous wildlife at zoos.
Do not harass the wildlife. The mighty king of the jungle has been taken captive for your amusement, but that's no excuse to torment the poor beast. Be sensitive if you're going to take a selfie with the animal. Many have paid the price for getting too close to an animal in order to do so. Binky (1975 – July 20, 1995), a captive polar bear of the Anchorage Zoo, became very famous after mauling trespassers inside his enclosure. Binky merchandise was created, including T-shirts, mugs, and bumper stickers, often adorned with the slogan "Send another tourist, this one got away".
There are huge questions around animal ethics, both for the operators of zoological gardens and for their patrons.
Feeding captive animals
Captive animals should ideally be on a set diet. Do not feed them without the handler's permission. This is not only the case at zoos, but at other places where there are captive animals as well. There are a number of reasons for this but amongst them:
- The first is simple, the animals get fed in a certain place by people who shouldn't feed them. The animals realize where they can get extra food and then decide to just stay there to get food. The animals become habituated and dependent on those who come to the zoo, and soon the animals are no longer searching for their own food. If no-one comes and no-one feeds them, they could die.
- A second is that the set diet will ideally reflect what a particular species would encounter in their natural ecological range. A wild lion is not necessarily going to get prime steak (or sponge trifle) on a regular daily basis. Zoos, especially those involved in conservation and re-introduction programmes, have invested the time and research necessary to develop appropriate feeding programmes, and would prefer these aren't upset by incautious visitors.
Some establishments, especially petting zoos, will allow visitors to feed the animals; the zoo will provide the food, probably at an additional price. The feeling of a barnyard animal eating food out of your hand is delightful.