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Caribbean

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Sunset on Montserrat

The islands of the Caribbean Sea or West Indies are an extensive archipelago in the far west of the Atlantic Ocean, mostly strung between North and South America. They've long been known as a resort vacation destination for honeymooners and retirees and are a major area for cruise ships, but a small movement toward eco-tourism and backpacking has started to open up the Caribbean to more independent travel. With year-round good weather (with the occasional but sometimes serious exception of hurricane season in the late summer and early fall), promotional air fares from Europe and North America, and hundreds of islands to explore, the Caribbean offers something for almost everyone.

Countries and territories[edit]

Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, Hispaniola (shared by the Dominican Republic and Haiti) and Puerto Rico, often grouped as the Greater Antilles, are by far the largest islands in the area and the most visited by travellers. The Caribbean also includes the Lucayan Archipelago to the north, which is comprised of the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands, and the Lesser Antilles, a group of much smaller islands to the east.

Countries of the Caribbean
Bahamas
Archipelago of islands and cays surrounded by coral reefs off the coasts of Florida. One of them was the first piece of American soil Columbus put his foot on.
Bermuda (Outside of map)
Small and wealthy British overseas territory in the Atlantic, known for a type of shorts and the supposedly mysterious triangle.
Cayman Islands
Known for offshore banking, and a great diving destination.
Cuba
The largest Caribbean island-nation, marked by decades of socialist government.
Jamaica
An island of tall mountains, and a Commonwealth Realm.
Haiti
Founded by former slaves who won first their freedom and then independence against the might of revolutionary and Napoleonic France. Today, Haiti is the poorest country of the Americas, having struggled against natural disasters the last years.
Dominican Republic
A fast-growing economy with some of the oldest colonial cities in the hemisphere.
Puerto Rico
A United States territory with bustling nightlife, as well as great inland sceneries.
Leeward Islands (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Saba, Saint-Barthélemy, Saint Martin, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Sint Eustatius, U.S. Virgin Islands)
These northeastern islands acquired their collective name from being less exposed to the trade winds.
Windward Islands (Barbados, Dominica, Martinique, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago)
These southeastern islands acquired their collective name from being more exposed to the trade winds.
Leeward Antilles (Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire)
Three islands off the coast of Venezuela, associated with the Netherlands.
Turks and Caicos Islands
Fabulous beaches and offshore banking.

Other islands include:

Valley of desolation at Morne Trois Pitons National Park
A beach on Barbados. Beaches are a major draw of the Caribbean.

Further to the west and south, there are various less frequently visited islands that belong to countries in South America, Central America and Mexico.

The Bermuda Triangle

Since the 1950's, popular mythology created a large triangle in the Atlantic ocean between Bermuda, Puerto Rico and Miami, an area in which ships and aircraft would apparently disappear. Explanations have ranged from alien abductions to methane bubbles from the seabed. It is generally regarded as a complete myth, with shipping and air traffic frequently traversing the area with no issues at all.

Cities[edit]

Other destinations[edit]

The Viñales valley

Understand[edit]

History[edit]

See also: Voyages of Columbus

The Caribbean islands were first inhabited by the Arawak Indians, then were invaded by a more aggressive tribe, the Caribs. Unfortunately, neither could appreciate their victory forever, although the Arawaks may have had a quiet reign of nearly two millennia. With the arrival of the Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French, Danish, and British, the Carib population steeply declined due to various factors, although the inhabitants today have been proven to still possess significant Carib genes. The islands have known many historic battles and more than a few pirate stories. Unlike the Central American mainland, which was colonized almost exclusively by Spain (with English protectorates on the Caribbean side), the Caribbean has seen various colonizers, who sometimes fought hard over control of relatively minor islands, primarily because the Caribbean was a very profitable place to grow the cash crop sugarcane with slave labor. Ultimately, slavery became untenable both due to uprisings like the Haitian revolution, which succeeded in achieving abolition of slavery and independence in one fell swoop, and due to the increasing moral qualms of the European colonizers themselves. As the rest of the world industrialized, many Caribbean nations fell behind because the plantation owners were unwilling or unable to invest their considerable wealth in industry and today most of those islands live from agriculture, the export of raw materials and tourism. Some minor territories have also found success as "tax havens" or as a destination for casino tourism (e.g. Cuba until the 1950s) due to less strict laws than the US and other countries in the region.

Culture[edit]

While Spanish influence is strong in many parts of the Caribbean, indigenous, African and non-Spanish European influences are strong or even dominant on some islands. While most of the Caribbean is nominally Christian, indigenous and African rites have been blended with some tenets of Christianity to create new and unique belief systems, and there are also many adherents of the Yoruba religion — variously called Espiritismo, Santeria and Vodun — that came to the Americas with enslaved Africans. Some islands also have substantial Hindu or Muslim minorities or both, while small Jewish communities on several islands including Curaçao are among the oldest in the Americas.

The Caribbean is known worldwide for its African-influenced music, including charanga in Cuba; merengue in the Dominican Republic; and ska, reggae and dancehall in Jamaica. And of course there are the steel pan performers on quite a few islands. But this only scratches the surface of what you can hear on a trip to the Caribbean.

Climate[edit]

In general the climate of the Caribbean is tropical with little change in temperature over the course of the year, however, rainfall does vary by season and there is also a pronounced hurricane-season with a handful of major tropical storms passing through the region each year.

Get in[edit]

Queen Beatrix Airport, Aruba

By plane[edit]

From Europe[edit]

Given the region's colonial past, there are plenty of present connections from many large European cities. The routes do change over time, but generally most islands can be reached via London, Frankfurt, Amsterdam and Paris.

From the United States[edit]

The proximity of the United States means that most islands have a connection. The region is best served by Miami, but there are also flights from many large airports including those based in New York.

An exception are direct flights to Cuba owing to the current embargo installed by the United States. A change in relations under the Obama administration meant that flights could have been possible in the future. However a change of administration in the United States (as of December 2016) indicates that this may not eventuate. See the article about Americans in Cuba for more details.

From Canada[edit]

Major Canadian airports have direct flights to the region, albeit in lower volume than the United States.

Canada does not participate in the embargo on Cuba by the United States, so flights are possible from major Canadian airports.

From Central America and South America[edit]

There are flights from many Latin American countries to some islands, albeit not as comprehensive as from the United States.

Some Caribbean Islands actually belong to South American countries such as Venezuela and Colombia, and connecting through the capital city is possibly the best way to reach them.

It might be easier to get to Cuba via a connection from a Latin American country, since many have friendly relations with the government there.

From the rest of the world[edit]

Direct flights from major cities in Asia do exist, but are relatively few. It is probably best to find a connection between your city and either Europe or the United States to make your journey to this region. Australia and New Zealand may find a better connection through Latin America, although the United States will again provide more options. Travel from Africa is likely best served with a connection in Europe.

By boat[edit]

Cruise ships are an alternative for getting into the Caribbean. Largely catering to visitors from the US, probably the most popular starting points for Caribbean cruises are Miami and Key West, though there may be cruises starting from the Yucatán Peninsula and Venezuela too. As cruise ships often spend the Northern Hemisphere summer in the Mediterranean and the winter in the Caribbean, they may offer transatlantic cruises to or from the Caribbean depending on the season.

Caribbean destinations are also popular among those who sail their own vessel.

Get around[edit]

Mein Schiff I of the German TUI travel company docked in Grenada

Numerous companies offer cruises, charters, and boat tours in the Caribbean.

By plane[edit]

By boat[edit]

Express des Iles offers transport between Dominica, Guadaloupe, Martinique, St. Lucia and others for about €67 one-way and €100 round-trip.

Sail Caribbean Yachts offers all of the best Sailing Boats, Motor Boats, Catamarans and Gulets for exploring the Caribbean sea.

Talk[edit]

English, Spanish, Dutch and French respectively are spoken on various islands, depending largely on its former colonial power. However, the majority of the population might not speak the metropole-version of said language but rather a Creole, which often incorporates a lot of words from other languages (usually African and/or Native American) and can sometimes differ so much in grammar and spelling as to be unintelligible to even native speakers of the European language the Creole is based on. People who work in the tourism industry will usually be able to speak a version of the national language closer to what European visitors are used to and they will often be able to hold a conversation in one or several other European languages as well, however, the likeliness decreases the further you get away from big cities and major tourism hot spots. As most of the Caribbean has a long history of both slavery and racial discrimination and Creoles arose with that background and still sometimes have a stigma attached to them, you should be extremely cautious not to say anything negative about the Creole languages, their speakers or their intellectual background. Believe it or not, political tracts and works of literature have been written in various Caribbean creole languages for decades now and to give just one example the Jamaican Patois of Bob Marley is just as capable of expressing complex topics as are the lyrics of any American or British pop song.

See[edit]

Quelle Soufrière?

When the French colonizers gave names to places in the Caribbean, they apparently lacked imagination when it came to volcanoes. You can namely find a volcano named Soufrière ("sulfur place" in French) on Guadeloupe, Montserrat and St. Vincent and Grenadines. On Dominica, Haiti and St. Lucia it is the name of a town. Most of the Caribbean being geologically active, you probably won't have to travel far from these towns to see some...soufrière.

There are many things to see in the Caribbean, but the islands are famous for the "3 S's" Sun, Sea and Sand.

While the indigenous heritage has all but disappeared, the oldest colonial cities of the Americas can be found in the Caribbean.

  • Seven Miles Beach in the Cayman Islands;
  • Arashi beach and Baby Beach in Aruba;
  • Downtown Havana;
  • Old city of San Juan, Puerto Rico;
  • Dutch Colonial Houses of Curaçao (UNESCO heritage);
  • Slave huts and Salt Plans of Bonaire;
  • The shortest runway on earth on Saba Island;
  • Nelson Dockyards and English Harbor in Antigua and Barbuda;
  • The pitons in Saint Lucia;
  • The Caribbean Indians (The last ones) territory in Dominica;

Do[edit]

Sports[edit]

Two closely related sports that are popular in the Caribbean are baseball and cricket. Baseball is very popular in much of the Spanish-speaking Caribbean, while cricket is the more popular sport in the English-speaking Caribbean.

Eat[edit]

"Cracked conch", deep-fried mollusk with rice, Bahamas' national dish

Local cuisine is usually very well seasoned whether the outcome be savory, sweet or spicy. Don't be afraid to ask about what you're eating but be open minded when patronizing rural eateries where the cuisine is not tailored for international palates. The not-so-secret ingredient in much of the Caribbean (including the Caribbean coast of mainland Central America) is coconut and you may be surprised by the huge variety of foodstuffs that can be improved by the addition of coconut.

Drink[edit]

Rum is of course the spirit of choice in most of the Caribbean and some of the most well known and internationally acclaimed distilleries are found in this region.

Sleep[edit]

Many islands have luxury hotels available specifically for international tourists. Larger resorts are also available with ready access to the sea and swimming pools, but with not much freedom for anything else.

Stay safe[edit]

Natural disasters that may affect the Caribbean are hurricanes during the summer and autumn, and less frequently but anytime and usually without warning: earthquakes and volcanic activity.

The crime situation varies considerably between islands and you should refer to the article on each island for specific information. Most places do experience low level theft such as wallets and cameras from unsuspecting tourists. Homicide levels also vary greatly, from high levels such as in Trinidad and Jamaica to low levels such as Cuba and Bermuda. Many islands with high crime rates often have exclusive resorts where tourists can be kept safe in a luxurious setting, with the obvious disadvantage that you will not do any exploring or see much of the local culture.

Go next[edit]

Fly west to the great deserts of Mexico, or go in the other direction and visit the massive rain forests of Brazil. Or you could go north and visit the impressive USA. Central America isn't far away, either.


This region travel guide to Caribbean is an outline and may need more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. If there are Cities and Other destinations listed, they may not all be at usable status or there may not be a valid regional structure and a "Get in" section describing all of the typical ways to get here. Please plunge forward and help it grow!