National Parks in Canada are managed by Parks Canada.
There are 38 federally-operated National Parks, nine National Park Reserves, three National Marine Conservation Areas (NMCAs), one NMCA Reserve and one National Landmark. A shaded background indicates the park is part of a UNESCO World Heritage List site. National Park Reserves, areas subject to native land claims, are indicated by "(Reserve)".
National Historic Sites
Parks Canada also operates some (but not all) of Canada's National Historic Sites [dead link]. A few are located within national parks, such as Banff or Jasper. Others among the more than 170 sites [dead link] operated by Parks Canada include:
- Alexander Graham Bell estate, Baddeck, Nova Scotia
- L'Anse aux Meadows, abandoned Viking settlement on Newfoundland's Great Northern Peninsula
- Bar U Ranch, Longview, Alberta
- Batoche, former village and Louis Riel battle site near Prince Albert, Saskatchewan
- Bellevue House, Kingston, Ontario
- Cape Spear, easternmost point in Canada, near St. John's, Newfoundland
- Chilkoot Trail, Chilkoot, British Columbia
- Dredge No. 4, Bonanza Creek, near Dawson City, Yukon
- Dawson Historical Complex and SS Keno, Dawson City, Yukon
- Forges du Saint-Maurice, Trois-Rivières, Quebec
- Fort Anne and Scots Fort, Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia
- Fort Battleford, Battleford, Saskatchewan
- Fort Beauséjour, Aulac New Brunswick
- Fort George and Fort Mississauga, Niagara on the Lake, Ontario
- Fort Langley, Langley, British Columbia
- Fortress of Louisbourg, Nova Scotia
- Fortifications of Québec, Quebec City, Quebec
- Fort Wellington and Battle of the Windmill, Prescott, Ontario
- Grand-Pré, former Acadian settlement, Nova Scotia
- Green Gables Heritage Place, Cavendish, PEI
- Grosse Isle, a quarantine station inundated with immigrants fleeing the Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s, Quebec
- Halifax Citadel and York Redoubt, Halifax, Nova Scotia
- Hopedale Mission, Nunatsiavut, Labrador
- Lachine Canal, Montréal, Quebec
- Laurier House, Ottawa, Ontario
- Lower Fort Garry, Selkirk, Manitoba
- Red Bay, historic whaling station and archaeological site, Labrador
- Rideau Canal, from Ottawa to Kingston (Ontario)
- Riel House and The Forks, Winnipeg, Manitoba
- Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, and York Factory, Manitoba -- former Hudson's Bay Company posts
- Signal Hill, St. John's, Newfoundland
- SS Klondike, Whitehorse, Yukon
- Stanley Park, Vancouver, British Columbia
- Trent-Severn Waterway (Trenton to Port Severn) and Peterborough Lift Lock, Ontario
Various smaller sites are listed in their host cities.
- Pingo National Landmark, 5 km west of Tuktoyaktuk in the Northwest Territories.
Park entry fees
Most Canadian National Parks collect an entry fee; Canadian residents and international visitors pay the same price regardless of citizenship or place of residence. A few national parks are located in close proximity to other parks (such as Banff National Park or Yoho National Park, mountain parks on the Alberta-BC border); it is possible to visit several parks in the same day and only pay once as the paid entry fee is valid until 4PM the following day.
Visitor fees are used to enhance and maintain the parks and visitor services; they do not go to general government revenues.
As of March 2014, the entry fees were as follows:
- $9.80 per day for an adult (aged 17-64)
- $8.30 per day for a senior (aged 65+)
- $4.90 per day for a youth (aged 6-16)
A group of 2-7 people travelling in a single vehicle can pay a group fee of $19.60 per day (the same price as two adults).
If visiting Canadian national parks for a week or more, it may be less expensive to purchase an annual Discovery Pass:
- $67.70 for an adult
- $57.90 for a senior
- $33.30 for a youth
- $136.40 for a family/group
A Discovery Pass [dead link] also includes admission to national historic sites operated by Parks Canada, such as the Banff Park Museum, Cave and Basin National Historic Site, Bar U Ranch, Rocky Mountain House National Historic Site and Fort Langley National Historic Site.
Parks Canada does not operate all of Canada's national historic sites. To add confusion, Québec uses "parc national" for both federal and provincial (SÉPAQ) parks, which are two entirely separate systems with non-interchangeable system passes. Due to its international, divided status the Thousand Islands has both a national park and a state park, part of separate systems in different countries.
In 2017, Parks Canada is offering a free sesquicentennial Discovery Pass for the year as a 150th birthday present. The pass covers federal park admission and passage of boats through the Rideau Canal, but does not defray other fees such as campsites, parking, docking or advance reservations.
Campgrounds may be reserved in advance. Reservations open in January for the next Apr 1-March 31 period. Reservations are available from www.reservation.parkscanada.gc.ca or +1-877-RESERVE (+1-877-737-3783, 8AM-6PM local time); Parks Canada general information is provided at +1-888-773-8888.
Disturbing wildlife is illegal in a national park. Leave rocks, plants, bones and antlers as you found them. A few parks contain archaeological sites or are in ecologically-sensitive locations such as the high Arctic. You may need to pack out any rubbish with you when you leave; if there are no latrines in a sensitive location, excrement should be packed out or buried. Anything left behind in the far north may take a very long time to decay, if it's biodegradable at all.
Some parts of the parks are restricted to protect wildlife; for instance, if a beachfront nesting habitat for endangered birds is not accessible to the public, it is left undisturbed with no roads into the protected segments.
Many parks are in remote or forested locations with essentially no local firefighting capability. A cook stove is preferable to an open camp fire, due to risk of wildfires. Keep any fires small enough to burn to ash before you leave. Never build a fire on moss or Arctic tundra where it can spread underground.
Do not leave markers, messages or other manmade indicators behind; leave the parkland in its natural, untouched state for the next voyager. In some wilderness locations without marked permanent camp sites, leave no trace camping is advised.
A few parks in remote far northern locations like Ellesmere Island or the Torngat Mountains require visitors register on entry and notify the park office on departure. Failure to deregister (or leave a message indicating your party successfully completed its trip) risks the launch of a very expensive and awkward search if authorities mistakenly believe you are still stranded in the park.
Help is not always close at hand. Parks Canada sites vary from beaten-path (such as the Rideau Canal in Ottawa or the Anne of Green Gables site in Prince Edward Island National Park) to almost next-to-impossible destinations (such as Nunavut and the high Arctic). In some places, a satellite phone may be the only communication in an emergency and GPS the only waypoint or location marker. A national 24-hour emergency dispatcher may be reached in Jasper, Alberta at +1 780-852-3100 (freephone: +1-877-852-3100) if attempts to contact a local park office fail, but it may take days for help to arrive in adverse conditions in a truly remote location accessible only by aircraft.
As adverse weather may delay your departure from a remote location; it's best to carry a few extra days worth of provisions.
If heading far from the beaten path, leave an itinerary with intended route locations, activities and date of expected return, names of all visitors and guides in the group (with emergency contact info for each) and description of major identifiable equipment (like tents or watercraft).
Dangerous animals are a hazard; you are on their turf, so be bear aware. Foodstuffs may need to be packaged in bear-resistant containers. Significant restrictions dictate who may carry firearms in national parks. By necessity, Parks Canada allows specially-licensed guides, natives or researchers to carry firearms for protection from polar bears in nine of the parks: Ivvavik and Vuntut (northern Yukon), Aulavik and Tuktut Nogait (Northwest Territories), Quttinirpaaq (Ellesmere Island, Nunavut), Sirmilik and Auyuittuq (Baffin Island, Nunavut), Torngat Mountains National Park (Labrador) and Wapusk National Park (north of Churchill, Manitoba). The bears are a protected species at risk but, if warning shots, flares, air horns or pepper spray fail to scare bears away from humans, the armed native bear guards are empowered to use lethal force to protect human life.