From Plymouth to Hampton Roads is an itinerary along the Atlantic coast of the United States, showcasing the nation's early history, from the first Anglo-American settlements in the 17th century to the American Civil War, which ended in 1865.
As for most American historical routes, it follows a chronology of migration and development, beginning with the first colonies in Massachusetts, along the Freedom Trail in Boston, following the relocation of the capital from New York City to Philadelphia and finally Washington DC, coming up to the American Civil War and the confederate capital in Richmond (Virginia) with the Civil War battlegrounds.
The route is 450 mi (720 km) long as the crow flies, and more than 600 mi (970 km) by road.
Outside the cities, driving is practical. In many of the cities, in particular the historic districts, public transport is more useful.
- U.S. Highway 1, one of the main thoroughfares of the Atlantic coast.
- Lincoln Highway, the first transcontinental highway
As the northeast corridor has too many colonial and antebellum locations to list, this article describes National historic areas in the United States, United States National Monuments, the state equivalent of those, historical sites with organized hospitality, and other sites of great importance.
Some other locations from the colonial and antebellum years can be found in other historical articles:
- Washington-Rochambeau National Historic Trail, a Revolutionary War campaign throughout the Northeastern corridor.
- Touring prestigious and notable universities in the U.S.
- Black Belt, the plantation region in the South along the Atlantic Seaboard Fall Line
- Underground Railroad, the road for fugitives from slavery in the South
- American Industry Tour, describing settlements in inland Massachusetts, the Mid-Atlantic states and the Midwest
- Touring Shaker Country: Americas silent revolutionaries
- Assassin's Creed Tour, a video game which depicts an alternate story of the Revolution in Boston, New York and Philadelphia
- Presidents of the United States
- Knowledge Corridor
- From St. Augustine to Hampton Roads, the southern Atlantic coast
The Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded in 1620. Massachusetts has since then been a state of firsts - the first public school (Boston Latin School), the first public library (Boston Public Library), the first public park (Worcester), the first American university (Harvard), and the first National Armory (Springfield).
- 1 Mayflower II and dockside exhibits, State Pier, Water St (Plymouth). A historically accurate, full-scale replica of the 17th-century vessel the Pilgrims arrived aboard. The reproduction was made in England using traditional shipbuilding methods in conjunction with Plimoth Plantation.
- 2 Pilgrim Hall Museum, 75 Court St. (Rt. 3A) (Plymouth). A gallery museum displaying the actual possessions of the Pilgrims, as well as temporary exhibits related to Plymouth history.
- 3 Plimoth Patuxet (formerly Plimoth Plantation), 137 Warren Ave (Plymouth). A historical farm and living history museum renowned among academic historians and history-recreation buffs alike. Includes a 1627 living history reenactment of early colonial life where visitors can roam the village, enter the homes, and interact with colonists who stay in character. There is also a recreation of a Wampanoag homesite of the period staffed with interpreters who trace their ancestry to Native tribes, and a 17th century craft center where clothing, candles, pottery, and other items are made by hand.
- 4 Adams National Historical Park (Quincy). Homes and birthplaces of Presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams.
- 5 Freedom Trail (Boston). Much of the prelude to the 1770s War of Independence happened in Boston, including the Boston Tea Party and the Boston massacre. A walkable tour with the main points of interest for the American revolution.
- 6 Boston African American National Historic Site (Beacon Hill, Boston). A set of buildings dating back to the early 19th century that relate to the history of Boston's African-American community. In 1783, Massachusetts became the first U.S. state to abolish slavery — mostly out of gratitude for black participation in the Revolutionary War. A sizable community of free blacks and escaped slaves developed in Boston, settling on the north face of Beacon Hill, and in the North End. With a strong abolitionist community, Boston was long considered a desirable destination for those who escaped slavery via the Underground Railroad.
- 7 Boston Black Heritage Trail (Beacon Hill, Boston). A walking tour of places important to Boston's African-American history.
- 8 Harvard Yard (Cambridge (Massachusetts)). The center and oldest part of the Harvard campus. An enclosed grassy yard including picturesque buildings dating as far back as 1720. The freshman undergraduate dorms have hosted many famous intellectuals and politicians. Near the center is a statue of John Harvard, for whom the university is named.
- 9 Longfellow House–Washington's Headquarters National Historic Site (Longfellow National Historic Site), 105 Brattle St (Cambridge (Massachusetts)). Washington made his headquarters here during the siege of Boston from July 1775 through April 1776. From 1837 until 1882, it was the home of poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow while he taught at Harvard. The site's collections deal mainly with Longfellow, but there are some Washington letters as well.
- 10 Minute Man National Historical Park, 174 Liberty St (Concord (Massachusetts), Interstate 95, Exit 30-B). One of the first battlefields of the War of Independence has been commemorated with the Minute Man National Historical Park.
- 1 Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, Brookline — Former home and office of Frederick Law Olmsted, the founder of American landscape architecture and designer of many of the most noted American parks of the 19th century.
- 11 New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park (New Bedford). A historic wharf district that was once the world's busiest whaling port.
The state's historic full name, as established by the Royal Charter granted by King Charles II in 1663, was "The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations." However, due to the connotation of plantation with slavery, the official name of the state has been shortened to "Rhode Island" in 2020 after a referendum.
- 13 Blackstone River Valley National Historical Park (Pawtucket). An industrial site.
- 14 Slater Mill Historic Landmark, 175 Main St (Pawtucket). On the Blackstone River, the birthplace of the American Industrial Revolution and a Blackstone Valley National Corridor Visitor Center. Slater Mill was the first water powered cotton mill in North America, built in 1793.
- 15 Roger Williams National Memorial, 282 N Main St (Providence). The memorial is on a common lot of the original settlement of Providence, and celebrates our Freedom of Religion as first proclaimed by Roger Williams (1603-1683) and now set forth in the First Amendment of the Constitution. The memorial is set upon 4.5 acres of landscaped park and includes several interpretive exhibits about Roger Williams and his time, including a short film. Free.
- 16 John Brown House, 52 Power Street (Providence). Historic house of John Brown (not to be confused with his namesakes; the fugitive slave narrator from Virginia, or the 19th century abolitionist) a member of the Orient trade and one of the early benefactors of Brown University. The first mansion ever built in Providence (in 1768).
- 17 Prospect Terrace Park, Congdon Street (next to 48 Congdon Street, Providence). This park is the burial site of Roger Williams and contains a monument of him. It offers one of the most spectacular views of the city of Providence.
- 18 The Providence Athenaeum, 251 Benefit Street (Providence). This library was founded in 1753 and is listed as a National Historic Landmark. It is a member-supported library, and is free to the public regardless of whether or not you're a member. It holds many historical and cultural artifacts from the surrounding area, and is a great way to discover some of the city's history.
- 1 Newport (Rhode Island). One of the largest cities in colonial North America, Newport's decline in the early 19th century saved its colonial architecture. Newport is even better known for the mansions of the Gilded Age of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
- 19 Touro Synagogue National Historic Site, 85 Touro St (Newport (Rhode Island)). The Touro Synagogue was dedicated in 1762, and serves an active congregation today. The congregation was founded in 1658 by Sephardim who fled the Inquisition in Spain and Portugal and were searching for a haven from religious persecution in the Caribbean.
- 20 Fort Adams, 1 Lincoln Dr (Newport (Rhode Island)). Containing over 180 years of history, the fort itself is the largest coastal fortress in the United States. Besides looking at the splendor that is Fort Adams, you can see the view of the Newport Harbor and Narragansett Bay.
- 21 Mystic Seaport - The Museum of America and the Sea, 75 Greenmanville Av (Mystic (Connecticut)). The nation's largest maritime museum. A living history museum on 17 acres. Old historic port used in the filming of many movies, including Amistad.
- 22 Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center, 110 Pequot Trail (off Rt 2 near Foxwoods, Ledyard (Connecticut)). Tribally-owned and -operated museum and research center in Mashantucket. The history of the Mashantucket Pequot Tribe is presented through innovative exhibits and presentations like dioramas and videos. There are also interactive programs, archival material, a glacial crevasse, a caribou hunt of 11,000 years ago, a walk-through of the 16th-century woodland Indian Village, a 17th-century Pequot fort, and an outdoor, two-acre farmstead with orchards and gardens to depict the 18th-century.
- 2 Wethersfield. Founded in 1634 by a Puritan settlement party of "10 Men," Wethersfield claims to be the oldest town in Connecticut.
- 23 Webb-Deane-Stevens Museum (Wethersfield).
- 24 Old State House, 800 Main Street (Hartford). Downtown. The original Connecticut Capitol building is a National Historic Landmark that dates back to 1796 making it one of the oldest state houses in the country.
- 25 Amistad Memorial, 165 Church St. Depicting the slave trader Joseph Cinqué, commonly known as Sengbe Pieh, this 14-foot bronze sculpture commemorates the events of the Amistad Affair of 1839, which was a kidnapping of 53 Mende captives, who led the revolt aboard the La Amistad, a two-masted schooner. It sits in front of a city hall, where the slaves were imprisoned during their trial.
- 26 Yale University Visitor's Center, 149 Elm St (New Haven). Yale University traces its root to the 1640s, and officially became Yale College in 1718, making it the country's third oldest university.
- 27 Fort Nathan Hale Park, 50 Woodward Avenue (New Haven). Get a spectacular view of the New Haven seaside as well as learn about the town’s colonial history. See Black Rock Fort, replete with the Betsy Ross flag, and take in a recreation of battles from New Haven’s past.
New York City was the capital of the United States from 1785 to 1790.
- 28 Saint Paul's Church National Historic Site (Mount Vernon). One of New York state's oldest parishes, used as a military hospital in the American Revolution.
- 29 Morris-Jumel Mansion, 65 Jumel Terrace, Upper Manhattan. Built in 1765, this mansion is the oldest house on Manhattan Island, and it served as George Washington's headquarters in 1776. Since turned into a museum set on a 1.5-acre park, it features a decorative-arts collection representing the colonial and Revolutionary War periods. Washington's office is among the twelve restored rooms.
- 30 Hamilton Grange National Memorial (Upper Manhattan). The home of founding father Alexander Hamilton.
- 31 Museum of the City of New York, 1220 5th Ave (between 103rd & 104th Sts). A museum with all kinds of documentation of events in the 400-year history of this city and delightful artifacts of life in earlier periods.
- 32 United Nations Slavery Memorial (United Nations Headquarters, Midtown East, New York City).
- 33 African Burial Ground National Monument (Manhattan/Chinatown). A site in Lower Manhattan containing the remains of hundreds of Africans buried in what was a colonial-era cemetery.
- 34 Federal Hall, 26 Wall St (Financial District). On this site on April 30, 1789, George Washington stood on a balcony overlooking Wall Street and was inaugurated as the first president of the United States. The old building on the site had been used as New York's city hall and had hosted some of the first congregations of the colonies in the lead-up to the American Revolution, such as the Stamp Act Congress. After the revolution the building, now Federal Hall, briefly housed Congress, the Supreme Court, and Executive Branch offices before the national capital moved to Philadelphia. The current building dates to 1842 and was used first as a Customs House, then later the US Sub-Treasury. Contains some of the artifacts, such as the bible Washington used in his inauguration ceremony.
- 35 Fraunces Tavern, 54 Pearl Street. Built in 1719, this tavern was frequented by many of the Founding Fathers.
- 36 Castle Clinton National Monument (Financial District). A former fort at the southern tip of Manhattan that also served as an immigration station.
- 37 Governors Island National Monument (New York Harbor). An island park just off the southern tip of Manhattan that was once the site of military fortifications and an army base.
- 38 Morristown National Historical Park (Morristown (New Jersey)). Site of a strategic crossroads during the American Revolutionary War, including a fort and one of George Washington's winter quarters.
- 39 Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park (Paterson). Contains a beautiful waterfall that was the center of much industrial development in the area, including canals and watermills.
- 40 Hopewell Museum (28 East Broad Street, Hopewell).
- 41 Princeton Battlefield, 500 Mercer Road (5 miles outside of Princeton). Site of an engagement in the Revoutionary War as Continental troops followed up their victory at Trenton by pursuing the retreating enemy. A memorial on the field incorporates imposing columns from the mansion of Richard Stockton, an area resident who signed the Declaration of Independence before renouncing the Revolutionary cause. Every other year the Battle of Princeton, the second George Washington ever won, is re-created at the site complete with firing cannons, men on horseback and charging troops.
- 42 William Trent House, 15 Market St (Trenton). The home of William Trent, the namesake of the city.
- 43 Germantown White House, 5442 Germantown Ave, Philadelphia/Northwest. Home of George Washington, and the oldest surviving presidential residence.
- 44 Independence National Historical Park and Visitor's Center, 6th and Market Sts. This national park, covering several blocks of Old City Philadelphia, includes some of Philadelphia's most famous historic sites, including Independence Hall, the Liberty Bell, Benjamin Franklin's house and grave, and the house in which the Declaration of Independence was written. The park also includes a modern interactive museum, the National Constitution Center. The Independence Visitor's Center, where you must buy tickets to see Independence Hall, offers a wealth of information on historical sites and other attractions in the area. Costumed interpreters at the Visitor's Center are a great source of entertainment for children.
- 45 Gloria Dei Church National Historic Site (South Philly, Philadelphia). The oldest church in Pennsylvania and the second-oldest Swedish church in the nation.
- 46 Benjamin Franklin National Memorial (Franklin Institute, Center City West, Philadelphia). A colossal statue of the famed inventor and founding father in the rotunda of the Franklin Institute.
- 47 Johnson House Historical Site, 6306 Germantown Ave., Philadelphia. Former Underground Railroad safe house and tavern in the Germantown area, frequented by Harriet Tubman and William Still, one of 17 stations in Pennsylvania listed in the local guide Underground Railroad: Trail to Freedom. Still was an African-American abolitionist, clerk and member of the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. Hour-long guided tours are offered.
- 48 Belmont Mansion, 2000 Belmont Mansion Dr., Philadelphia. Historic Philadelphia mansion with Underground Railroad museum.
- 49 Valley Forge National Historical Park, 1400 N Outer Line Dr (King of Prussia). It was here that General George Washington forged his Continental Army into a fighting force, during the difficult winter encampment of 1777-78. Of all places associated with America's War for Independence, none conveys the suffering, sacrifice and ultimate triumph more than Valley Forge. No battles were fought, no bayonet charges or artillery bombardments took place. Nonetheless, some 2,000 soldiers died - more Americans than were killed at the battles of Brandywine and Germantown combined. Valley Forge is the story of an army's epic struggle to survive against terrible odds, hunger, disease and the unrelenting forces of nature. Today, the park is a lush, 3,600-acre expanse of rolling hillsides dotted with flowering dogwood trees. Washington's original stone headquarters has been restored and furnished; log huts have been reconstructed; and statues and monuments throughout the park remind visitors of the American national heritage. Among them are statues of General "Mad Anthony" Wayne and Baron Friedrich von Steuben; and the Monument to Patriots of African Descent.
- 50 American Swedish Historical Museum. A showcase of Swedish migration to America.
- 51 Washington Memorial Chapel, Rt 23, Valley Forge (King of Prussia). Commemorates George Washington's life and the nation's history with rich, decorative elements, including statues, carvings, and soaring stained glass windows. National Patriots Bell Tower features Justice Bell, cast to support women's suffrage.
- 52 Mason-Dixon line (Delaware–Maryland–Pennsylvania Tri-State Point). The border between Pennsylvania and Maryland was surveyed in the 1760s by English astronomers Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, and is since then known as the Mason-Dixon line. It approximately follows the 39°43′20″ northern latitude, and is the traditional divide between the northern and southern United States. As the southern states had slavery, the line became critical to the Underground Railroad.
- 53 Old New Castle Court House, 211 Delaware St., New Castle. One of the oldest surviving courthouses in the United States, built as meeting place of Delaware's colonial and first State Assembly (when New Castle was Delaware's capital, 1732-1777). Underground Railroad conductors Thomas Garrett and John Hunn were tried and convicted here in 1848 for violating the Fugitive Slave Act, bankrupting them with fines which only served to harden the feelings over slavery of all involved.
- 54 First State National Historic Park (Delaware). A park which covers the state of Delaware and its role in the foundation of the United States.
- 55 Delaware History Museum, 505 N Market St. Museum showcasing the history and heritage of Delaware, featuring interactive exhibits.
- 56 Appoquinimink Friends Meetinghouse, 624 Main St., Odessa (Delaware). 1785 brick Quaker house of prayer which served as a station on the Underground Railroad under John Hunn and Thomas Garrett. A second story had a removable panel leading to spaces under the eaves; a cellar was reached by a small side opening at ground level.
- 57 Hampton National Historic Site, 535 Hampton Ln (Towson). At the time of its completion in 1790, this was the largest private home in the nascent United States. The grounds are open for tours, including the slave quarters, main house, and gardens. Free.
- 3 Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park. Preserves the remains of much of the historic Chesapeake and Ohio Canal as well as many canal structures.
- 4 Baltimore (Maryland). First settled in 1661 and incorporated in 1729, Baltimore's greatest moment was the War of 1812, resisting a British attack.
- 58 Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine (Federal Hill, Baltimore). Site of a famous battle in the War of 1812 where Francis Scott Key saw the American flag still flying over the fort and composed the lyrics to the Star Spangled Banner, which later became the country's national anthem.
- 5 Annapolis. Maryland's capital is a colonial port city with many preserved buildings.
- 59 Maryland State House, 100 State Cir. The oldest in the nation still in legislative use, was the capitol of the US from November 26, 1783 to August 13, 1784. General George Washington resigned his commission before the Continental Congress here and in 1784, Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris to end the Revolutionary War. From there, the Annapolis convention issued the call to the states that led to the Constitutional Convention.
- 60 The Hall of Presidents Before Washington, The Westin Hotel, 100 Westgate Circle (Annapolis). Exhibit featuring 14 presidents before George Washington during Articles of Confederation from 1774 to 1789 in the Westin Hotel near the Annapolis waterfront.
- 61 Fort Foote Park, 8915 Fort Foote Road, Oxon Hill (Fort Washington). Fort Foote defended Washington DC against naval attack. It was active during the Civil War, from 1863 to 1878, with brief usage during World War I and II. The park contains two Civil War cannons.
- 62 Oxon Cove Park and Oxon Hill Farm (Oxon Hill, Prince George's County). A living history museum.
- 63 Fort Washington Park, 13551 Fort Washington Road (Fort Washington). Fort Washington was built in 1809 and was active during the War of 1812 and was an important site in the Civil War. The visitor's center has displays about the history. The fort has panoramic views of the Potomac River.
- 64 Harmony Hall mansion and grounds, 10702 Livingston Road (Fort Washington). Harmony Hall mansion is on 62.5 acres of open pasture lands along the Potomac River. Built in 1769 as Battersea, it is the oldest building in Prince George's County.
- 2 Hampton National Historic Site, Towson — Preserves a remnant of a huge 18th century estate, including a mansion that was the largest private home in America when it was completed.
District of Columbia
Washington, D.C. was founded in 1800 and contains many artifacts from the Independence era. In the War of 1812, the British invaded the city and burnt many of the buildings.
- 65 Frederick Douglass National Historic Site, 1411 W Street SE (Washington, D.C./Anacostia). Frederick Douglass' house in D.C. In addition to the small museum and gift shop, you may visit the house, but only on a tour.
- 66 Capitol Building (Washington, D.C./Capitol Hill). The Capitol was taken in use in 1800, and is home to the House of Representatives and the Senate, as well as numerous impressive paintings, statues, historical exhibits, and one magnificent dome. The visitor center features an exhibition of the history of the Capitol and of Congress.
- 67 National Museum of the American Indian. This museum displays the cultural traditions of the Native peoples of North, Central, and South America. It focuses on 20th century and present day culture much more than pre-Columbian and colonial periods. The exhibits can be fascinating, but are not as grandiose as those of the other museums. Perhaps the most important attraction is the gorgeous building itself, designed by famous Native Canadian architect Douglas Cardinal of Blackfoot descent, echoing the ancient stone formations of the American Southwest, and surrounded by manifestations both metaphorical and literal of natural North American landscapes.
- 68 National Archives, 700 Pennsylvania Ave NW. The original copies of the U.S. Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, and the Bill of Rights are on display here, though the writing is so faded on the latter two that you will not be able to make it out.
- 69 National Museum of American History. There is a lot here in one of the city's most informative museums, covering topics ranging from war to technology, social and political history. The biggest draw, though, is the Treasure Room, with an astonishing set of iconic Americana objects, ranging from the original Star-Spangled Banner and Abraham Lincoln's top hat, to Kermit the Frog and Dorothy's ruby slippers!
- 70 National Museum of African American History and Culture. The newest museum on the Mall, with a collection of remarkable artifacts illustrating the history of African American culture, from the years of slavery to the Civil Rights Movement to pop culture figures.
- 71 Washington Monument. No man looms larger over American history than the first president, and no monument looms larger over D.C. than this, both the world's tallest stone structure and its tallest obelisk. When completed in 1884 it was the world's tallest structure, and remains the tallest building by far in D.C.
- 72 White House, 1600 Pennsylvania Ave (Washington, D.C./West End). Built starting in 1792, and first residence for the nation's second president, John Adams, the White House has been the residence and office for each presidency since. The building's chief architect, James Hoban, an Irishman, left a nationalistic mark on the U.S., modeling the President's home after Ireland's National Parliament building in Dublin. While Hoban's vision has survived more than 225 years, including the 1814 fire set by invading British forces, the interior has hardly been static. President Jefferson opened the White House to the public, and it has remained so during peacetime (with varying restrictions) ever since.
- 73 Declaration of Independence Memorial. A little known memorial stands on the island in the Constitution Gardens Lake, dedicated to the signers of the Declaration of Independence. Not content to reside only on the document itself, their signatures have been reproduced here, etched in large granite blocks.
The English crown claimed Virginia already in the 16th century, naming the territory in honour to the "Virgin Queen" Elizabeth I. The 1585 Roanoke Colony failed, and the 17th century colonies were marked by death, desertion and rebellion. From the 18th century, Virginia thrived on plantation farming based on intendured service and slavery. Virginia had a leading role in the American Revolution, with founding fathers such as George Washington, Patrick Henry, and Thomas Jefferson. As the Confederacy seceded, Delaware and Maryland remained in the union, together with the counties that today form West Virginia. For most of the four years of the Confederacy, Richmond was its capital. Virginia was the most contested state during the Civil War, the event that concludes this tour.
- 74 Arlington House. The plantation house of Robert E. Lee and his ancestors. Guided tours are available, and the grounds have great views looking down into Washington, D.C.
- 75 Alexandria (Virginia). First surveyed in 1749, Alexandria claims some of the richest history in the D.C. metropolitan area. At various points in her past, Alexandria has been part of the District of Columbia, a regional slave trading market, an occupied city, a washed-up post-industrial hamlet, and a hometown to famous American heroes and rebels.
- 76 Alexandria Black History Museum, 902 Wythe St (Alexandria (Virginia)).
- 77 Tall Ship Providence (Alexandria (Virginia)). A 1976 replica of a Revolutionary-era naval ship that was built for the Bicentennial and appeared in some of the Pirates of the Caribbean movies.
- 78 George Washington's Mount Vernon Estate and Gardens, 3200 Mount Vernon Memorial Hwy (Mount Vernon). Tour the original mansion that George Washington built, lived, and died in, then visit the outbuildings, gardens, and fields to learn more about history, farming, and the man. Periodic concerts, historical demonstrations, and other performances are held throughout the day.
- 79 George Washington Birthplace National Monument (Colonial Beach). Site of George Washington's birth and burial place of many of Washington's family members. Period buildings and furnishings are on display.
- 80 James Monroe Family Home Site (Colonial Beach).
- 6 Old Town Manassas.
- 81 Manassas National Battlefield Park. Two major Civil War battlefields. Walking and driving tours of First and Second Manassas battlefields are available.
- 82 Fredericksburg Battlefield. Was the site of a key battle during the American Civil War. You can visit, for example, the infamous Marye's Heights.
- 83 Museum of the Confederacy, 1201 E. Clay Street. Three floors of galleries containing the world's most comprehensive collection of artifacts, manuscripts, and photographs from the Confederate States of America. The Museum also maintains and gives tours of the White House of the Confederacy.
- 84 The White House of the Confederacy (American Civil War Museum), E.Clay and 12th Street. The White House of the Confederacy has been restored reflect its use as the executive mansion of Confederate President Jefferson Davis during the Civil War. Open to the public with regularly scheduled guided tours that are arranged and given by the Museum of the Confederacy.
- 85 Virginia State Capitol. The neo-classical seat of local government, home of the oldest elected legislature in North America, dating back to 1619. The current incarnation was designed by Thomas Jefferson in 1785, after the Maison Carrée, a Roman temple in Nîmes, France.
- 86 The American Civil War Center (Richmond National Battlefield Headquarters at Tredegar), 490 Tredegar Street. The site of a Civil War-era iron foundry which supplied ordinance to the Confederate Army. The American Civil War Center aims to be the definitive museum on interpretation of the conflaguration from all perspectives. Also on the grounds are a statue of Abraham Lincoln and his son Todd.
- 87 Richmond National Battlefield Park (Richmond). A set of Civil War sites surrounding Richmond, including battlefields and former defensive fortifications.
- Black History Museum, 122 W Leigh St.
- 7 Williamsburg. Includes the Jamestown settlement, the first British colony to survive in what's now the United States; Colonial Williamsburg; and other preserved relics from the colonial and revolutionary periods.
- 88 The College of William & Mary. The campus is just at the end of Colonial Williamsburg's Duke of Gloucester Street. The Christopher Wren building, where Thomas Jefferson attended classes, is one of the college's original academic buildings and is open to the public, with tours provided by a group of student volunteers. If you're approaching campus from Colonial Williamsburg you will find the College's Sunken Garden just on the other side of the Wren building. The Sunken Garden is a gorgeous place to walk, sunbathe, and play frisbee. It's an impressive sight and a favorite haunt of students and local residents, as well as being a prime example of 20th-century Colonial Revival architecture.
- 89 Colonial Williamsburg. America's largest outdoor living history museum. A fully operational 18th century city with tradesmen and tradeswomen working in their shops. Enjoy a step back in time and see how 18th-century people of all social classes would have lived. Participate in a court proceeding, tour the Governor's Palace, and see how the American Revolution affected the people of this historic town.
- 8 Yorktown (Virginia). The last major battle site of the Revolutionary War.
- 90 Jamestown Settlement. A living history museum.
- James River Plantations. A collection of historic sites located in and around the Williamsburg area. Some such as Berkeley, Chippokes, Lee Hall, and Shirley are open for guided house tours on a daily basis. Others, such as Bacon's Castle and Smith's Fort are open for guided tours for certain months throughout the year. Edgewood, North Bend, Piney Grove, Sherwood Forest and Westover are open for self-guided grounds tours and for guided group house tours by appointment.
- 9 Hampton. A city of 130,000 inhabitants, known for Fort Monroe.
- 91 Fort Monroe National Monument, 41 Bernard Rd. A large star fort dating from the early 19th century. Fort Monroe was important to the American Civil War. While Virginia joined the Confederacy, Fort Monroe was held by the Union throughout the war. In 1862, the Battle of Hampton Roads marked the end of the Age of Sail.
- 92 The Mariners' Museum, 100 Museum Dr (Newport News). One of the largest and most comprehensive maritime history museums in the world, this museum is the home of the USS Monitor Center.
With the country's independence, colonization of the Midwest began; see industrialization of the United States and American Industry Tour. The West was first sought out by the Lewis and Clark expedition, and early settlers followed the Oregon Trail. The Civil War started the golden age of the Old West. The Trail of Tears was the Native Americans' forced migration westwards in the 1830s.