Cricket is a bat and ball game played by two teams of eleven people, on a large oval field with the action focussed on the pitch near the centre of the field. Professional cricket is not a spectator sport for those short of time - a game can last from between 3 hours and 5 days.
|“||Cricket civilises people and creates good gentlemen.||”|
—Robert Mugabe, President of Zimbabwe
Cricket is usually played in the summer. In tropical climates, where there is less difference between "summer" and "winter" but often a sharp division between wet and dry seasons, the sport is usually played in the drier period. The game is somewhat weather dependent, as the play changes when the ball gets wet. "Rain stopped play" is an unfortunately common event in some locations. Bad light can also mean that play ends early.
Cricket is played outdoors on a large circular or oval field. The main part of the field is grass, mown like a lawn, in the centre of the field is the rectangular pitch, which is often mown shorter. At either end of the pitch is a set of wickets 22 yards apart - three vertical wooden sticks with two small wooden bails placed on top. Cricket is played with a leather ball, similar in size to, but much harder than a tennis ball, and a wooden bat with a flat face usually made of willow. During the match the batsman stands in front of the wicket and "defends" it as the bowler aims for it.
A cricket match has two (or sometimes four) innings. In an innings one team bats and the other team bowls (and fields). Each innings is in turn made up of a number of overs, sometimes limited in number as in effect a time limit. An over nominally has six balls (the bowler bowling (throwing) the ball). There are generally 3 formats of cricket that are played internationally; Test, One-Day International (ODI) and Twenty20. Test cricket is the longest of the three, typically lasting up to 5 days, with 4 innings being played, and no limit on the number of overs per innings, meaning that the innings continues until 10 batsmen are out (or the scheduled time expires before 10 members of the batting team are out, which often happens on the final day of a match). In ODI, only 2 innings are played, with the number of overs capped at 50 per innings, and, as the name suggests, usually takes a whole day to finish. Twenty20 is an even shorter form of ODI, which further restricts the number of overs to 20 per innings, and usually lasts about 3 hours. Collectively, ODI and Twenty20 are known as limited overs cricket.
The team which is bowling selects one player to bowl and the others field. A special position to field is wicket-keeper. He stands behind the wicket, wearing protective pads. The remaining nine players take up fielding positions around the field - the positions are named (using terms such as "silly mid-off") and although these may seem to be random a good captain will carefully assign the positions, and move players during the play.
At the end of each over the bowler takes up a fielding position and another player becomes the bowler, but bowls from the opposite end of the pitch. A team needs to have a minimum of two bowlers. All the fielders cross over to position themselves for balls coming in the opposite direction. Unless the batsman has just scored an odd number of runs off the last ball, this also means that the batsman changes over. It might seem simpler for the batsmen to swap ends, but the approach taken is better at evening out all the playing conditions.
The team which is batting selects two players to bat at the start of their innings. One takes up a position facing the bowler, with his bat ready to hit the ball. The other stands at the other end of the pitch. If the player batting hits the ball, he may attempt a run - this is where the two batsmen run the length of the pitch, swapping places. If the ball hits the batsman's wicket before both batsmen complete the run, then he is out and another player from his team (who has not batted) takes his place.
Cricket scoring can be complicated and so this is a simplification. The main points in a game are runs. These can be scored by both batsmen running the length of the pitch, or awarded for long hits - six runs if the ball is hit over the boundary of the field without touching the ground, four runs if touches the ground on its way over the boundary. Runs are also given for bowling errors by the other side.
A batsman can technically be out (dismissed) for one of 11 causes, but in practice only 5 are common:
- Bowled - the ball hits the wicket after being bowled, and knocks one of the bails off the top.
- Caught - the ball is caught by a fielder (or the bowler) without touching the ground.
- Leg before wicket (LBW) - the ball hits the batsman, when it would otherwise hit the wicket.
- Run out - the ball is thrown at the wicket by a fielder when the batsman is attempting to get a run, and the batsman does not have anything touching the marked piece of ground in front of the wicket.
- Stumped is a variation of run out where the wicketkeeper touches the wickets with the ball when the batsman is away from his area.
At the end of their innings, a team will either be all out (10 of the eleven players having been dismissed), and their score would be said to be "155 all out", or will have scored a number of runs and have some players dismissed "155 for 7" (155 runs, 7 players dismissed). This later teams result usually happens because: a) the match is for a limited number of overs, b) the team is the second to play and they have more runs than the other team scored. Cricket scores are often in hundreds of runs, unless the match is a small number of overs.
If the team batting first wins, that team is said to win by a certain number of runs. In other words, if Team A batted first scored 200 runs and Team B only managed to score 150 runs at the end of their innings (or the combined total of runs in both innings for test cricket), Team A is said to have won by 50 runs. On the other hand, if the team batting second wins, the team is said to win by a certain number of wickets. In other words, if Team A batted first and scored 200 runs, and Team B scored 201 runs before their innings was up, with only 1 batsman dismissed, Team B is said to have won by 9 wickets. In test cricket, where each team bats for two innings, if one teams scored more runs in their first innings than the other did in both their innings combined, that team is said to have won by an innings and a certain number of runs. For instance, if Team B scored 300 runs in their first innings, and Team A completed their second innings and scored a combined total of only 250 runs in both their innings, Team B is said to have won by an innings and 50 runs.
Matches can also end in "ties" or "draws". Unlike most sports, in which the two terms are synonyms, these have very different meanings in cricket. A tie occurs when the two teams have scored the same number of runs and completed their allotted innings for the match. This is an extremely rare occurrence—out of over 2,000 Tests since records for such matches were first kept in the 1870s, there have been a total of two ties. A draw occurs only in a multi-day match; it happens when the allotted time for the match runs out before both teams have completed their two innings. Unlike ties, draws are quite common in multi-day matches; for example, nearly a third of all Tests end in draws.
Major playing countries
Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, England, India, Ireland, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, West Indies and Zimbabwe are full members of the International Cricket Council (ICC), which makes them the only nations eligible to play in Test matches. These countries are also automatically qualified to play One-day International and Twenty20 International matches.
Cricket was first played by British troops in 1839, but the Afghanistan Cricket Board was only formed in 1995. Due to almost constant warfare of one kind or another since the Soviet invasion of 1979 as well as Islamic extremism, Afghanistan has punched below its weight, and the domestic competitions have been hit hard in the past. However, the national team has since improved dramatically, having been bolstered by players based in the domestic leagues of India and Pakistan, and was granted test status in 2017.
The Australia team played its first match in 1877. For historical reasons the series between Australia and England is known as "the Ashes" and treated as of particular importance by both sides.
- 1 Melbourne Cricket Ground, Melbourne. The largest cricket ground in the world with a capacity of 100,024 (5000 standing). The ground opened in 1853.
- 2 Sydney Cricket Ground, Sydney. Capacity 48,000, the ground has been used for a variety of other sports including the 1938 British Empire Games (the event now known as the Commonwealth Games).
- 3 Adelaide Oval, Adelaide. Seats 50,000 with standing for 3,500. The ground was established in 1871.
- 4 Brisbane Cricket Ground (The Gabba), Brisbane. The first cricket match was held in 1896. Capacity 42,000.
- 5 The WACA Ground (Western Australian Cricket Association Ground), Perth. Museum Mon - Fri 10am - 3pm, tours 10am and 1pm. Capacity 20,000. The ground opened in 1893. Museum and ground tours. Gold coin donation for museum, tours $20.
Bangladesh played its first international match in 1979 - some eight years after independence - and started to play test matches in 2000.
The English Cricket team represents both England and Wales.
Cricket has been played in England since the 16th century, possibly earlier. The first international game with English players was planned as a tour of France in 1789, but was abandoned due to the French revolution. The first actual tour by an England team was in 1859 to America and Canada.
- 6 Lord's Cricket Ground, Wellington Rd, NW8 8QN, London (tube: St John's Wood). Daily except match days. The home of Cricket and a must visit place for cricket lovers. A 100 minute tour and a visit to the museum. Match ticket holders can visit the museum for free on match days. adult £20.
- 7 Edgbaston Cricket Ground, Birmingham. A major ground with seating for 25,000, established in 1882. International games started with the first Ashes in 1902.
- 8 Headingley Cricket Stadium, Leeds. Opened in 1891, Headingly seats 15,500 and is home to Yorkshire County Cricket Club as well as holding some international matches. There is an adjoining rugby ground and some facilities are shared.
County level cricket is played between Lancashire, Yorkshire , Sussex, Kent and others.
In addition to having a world class national team, India's domestic Twenty20 competition, the Indian Premier League is the richest domestic cricket tournament in the world. Games between India and Pakistan are often treated as particularly important even by casual sports fans in either country.
- 9 Eden Gardens, Kolkata. One of cricket's most iconic grounds, sometimes called "cricket's answer to the Colosseum". Second only to the MCG in capacity among cricket grounds, it holds 66,349 (down from about 100,000 before renovations for the 2011 Cricket World Cup) and is noted for having some of the sport's loudest crowds.
India is in the midst of a cricket construction boom, with no fewer than four grounds seating at least 50,000 currently in various stages of construction. One of these, in Ahmedabad, will replace the MCG as the world's largest cricket ground, with a capacity of 110,000. The others, in order of capacity, are in Faizabad (88,000), Gwalior (60,000), and Lucknow (50,000).
As in Rugby football, a single team represents the whole island of Ireland. Cricket arrived in Ireland in the early nineteenth century, and the national team's first match was in 1855. It was granted test status in 2017.
Cricket is first recorded as being played in New Zealand in 1832, and the first game by a New Zealand team (against New South Wales) was played in 1894. The first test match was played in 1930.
- 15 Basin Reserve, Wellington. Established in 1868, capacity 13,000. Houses the New Zealand Cricket Museum. International matches in Wellington are also held in the Westpac Stadium.
Cricket in South Africa is traditionally associated with the English-speaking white and Indian communities, though it is becoming increasingly enjoyed by South Africans of all backgrounds since the fall of Apartheid.
- 17 Centurion Park (SuperSport Park), Centurion. One of the most family-friendly grounds in the country, thanks to its extensive grass banks. The capacity of 22,000 is completed with modern stands at the north end.
- 18 Kingsmead (Sahara Stadium), Durban. Mere blocks from the Indian Ocean in the centre of Durban, this traditional venue, holding 25,000, combines grass banks and modern stands. Notably, when South Africa hosts a Test series, the Boxing Day Test is usually held here.
- 19 Newlands, Cape Town. The picturesque Table Mountain and Devil's Peak overlook the cricket ground in the coastal South African city, making it one of the most beautiful sporting stadiums in the world. Newlands has a capacity of 20,000.
- 20 St George's Park, Port Elizabeth. South Africa's oldest Test ground, having first hosting a Test match in 1889. What sets St George's apart from the other grounds is its lively brass band in the crowds that plays throughout the day and creates a fantastic atmosphere.
- 21 Wanderers Stadium, Johannesburg. The largest cricket ground in the country by capacity, holding 34,000. Nicknamed "The Bullring" due to its design.
The West Indies team represents Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Sint Maarten, Trinidad and Tobago, US Virgin Islands.
Other playing countries
The ICC has a total of 102 member countries. In addition to the 12 full members listed in the previous section, there are four affiliate or associate member teams (Hong Kong, Papua New Guinea, Scotland, United Arab Emirates) which are granted One Day International status. This allows them to play One day international and Twenty20 matches with full members.
Kenya played as part of an East Africa team until 1989.
Cricket was first played by British troops in the early nineteenth century. The game became popular in the 1870s, and the national team first played in 1881.
Cricket was first played in Scotland in 1785. In the 1980s Scotland played in English domestic games as a "county", leaving this to join the ICC in 1994.
- 30 Grange Cricket Club Ground, Stockbridge, Edinburgh. Home of the Scottish national team. The first international match was held in 1999, although the history of the ground goes back to 1832. The ground spectator capacity is 3000.
- The Cricket World Cup is held every four years. The next one will be from 30 May to 15 July 2019 in England and Wales.
- The Ashes is series of 5 test matches that is played every year between Australia and England, with each country taking turns to host the series.
- Cricket is a popular sport in United Arab Emirates largely due to the presence of South Asian expatriate in the country and host various competition by different nations. Pakistan regularly use cricket stadiums in the country for their domestic as well international cricket matches.
- Baseball in the United States
- Football in Europe
- Formula One
- American football
- Rugby football
- Ice hockey in North America
- Olympic Games
- Handball in Europe