There have been 45 individuals who have served as presidents of the United States between 1789 and today (including two non-consecutive terms for Grover Cleveland). This article discusses sights and destinations all over the world related to these presidents.
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African-American history • Mexican American history • Presidents
|“||The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows...||”|
—Article II of the Constitution of the United States
The president is the head of the Executive Branch of the U.S. government, responsible for enforcing Federal laws that are on the books and has the power to sign or veto bills (prospective laws) passed by Congress. In addition, the president has the sole authority to appoint people to numerous federal government positions, including all ambassadors, judges and Cabinet members except the vice president. After the initial Founding Father generation died off, the presidency was often seen as a weak office with the notable exception of Andrew Jackson, who defied the will of the Supreme Court, and James K. Polk, who launched the Mexican American War. But over time, beginning with the American Civil War, the role of the president has expanded tremendously, leading to talk of an "imperial presidency". However, even after 1865, many presidents exercised less authority than did Lincoln, with Theodore Roosevelt being the first to turn the presidency into the undoubtedly most powerful position in the country after that had become uncommon.
The powers that presidents of the late 20th and 21st century are most associated with are foreign policy, war and peace, and the "bully pulpit" of being able to have their public statements immediately receive TV and newspaper coverage. When the president announces a major speech or wishes to address the nation, TV stations will go so far as preempt regularly scheduled programming on short notice. This was not the way newspapers treated presidents in the 19th century. Since the emergence of the United States as the world's dominant power in the post-World War II period, the presidency has been widely regarded as the most powerful position in the world.
The president is elected through a unique electoral college system, meaning that winning the nationwide popular vote does not necessarily win one the election. In this system, each state, as well as the District of Columbia, is assigned a certain number of electoral votes based on its population, which are allocated to candidates based on the election results in that state. This means that it is possible for a candidate to win the election despite losing the nationwide popular vote, which has happened five or six times to date — to John Quincy Adams in 1824, Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876, Benjamin Harrison in 1888, debatably John F. Kennedy in 1960, George W. Bush in 2000 and most recently, Donald Trump in 2016. As a result of this system, candidates tend to focus their campaign efforts on several key "battleground" states rather than the entire country. American election seasons also last longer than in almost any other democratic country, with campaigning often starting over a year before the actual presidential election day.
In modern times, the U.S. political landscape is dominated by two parties; the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, with the presidency having been held exclusively by these two parties since the American Civil War.
Every year, the president delivers a speech to a joint sitting of Congress in an event known as the State of the Union Address. The address was delivered in person during the early years of the Republic before Jefferson switched to mailing it in but has been held in person since Woodrow Wilson (who was a gifted orator) with the sole exception of Carter's lame duck State of the Union in 1981. This event is steeped in tradition with a lot of pomp and circumstance, and is one of the few times when all branches of the U.S. government gather in a single place. Although attendance is generally limited to special guests that have been invited by the president, it is broadcast live on television by all the major American news channels. Most of the Cabinet and the heads of both houses of Congress are present, but there is always a "designated survivor", a minor Cabinet official who is brought to an undisclosed secure location and would take over in case some tragedy might befall all those assembled to hear the speech.
After leaving office, each president since Herbert Hoover has had a presidential library built to house important records and other historical documents from his administration. All of those libraries are funded and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), a federal government agency. These are accessible to the general public, and often feature museums showcasing the respective president's legacy. Some important presidents preceding Hoover also have presidential libraries, though these are funded and run by private foundations rather than the NARA.
Air Force One
Although Air Force One officially refers to any US Air Force aircraft carrying the president, in popular culture it is often used to refer to a pair of Boeing 747s that have been retrofitted for the security and comfort of the president. These are painted with a blue and white livery, with the words "United States of America" in a typeface used from the declaration of independence. They can often be seen at airports around the world whenever the president travels. The existing planes are due for retirement in 2024. While the active fleet of presidential aircraft is off-limits to the public for security reasons, decommissioned or replica aircraft occasionally appear in museum exhibits.
Aircraft from other armed services carrying the president follow the same naming pattern. For the last half century, only Marine One has been in common use, a helicopter which is a speedy alternative to expensive and logistically difficult motorcades; before the creation of the Marine Corps in 1976, the Army ran the helicopter as Army One. Navy One has only flown once, when George W. Bush rode a 4-person anti-submarine jet to land on an aircraft carrier in 2003. A civilian aircraft carrying the President becomes Executive One, which has also only happened once, when Richard Nixon took a commercial flight in 1973 as a show of confidence in the airlines during a fuel crisis. (However, a civilian flight carrying the president's family but not the president may use the callsign Executive One Foxtrot, which happens more frequently.)
An aircraft carrying the vice president is known as Air Force Two or the corresponding names for aircraft operated by the other armed services (e.g. Marine Two). A Coast Guard Two flew once in 2009 to allow then-VP Joe Biden to survey flood damage around Atlanta.
The First Lady of the United States is the informal title of the president's wife, or in a few cases some other female relative of the President. To date, all presidents have been male and all have had a First Lady except Martin Van Buren, a widower at the time of his inauguration, and James Buchanan, a lifelong bachelor. While the role carries no formal responsibilities, she is typically the hostess of the White House, and a ceremonial representative of the government, together with the President or in her own right.
The Vice President (VP) is elected on the same ticket as the President. The Vice President replaces the President when he is unable to carry out his office, casts tie-breaking votes in the Senate when necessary, and presides over federal impeachment trials (except when the President himself is impeached, in which case the Chief Justice presides). Unlike most other countries, the death or resignation of the President does not trigger new elections and the Vice President thus serves out the original term of the President. Vacancies in the Vice Presidency were left unfilled until the 25th Amendment to the Constitution was adopted in 1967; this amendment provides that a new Vice President shall be nominated by the President and confirmed by both houses of Congress.
The Cabinet is made up of the Vice President and around twenty leaders of various government departments. With the exception of the Vice President, all Cabinet members are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate, and may be dismissed by the President at any time.
List of presidents
Key: (D) = Democratic Party; (D-R) = Democratic-Republican Party; (R) = Republican Party; (W) = Whig Party; (F) = Federalist Party; (U) = unaffiliated
George Washington (U), 1789–1797 — The only President to run without a party affiliation, also considered the father of the nation. Many monuments, schools, an entire U.S. state and the federal capital are named in his honor.
- 1 Washington Monument, National Mall, Washington, D.C., ☏ .
- 2 Washington Monument, Intersection of Monument Pl. and Mt Vernon Pl., Baltimore. W–Su 10AM–5PM. Climbs every 20 minutes. At the turn of the 19th century, Baltimorians lobbied for a monument dedicated to the United States' first president, and in 1829 — over a half-century before its more famous counterpart in D.C. — Washington's first monument finished construction. It is now the focal point of the Mount Vernon neighborhood. Visitors can climb to the top (more than 160 feet high) with admission to see a panoramic view of the city. $6.
- 3 George Washington Birthplace National Monument, 1732 Popes Creek Road, Colonial Beach, Virginia, ☏ .
- 4 George Washington Masonic National Memorial, 101 Callahan Drive, Alexandria, Virginia.
- 5 Mount Vernon, 3200 Mount Vernon Memorial Highway, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, Virginia, ☏ , email@example.com. A former plantation that was George Washington's home for much of his adult life, and the location of his tomb. Also located on the property is the Fred W. Smith National Library for the Study of George Washington, a library housing documents from Washington's presidency, thus making it Washington's de facto presidential library.
- 6 Federal Hall National Memorial, 26 Wall St, Financial District, Manhattan. On this site on April 30, 1789, George Washington stood on a balcony overlooking Wall Street and was inaugurated as the first president of the United States. The old building on the site had been used as New York's city hall and had hosted some of the first congregations of the colonies in the lead-up to the American Revolution, such as the Stamp Act Congress. After the revolution the building, now Federal Hall, briefly housed Congress, the Supreme Court, and Executive Branch offices before the national capital moved to Philadelphia. The current building dates to 1842 and was used first as a Customs House, then later the US Sub-Treasury (millions of dollars of gold and silver were kept in the basement vaults). Today the building is maintained by the National Park Service as a museum dedicated to the history of the site. Guided tours of the building are available, or you can just walk in and look up at the rotunda and view some of the artifacts, such as the bible Washington used in his inauguration ceremony. Free.
- 7 Germantown White House, 5442 Germantown Ave, Philadelphia/Northwest.
Several homes of Washington's direct ancestors and family members have been preserved:
- 8 Sulgrave Manor and Garden (near Brackley, England).
- 9 Washington Old Hall, Washington (England).
- 10 Arlington House, Arlington National Cemetery.
During the Revolutionary War, General Washington used a number of houses and other buildings as military headquarters. Several are historical sites today.
- 11 Longfellow House, 105 Brattle St, Cambridge, Massachusetts, ☏ . The home of famed 19th century poet Henry W. Longfellow also served as headquarters for General George Washington during the Siege of Boston. The full guided tour takes just under an hour; there's a shorter tour which covers just the main floor or the gardens.
- 12 Washington's Headquarters State Historic Site (Hasbrouck House), 84 Liberty St., Newburgh, New York. Military history museum on a site where Washington rejected the idea of a monarchy, circulating a letter to state governors proposing key principles for the new republic and creating a Badge of Military Merit as the forerunner to the Purple Heart.
- 13 Morris-Jumel Mansion, 65 Jumel Terrace, Upper Manhattan (Subway: to 163rd St; Bus: M2, M3, M100, or M101), ☏ . Built in 1765, this mansion is the oldest house on Manhattan Island, and it served as George Washington's headquarters in 1776. Since turned into a museum set on a 1.5-acre park, it features a decorative-arts collection representing the colonial and Revolutionary War periods. Washington's office is among the twelve restored rooms.
- 14 Fraunces Tavern, 54 Pearl Street, Financial District, Manhattan. Between 1785–1788, 54 Pearl St. contained the original offices of the Departments of Foreign Affairs, War and Treasury.
Many innkeepers make the claim that "George Washington slept here". Some of the more verifiable claims include:
- 15 Smithfield Inn B&B, 112 Main St, Smithfield, Virginia, ☏ . Former tavern (1759) and residence with brick fireplaces and low ceilings. $155.
- 16 John Rutledge House Inn, Charleston, South Carolina, toll-free: . Breakfast inn (1791) with inlaid floors and elaborate ironwork. $180.
2. J. Adams
John Adams (F), 1797–1801 — First Vice President and also one of the founders. Lost reelection in part due to the "three-fifths clause" of the Constitution that gave more electoral weight to the South (which supported Jefferson).
- 1 Adams National Historical Park, 135 Adams St, Quincy, Massachusetts, ☏ . The birthplace of presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams was the farm homestead of five generations, including Ambassador Charles Francis Adams and writers and historians Henry Adams and Brooks Adams. A presidential library is on-site; a church where both presidents (and their first ladies) were buried is adjacent.
- 2 Congress Hall, Chestnut St at 6th, Old City Philadelphia. Part of the Independence National Historical Park, which also includes Independence Hall, Congress Hall is where Congress met between 1790 and 1800. Washington was inaugurated for his second term there, and Adams took the oath of office there as well. That latter event, in 1797, attracted international attention; dignitaries from overseas came to witness an event that some weren't sure could happen: a bloodless, non-hereditary transfer of power.
Thomas Jefferson (D-R), 1801–1809 — Principal author of the Declaration of Independence. As President, negotiated the Louisiana Purchase from France which doubled the land area of the U.S., then sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark west from St. Louis on a voyage to explore the new territory. Founded the University of Virginia after leaving office. His gravestone does not mention him being President.
- 1 Jefferson Memorial, Washington, D.C., ☏ .
- 2 Monticello, Charlottesville, Virginia, ☏ . The residence of Thomas Jefferson. The grounds include the house, the gardens, slave quarters, and Thomas Jefferson's grave. Open daily. Also on the property is the Jefferson Library, Jefferson's de facto presidential library that houses many historical documents from his presidency. Adults $25 (Mar–Oct), $18 (Nov–Feb), Children $8, Annual Pass $50.
- 3 Tuckahoe Plantation, west of Richmond, Virginia, ☏ . Boyhood home of Thomas Jefferson.
- 4 Poplar Forest, 1542 Bateman Bridge Rd, Forest, Virginia (near Lynchburg), ☏ .
James Madison (D-R), 1809–1817 — Considered the "Father of the Bill of Rights". Led the U.S. through the War of 1812.
- 5 Montpelier, 11350 Constitution Highway, Montpelier Station, Virginia (near Locust Dale), ☏ . 9AM–4PM M–Fr; 9AM–4:30PM Sa–Su. Adult $22.
James Monroe (D-R), 1817–1825 — President during the post-War of 1812 "Era of Good Feelings", a brief period of remarkable political unity in which there was only one political party (Monroe ran for reelection unopposed, the only president ever to do so). Liberia's capital Monrovia is named after him, due to his support of the American Colonization Society's efforts to return former slaves to Africa. Asserted the Monroe Doctrine, intended to proscribe future European colonization of the Americas. Acquired Florida from Spain.
- 6 James Monroe Tomb, Hollywood Cemetery, 412 S. Cherry St., Richmond, Virginia.
- 7 James Monroe Museum and Memorial Library, 908 Charles Street, Fredericksburg, Virginia, ☏ .
- 8 Highland (James Monroe house), 2050 James Monroe Parkway, Charlottesville, Virginia, ☏ , firstname.lastname@example.org.
6. J.Q. Adams
John Quincy Adams (D-R), 1825–1829 — Son of John Adams. Won election in a four-way race that had to be decided by the House of Representatives, after he had not come in first in either the electoral or popular vote. The first person to become president despite losing the nationwide popular vote. Became an opponent of slavery after leaving the White House.
- 9 John Quincy Adams Birthplace, 141 Franklin Street, Quincy, Massachusetts. A part of Adams National Historical Park, listed above.
Andrew Jackson (D), 1829–1837 — Before taking office, he won a significant battle over the British in New Orleans in 1815, at the end of the War of 1812. He was also involved in a bloody battle against Native Americans; there are several monuments commemorating his military record. While in office, Jackson ordered the forcible relocation of some Native American tribes to what is now Oklahoma on the Trail of Tears; thousands perished en route.
- 1 Equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson, Jackson Square (French Quarter, New Orleans). Following the 1815 Battle of New Orleans against the United Kingdom, the last battle of the 1812 war (taking place after a peace treaty had already been signed in London), the former Place d'Armes was renamed Jackson Square, for the battle's victorious General Jackson. This victory made him a national hero. Alexis de Tocqueville later wrote in Democracy in America that Jackson "was raised to the Presidency, and has been maintained there, solely by the recollection of a victory which he gained, twenty years ago, under the walls of New Orleans." The statue was erected in 1856.
- 2 Large bronze statue of Andrew Jackson, Andrew Jackson State Park, 196 Andrew Jackson Park Road (near Indian Land, South Carolina).
- 3 Andrew Jackson equestrian bronze sculpture, Lafayette Square (West End, Washington, D.C.). A 1928 bronze sculpture of Andrew Jackson, identical to the one at Jackson Square, part of the National Statuary Hall Collection. Other identical copies are installed in Nashville, on the grounds of the Tennessee State Capitol; and in Jacksonville, Florida. Other equestrian statues of Jackson have been erected elsewhere, as in the State Capitol grounds in Raleigh, North Carolina, sculpted by Anna Hyatt Huntington, depicting a young Jackson astride a farm horse.
- 4 Horseshoe Bend National Military Park, 11288 Horseshoe Bend Rd, Daviston, Alabama, ☏ . Major General Andrew Jackson‘s army of 3,300 men slaughtered over 800 of Chief Menawa’s 1,000 Red Stick Creek warriors in battle here on 27 March 1814, inflicting a crushing defeat which ultimately cost the natives 23,000,000 acres of their land.
- 5 The Hermitage, 4580 Rachel's Lane, Nashville, Tennessee, ☏ , email@example.com. This mansion with its carefully-manicured gardens was once Jackson's home; the facility is now a museum. Jackson's Tomb is nearby. Adult $20.
8. Van Buren
Martin Van Buren (D), 1837–1841 — The only president to speak English as a second language (Dutch was his native language), Van Buren's New York roots are a legacy of the Netherlands in North America. He was also the first president to have been born a citizen of the United States, as all previous presidents had been British subjects at the time of birth.
- 6 Martin Van Buren National Historic Site, 1013 Old Post Road, Kinderhook, New York, ☏ . Former Van Buren home, tours offered hourly on weekends; the gravesites of President Martin Van Buren, his wife Hannah and his son are nearby, at the Kinderhook Dutch Reformed Cemetery on Albany Ave.
9. W.H. Harrison
William Henry Harrison (W), 1841 — First president to die in office, only a month after his inauguration. The first of an odd pattern of deaths in office at twenty-year intervals which continued through Lincoln (elected 1860) to Kennedy (elected 1960) and was claimed by some to be a native curse dating from Tecumseh and the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811.
- Public monuments
- statue at the base of the Soldiers and Sailors Monument in downtown Indianapolis
- a bronze statue of Harrison on horseback Cincinnati's Piatt Park
- the Tippecanoe County Courthouse in Lafayette, Indiana
- a limestone-relief carving is part of a sculpture in front of the Harrison County visitors' center in Corydon, Indiana
- the Ten O'Clock Line Monument in Owen County, Indiana
- 1 Grouseland, 3 West Scott St., Vincennes, Indiana, ☏ . Harrison's residence while Governor of the Indiana territory.
- 2 William Henry Harrison Tomb State Memorial, 41 Cliff Rd., North Bend, OH (near Cincinnati, at Congress Green Cemetery).
John Tyler (U), 1841–1845 — First vice-president to assume the presidency upon the death of his predecessor. Elected as a Whig, but expelled from the party soon after his inauguration after a clash with powerful senator Henry Clay and the resignation of nearly his entire Cabinet; unaffiliated with any party for most of his term. Approved the annexation of Texas only a few days before leaving office.
- 17 Sherwood Forest Plantation, Charles City, Virginia (one of the James River Plantations near Williamsburg), ☏ , firstname.lastname@example.org. House tours are available by appointment.
James K. Polk (D), 1845–1849 — Polk's single term was a time of rapid territorial expansion: the annexation of Texas was finalized, the Mexican-American War ended with the U.S. conquering the northern third of Mexico, i.e. California and much of the modern-day Southwest, and the Oregon Treaty with Great Britain added what's now the Pacific Northwest and Idaho.
- 7 James K. Polk Ancestral Home, 301 W. 7th Street, Columbia, Tennessee, ☏ . Adult $10.
- 8 President James K. Polk Historic Site, Pineville, North Carolina, ☏ , email@example.com. Tu–Sa 9AM–5PM. Free.
Zachary Taylor (W), 1849–1850 — Second president to die in office. Sometimes speculated to have been poisoned by hardline pro-slavery people.
Millard Fillmore (W), 1850–1853 — Signed the Compromise of 1850, which staved off civil war for awhile longer at the price of enraging both sides of the slavery dispute. As his Fugitive Slave Act allowed Southern slave catchers to forcibly abduct freedom seekers in Northern states, a clandestine Underground Railroad was assembled by anti-slavery Northerners and free blacks to spirit fugitives onward to freedom in Canada.
- 4 Millard Fillmore Museum, 24 Shearer Ave., East Aurora, New York, ☏ . W, Sa & Su 1PM–3PM, Jun–Oct. The only remaining residence (other than the White House) of President Fillmore, who built the house himself and resided in it from 1826 to 1830. It's now restored to its period appearance and furnished with authentic pieces belonging to the Fillmore family. One-hour tours. Listed as a National Historic Landmark. Adult $10.
Franklin Pierce (D), 1853–1857 — Presided over the "Gadsden Purchase" of what is now southern Arizona and New Mexico, the last major land acquisition in what is now the contiguous U.S. The land was supposed to be used for a southerly route of a transcontinental railroad, but that plan never materialized.
- 9 Franklin Pierce Homestead, 301 2nd NH Turnpike, Hillsborough, New Hampshire, ☏ . Adult $5.
- 10 The Pierce Manse, 14 Horseshoe Pond Lane, Concord, New Hampshire, ☏ . Tu–Sa 10AM–3PM Jun–Aug, Sa 10AM–3AM Sep,. Franklin Pierce's family home is open for guided tours June–October. $7/adult, $6/senior, $3/kids.
James Buchanan (D), 1857–1861 — Chosen largely because he had been abroad during the time the debate over slavery got heated. Did nothing during the secession crisis. Several members of his Cabinet became openly pro-secession during his lame duck period, with Buchanan doing nothing to stop it.
- 11 Buchanan's Birthplace State Park, near Cove Gap, in Peters Township, Franklin County, Pennsylvania (near Mercersburg). A stone pyramid marks the site of Buchanan's birthplace cabin in a gap of Tuscarora Mountain. The cabin has been moved to Mercersburg Academy, a private prep school, and there's also a statue of him at 12 S Main St.
- 12 James Buchanan Memorial, Meridian Hill Park, Northwest, Washington, D.C.
- 13 Wheatland (James Buchanan House), 1120 Marietta Ave., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, ☏ .
Abraham Lincoln (R), 1861–1865 — His election led 11 Southern states to secede, causing the American Civil War. However, he led the remaining U.S. states, called the Union, to victory over the Southern states, and abolished slavery nationwide. Assassinated in 1865, the first of four U.S. presidents to suffer such a fate.
- 1 Ford's Theatre Museum, 511 10th St. NW, Washington, D.C. (between E St & F St), ☏ . A great museum detailing the life of Abraham Lincoln and the place where he was assassinated. Free.
- 2 Lincoln Memorial, National Mall, Washington, D.C. Most of the D.C. memorials, especially those for U.S. leaders, are meant to awe and impress in a very direct manner. None more so than this impressive monument in a commanding location at the end of the Mall. Modeled after the Greek Temple of Zeus, Lincoln sits with a commanding presence overlooking the reflecting pool, straight across the Mall to the Washington Monument and beyond it the Capitol Building. Few monuments in the world can match the simple power of the Lincoln Memorial at night.
- 3 Lincoln Tomb, Oak Ridge Cemetery, 1441 Monument Ave., Springfield, Illinois.
- 4 Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historical Park, 2995 Lincoln Farm Road, Hodgenville, Kentucky, ☏ .
- 5 Lincoln Museum, 66 Lincoln Square, Hodgenville, Kentucky, ☏ .
- 6 Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial, Lincoln City, Indiana, ☏ . See Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial for further details.
- 7 Lincoln Home National Historic Site, 413 S. 8th Street, Springfield, Illinois, ☏ . The site features Abraham Lincoln's residence of 17 years, beautifully restored to its 1860 appearance. Entry to the home is only by ranger guided tour, but tickets can be obtained at the Visitor Center desk, and admission is free. The Visitor Center also offers an orientation film, along with other exhibits that change periodically. In addition to the home, a four-block area has been preserved to look as it would in Lincoln's time period. Several of the other homes feature exhibits as well.
- 8 Lincoln Depot Museum, 10 S. Water Street, Peekskill, New York, ☏ , firstname.lastname@example.org.
- 9 Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, 212 N 6th St, Springfield, Illinois.
- 10 Lincoln Log Cabin State Historic Site, 402 S. Lincoln Highway Rd , Lerna, Illinois, ☏ .
- 11 President Lincoln's Cottage at the Solder's Home, Rock Creek Church Rd & Upshur St NW, Petworth, Washington, D.C.
- 12 Vandalia State House, Vandalia, Illinois.
- 13 Mary Todd Lincoln House, 578 W Main St, Lexington, Kentucky (downtown, 3 blocks NW of Broadway), ☏ . Tours mid-March–Nov: M–Sa 10AM–3PM. The two-story girlhood home of Abraham Lincoln's wife, and the nation's first shrine to a First Lady. The 14-room house contains period furniture, furnishings from the Todds and Lincolns, and family portraits. Adults $15, children 6–12 $6, children under 6 free.
17. A. Johnson
Andrew Johnson (D), 1865–1869 — Elected to the Vice Presidency in the midst of the Civil War as a "war Democrat" on a "National Union" ticket with Lincoln; ascended to presidency after Lincoln's assassination and was later unsuccessfully impeached due to disputes with Republicans in Congress over the postwar "reconstruction" of the South. Signed the purchase of Alaska from Russia.
- 14 Andrew Johnson National Historic Site, 121 Monument Ave., Greeneville, Tennessee, ☏ . The site includes Johnson's tailor shop at the corner of Depot Street and College Street, Johnson's house on Main Street, and the Andrew Johnson National Cemetery (atop Monument Hill to the south). A replica of Johnson's birth home and a life-size statue of Johnson have been placed across the street from the visitor center and tailor shop.
- 15 President Andrew Johnson Museum and Library, Tusculum University, Greeneville, Tennessee.
- 16 Mordecai House, 1 Mimosa St. Raleigh, North Carolina, ☏ . Andrew Johnson's birthplace is located on the house's grounds.
Ulysses S. Grant (R), 1869–1877 — Union general who accepted the surrender of Robert E. Lee at Appomattox. Last president to try to advance African-American civil rights for several decades. Decisively smashed the first iteration of the Ku Klux Klan. Wrote a widely acclaimed and bestselling autobiography that deals with his pre-presidential life.
- 14 Grant's Tomb (General Grant National Memorial), Riverside Drive and 122nd St., Upper West Side, Manhattan, New York, New York (Subway: to 125th St.), ☏ . Daily 9AM–5PM. General Ulysses S. Grant and his wife are buried in this imposing mausoleum, the largest tomb in North America. If you come when it is closed, you can still see the impressive facade, but coming during open hours gives you the opportunity to view the murals, the tomb and various documentation inside. Across Riverside Drive, there is a viewpoint to look across the Hudson River, a museum, gift shop and restrooms.
- 15 Grant Birthplace, 1551 State Route 232, Point Pleasant, Ohio, ☏ , toll-free: .
- 16 Grant Boyhood Home, 219 East Grant Avenue, Georgetown, Ohio, ☏ , email@example.com. Adult $5.
- 17 Grant Cottage State Historic Site, 1000 Mt McGregor Rd., Wilton, New York (near Saratoga Springs), ☏ , firstname.lastname@example.org. Adult $6.
- 18 Ulysses S. Grant Home, 511 Bouthillier St., Galena, Illinois. This was the place where Grant worked as a "lackluster clerk" (according to the Ken Burns documentary about the American Civil War) before re-joining the Army and rising to be the highest ranking Union general of his age famed for winning the war — a fame which would ultimately propel him to the White House
- 19 White Haven (Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site), 7400 Grant Road, St. Louis, Missouri, ☏ . The plantation of Grant's in-laws, the Dents. Grant lived here for a period and even owned a slave, who he later freed despite the economic hardship he was in. By all accounts, Grant was a terrible slave owner by the standards of his time as he treated his and his in-laws' slaves with humanity and respect, never whipping them and "paying them too much".
- 20 Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, 111 National Park Dr, Appomattox, Virginia. Site where Grant accepted the surrender of Confederate general Robert E. Lee, thus ending the American Civil War with victory for the Union.
- 21 Ulysses S. Grant Memorial, west of the Capitol, Washington, D.C.
- 22 Ulysses S. Grant Presidential Library, on the campus of Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi.
Rutherford B. Hayes (R), 1877–1881 — called "Rutherfraud" due to the dubious nature of his election in which he lost the popular vote. Democrats accepted his election in return for the withdrawal of federal troops from the South — often considered the end of Reconstruction — which led to the disenfranchisement of African-Americans and many poor whites. Mediated in the aftermath of a war that pitted Paraguay against Uruguay, Argentina and Brazil; widely seen as a national hero in Paraguay due to this.
- 23 Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Library and Museums, Spiegel Grove, Fremont, Ohio, ☏ . The sprawling estate of the Hayes household.
James Garfield (R), 1881 — Assassinated after only a few months in office, apparently by somebody who felt snubbed for an appointment to federal office.
- 24 James A. Garfield National Historic Site, 8095 Mentor Ave, Mentor, Ohio, ☏ . Garfield's summer farm house
- 25 James A. Garfield Monument, First Street, S.W., and Maryland Avenue, Washington, D.C..
Chester Arthur (R), 1881–1885 — Garfield's former vice-president, initially widely mistrusted as a protégé of corrupt New York State Republican boss Roscoe Conkling, unexpectedly embraced the cause of civil service reform, rooting out cronyism in political hiring. Signed the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882, which prohibited all ethnic Chinese from immigrating to the U.S.
- 26 Chester Alan Arthur State Historic Site, 4588 Chester Arthur Rd., Fairfield, Vermont (near St. Albans), ☏ . A recreation of Chester Arthur's boyhood home with a granite monument and nature trail. The site of the church where his father was minister is about a mile away (although the current brick church building was built a few years later, in 1840). Donations appreciated.
Grover Cleveland (D), 1885–1889 and 1893–1897 — The only president to serve two terms non-consecutively. Campaigned on a promise to clean up corruption and end the spoils system (as he had done as governor of New York). His second term was hampered by an economic depression and labor unrest, including the Pullman Strike of 1893 which he brutally suppressed. His non-interventionist foreign policy and support of Venezuela in its dispute with British Guiana helped improve U.S. relations with Latin America.
- 17 Grover Cleveland Birthplace, 207 Bloomfield Ave., Caldwell, New Jersey (near Nutley).
- 18 George Urban Mansion, 280 Pine Ridge Rd., Cheektowaga, New York, ☏ . With a vineyard, a pond stocked with trout and carp, and extensive rose gardens, George Urban, Jr.'s nine-acre country estate served not only as a summer home for the prominent Buffalo miller and brewer himself, but also as an attractive retreat for his fellow bigwigs in the local German-American community. It was here, at an 1883 garden party at which Cleveland served as the guest of honor, where fellow brewer Gerhard Lang led a toast to the then-newly elected New York governor as "our next President". It was intended as a joke, but soon enough Cleveland had officially declared himself a candidate in the upcoming election, which he would go on to win. The George Urban Mansion opens to the public on an occasional basis for special events (check their Facebook page), but if your visit doesn't coincide with one of those, there's also a historic plaque in front that attests to its importance as unofficial launch site of Cleveland's first presidential campaign.
23. B. Harrison
Benjamin Harrison (R), 1889–1893 — Grandson of William Henry Harrison. Continued to clean up corruption, but sharply increased the tariffs that his predecessor had lowered. Passed the Sherman Antitrust Act, the first meaningful attempt by the government to curb the power of big business. Established the first National Forests. A vociferous supporter of civil rights who advocated in vain for the enforcement of voting rights for black Southerners and a bigger federal role in education.
- 27 Benjamin Harrison Presidential Site, 1230 North Delaware Street, Indianapolis, Indiana, ☏ , Harrison@bhpsite.org. Adult $10.
William McKinley (R), 1897–1901 — Presided over the brief Spanish-American War which ended with Puerto Rico, Guam, and Cuba becoming American colonies. The Philippines were also ceded by Spain but remained in rebellion against U.S. rule into the Roosevelt administration. Also responsible for the annexation of Hawaii. Assassinated.
- 28 McKinley Monument, Niagara Square, Buffalo, New York. Erected in 1907 in commemoration of the assassination of President William McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition exactly six years prior, this gleaming 96-foot (29 m) obelisk of Vermont marble was designed by the architectural firm of Carrere and Hastings. The lions and turtles resting at its base (symbols, respectively, of strength and eternal life) were carved by well-known sculptor A. Phimister Proctor. The monument was also the subject of Carl Sandburg's poem "Slants at Buffalo, New York".
- 29 McKinley Death Rock, Fordham Drive. On the center island in the middle of Fordham Drive, in Park Meadow on what once were the grounds of the Pan-American Exposition, is a small rock with a historic plaque marking the spot where President McKinley was standing when felled by the bullet of his assassin, Leon Czolgosz. (Well, not the exact spot, which is now inside the living room of the house at 29 Fordham, but close enough.)
- 30 William McKinley Presidential Library & Museum, 800 McKinley Monument Drive NW, Canton, Ohio, ☏ . Museum M–Sa 9AM–4PM, Su noon–4PM, monument open Apr–Oct during museum hours, Ramsayer Research Library M–F 9AM–4PM. Historical museum containing the largest collection of artifacts in the world related to McKinley, chronicling his life from childhood through his Civil War service, his time in the House of Representatives and as governor of Ohio, and his presidency and assassination, as well as the presidential archive in a separate wing of the building. The McKinley National Memorial, the domed mausoleum that serves as his final resting place, is also part of the complex; it stands on a hill behind the museum and boasts panoramic views over the surrounding area. The museum also contains exhibits related to local history in general and, somewhat incongruously, also a science center with fossils, stuffed wildlife, and a planetarium. $10, seniors $9, children 3 and over $8.
- 31 National McKinley Birthplace Memorial, 40 N. Main Street, Niles, Ohio (near Warren).
26. T. Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt (R), 1901–1909 — Spanish-American War hero who rose from the New York governorship to the Vice-Presidency to the Presidency (after McKinley was assassinated) in only three years. A popular president famous as a progressive "trust buster" who opposed the corrupt practices of big business, and as a conservationist who championed the establishment of many national parks and other protected lands. The youngest person to ever assume the office.
- 32 Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site, 641 Delaware Ave., Buffalo, New York, ☏ . M–F 9:30AM–3:30PM, Sa Su 12:30PM–3:30PM. In September 1901, several days after President William McKinley was assassinated at Buffalo's Pan-American Exposition, Theodore Roosevelt stayed at the 1838 Greek Revival home of his friend, local lawyer and politico Ansley Wilcox, and the Oath of Office was administered to him there. A planned demolition of the house in the early 1960s was averted at the last minute, and today the Wilcox Mansion has been thoroughly restored inside and out, and features historical displays related to Roosevelt, McKinley and the Exposition as well as occasional temporary exhibits. The grounds are planted with herb and flower gardens in season. $10, aged 62+ and students $7, ages 6–18 $5, families $25, free for children under 5 and members.
- 33 Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace, 28 East 20th St., Flatiron, Manhattan, New York, New York, ☏ . Tu–Sa 9AM–5PM, closed Federal holidays. A designated National Historic Site, Roosevelt lived at this site from his birth in 1858 until the age of 14 years. The building is not the original — that was demolished in 1916 — but a reconstruction erected by admirers only three years later in 1919 after Roosevelt's death, and subsequently furnished with many of the original fittings and memorabilia of the 26th US President by Roosevelt's wife and sisters. $3 adults, children under 16 free, guided tours available.
- 34 Sagamore Hill, 20 Sagamore Hill Rd., Oyster Bay, New York. The Visitor Center and Bookstore are open W–Su 9AM–5PM. Tours of the Theodore Roosevelt Home are offered W–Su 10AM–4PM. The summer home of President Theodore Roosevelt. Includes tours, a museum, and a visitor center. It is run by the National Park Service. From the website: Access to the Theodore Roosevelt Home is only by guided tour. Same-day tickets can be purchased on a first come, first served basis from the Visitor Center. Advanced reservations to tour Theodore Roosevelt's home can be booked through Recreation.gov or call +1 877 444-6777. $10.
- 35 Theodore Roosevelt Island, George Washington Memorial Pkwy, Rosslyn–Ballston Corridor, Arlington, Virginia, ☏ . Forest with trails, kayaking on Potomac River.
- 36 Theodore Roosevelt National Park.
William Howard Taft (R), 1909–1913 — Though initially popular, the policies of Roosevelt's heir apparent so disappointed Republican leaders as insufficiently progressive that they caused a split in the party, and he placed third in his reelection bid. Later became the only ex-president to be nominated to the Supreme Court, as Chief Justice.
- 37 William Howard Taft National Historic Site, 2038 Auburn Ave, Clifton and Northside, Cincinnati, Ohio, ☏ . Taft's birthplace and childhood home, in Greek Revival style.
Woodrow Wilson (D), 1913–1921 — First Southern president elected since the Civil War. Won reelection by promising to keep the U.S. out of World War I; later reluctantly entered the war anyway and helped bring it to a speedy end. Was incapacitated for the final 17 months of his presidency by a series of strokes; many say his wife served as de facto Chief Executive during this time.
- 19 Woodrow Wilson Presidential Library and Museum, 20 N. Coalter Street, Staunton, Virginia, ☏ , email@example.com.
- 20 Woodrow Wilson Boyhood Home, 419 7th Street, Augusta, Georgia, ☏ . Th–Sa 10AM–4PM. Georgia's oldest Presidential home where Woodrow Wilson and his family lived during the Civil War. See fourteen rooms furnished to the 1860s Victorian period, service building with kitchen, and carriage house. The house museum contains thirteen original pieces of furniture used by Woodrow Wilson and his family, as well as other period pieces.
- 21 Thomas Woodrow Wilson Boyhood Home, 1705 Hampton Street, Columbia, South Carolina, ☏ . Adult $10.
- 22 Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 S St., NW, Washington, D.C., ☏ . Wilson lived here after he left office. In his last public appearance, he addressed a crowd from the upstairs balcony. The house is shown by guided tour, on the hour. Each week there are also specialty tours by reservation, focusing on topics such as Prohibition and the house's gardens. Adullts $15, Seniors and Students $10, Children under 12 Free.
Warren G. Harding (R), 1921–1923 — Campaigned on a promise of a postwar "return to normalcy", and accordingly oversaw an uneventful presidency. Notable today mostly for multiple corruption scandals involving members of his Cabinet. Died in office of natural causes.
- 38 Harding Home, 380 Mt. Vernon Ave., Marion, Ohio, toll-free: .
- 39 Harding Tomb (Harding Memorial), 966-870 Delaware Ave, Marion, Ohio (in Marion Cemetery). The final resting place of Harding
Calvin Coolidge (R), 1923–1929 — Presiding over a politically uneventful economic boom, Coolidge's economic policies (tax cuts, disdain for government regulation of business) had much in common with today's Republican Party; his relatively outspoken support for civil rights did not.
- 40 Coolidge Homestead, 3780 Route 100A, Plymouth Notch, Vermont, ☏ . The President's boyhood home and the site of his impromptu inauguration upon Warren Harding's death. Adult $8, Children under 15 free.
- 41 Plymouth Notch Cemetery, Plymouth Notch, Vermont. Burial place of Calvin Coolidge.
- 42 Calvin Coolidge Presidential Library and Museum at Forbes Library, Northampton, Massachusetts, ☏ , firstname.lastname@example.org. The only presidential collection held by a local public library.
Herbert Hoover (R), 1929–1933 — Rising to national fame by organizing Belgian relief during The Great War, he might have hoped for an uneventful term similar to his predecessors but the Great Depression hit a few months after he took office. Shantytowns for unemployed workers were known as "Hoovervilles", vehicles pulled by horses for want of money for fuel were "Hoover wagons", and an empty trousers pocket turned inside-out was a "Hoover flag". Hoover's inaction was blamed for worsening the Depression, but he continued his philanthropy after leaving office, thus partially rescuing his reputation.
- 43 Herbert Hoover Presidential Library & Museum, 210 Parkside Drive, West Branch, Iowa (near Iowa City), ☏ , email@example.com. Daily 9AM–5PM, closed Thanksgiving, Christmas and New Year's Day. Adults $10.
- 44 Hoover–Minthorn House, 115 S. River Street, Newberg, Oregon, ☏ . Adult $5.
- 45 Herbert Hoover National Historic Site, West Branch, Iowa (near Iowa City), ☏ .
- 46 Hoover Dam (Boulder City, Nevada), ☏ , toll-free: , fax: . This $49-million concrete arch-gravity dam, constructed 1931–1936 on the Colorado River, borders Nevada and Arizona. A product of the Great Depression, its hydroelectric station generates two gigawatts of power. There is a visitor facility and a $15 tour of the power station.
- 47 Rapidan Camp (Camp Hoover), Shenandoah National Park, 3655 US Rte 211 E, Luray, Virginia, ☏ . The president's cabin, the Brown House, is historically refurnished to the 1929 era with a ranger-guided tour in high season.
- 48 Hoover Tower, near Palo Alto, California. Observation tower on Stanford University campus. $4, $3/senior.
32. F.D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt (D), 1933–1945 — A distant cousin of Theodore Roosevelt, he was the only president to serve more than two terms. Enacted major economic relief legislation, known as the "New Deal", in response to the Great Depression and shepherded the U.S. through most of World War II before dying in office. Forcibly interned many Japanese-American citizens and permanent residents in concentration camps for the duration of World War II.
- 23 Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library & Museum, 4079 Albany Post Rd., Hyde Park, New York, toll-free: . Daily 9AM–6PM, Apr–Oct; closes at 5PM all other times. This is the first presidential library opened by the National Archives, and to date the only one used by its namesake while in office.
- 24 Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site, 4097 Albany Post Rd., Hyde Park, New York, ☏ . Open year round, daily. Closed Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Years Day. Buildings are open 9AM–5PM, grounds are open 7AM to sunset.
- 25 Roosevelt's Little White House Historic Site, Warm Springs, Georgia. After contracting a paralytic illness in 1921 that left him without the use of his legs, Roosevelt would come to Warm Springs to undergo various treatments in hopes of curing or ameliorating his condition.
- 26 Campobello Island, New Brunswick, Canada. A 34-room "cottage" on Campobello was FDR's long-time Atlantic summer retreat; Roosevelt Campobello International Park is maintained in his memory.
- Flushing Meadows. Large park in Queens where Roosevelt was the first US president to appear on television, as part of the New York City 1939 World's Fair.
- 27 Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, 900 Ohio Drive SW, Washington DC, ☏ .
- 28 Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, Manhattan/Roosevelt Island, ☏ . April 1: Sept 9AM–7PM. Oct 1–March 31: 9AM–5PM. Park closed Tu, and may close early for private events. Park at southern end of Roosevelt Island, between Manhattan and Queens, celebrates the "Four Freedoms" in his 1941 State of the Union: Freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear. It's next to the ruins of the Smallpox Hospital and has views of the city skyline and East River.
- 29 Waldorf Astoria New York, Manhattan/Midtown East. Luxury hotel where Roosevelt used to stay whenever he made presidential visits to New York City. There is a secret train platform, which is not accessible to the public, under the hotel which Roosevelt used to get to his hotel room unseen whenever he travelled here, and a secret elevator that carried his car to and from the platform, allowing him to hide his disability from the public. Closed for renovations until 2021.
- 30 USS Potomac, Oakland, California. The Potomac was built as a Coast Guard cutter, and remodeled as Franklin Delano Roosevelt's presidential yacht in 1936. It served in that role until his death in 1945. In 1941, a fishing trip on the Potomac served as a cover story for Roosevelt's secret meeting with Churchill in Newfoundland waters; this meeting led to the Allied partnership during World War II and eventually to the formation of the United Nations. The boat was restored starting in the 1990's and now offers narrated cruises with an emphasis on local history and landmarks, and how FDR's administration affected the Bay Area. They also offer tours of the vessel while it is docked.
Harry S. Truman (D), 1945–1953 — Ordered the nuclear bombing of Japan that brought an end to World War II; with a national approval rating of just 36% heading into reelection, the Chicago Tribune distributed newspapers reading "Dewey Defeats Truman" leading to the infamous photo of Truman holding the periodical after his upset re-election against Thomas Dewey. Desegregated the U.S. military, kicking off the Democrats' transition toward favoring African-American civil rights. Created the Central Intelligence Group, the direct precursor to the CIA. Sent U.S. troops to Korea to assist the U.S.-allied south after it was invaded by the Communist north.
- 31 Harry S. Truman Presidential Library & Museum, 500 W. U.S. Hwy 24, Independence, Missouri, firstname.lastname@example.org. Hailed as America's "best presidential museum" by the Dallas Morning News, the Truman Library offers theaters, a museum, store, and some interactive "hands-on" exhibits together with a "Decision Theater." The museum contains a colorful mural by Thomas Hart Benton, together with a reproduction of the Oval Office. The displays seek to educate patrons about the major world-shaping decisions that Truman was involved in as President (including the use of the Atom Bomb during WWII, and the formation of the UN), together with details of his personal life. The lower level offers an area where kids can dress up like Harry and Bess, explore "feely" boxes, engage in an interactive computerized race, sort mail, make campaign buttons and posters and play a trivia game. Adults $8.
- 32 Harry S. Truman Birthplace State Historic Site, Lamar, Barton County, Missouri, ☏ .
- 33 Harry S. Truman Farm Home, 12301 Blue Ridge Blvd, Grandview, Missouri (near Lee's Summit).
- 34 Harry S. Truman National Historic Site, 223 North Main Street, Independence, Missouri, ☏ .
- 35 Harry S. Truman Little White House, 111 Front St. in Key West, Florida, ☏ .
- 36 St. Louis Union Station, St. Louis, Missouri. This is where Truman held up the famous (incorrect) Chicago Tribune headline "Dewey defeats Truman" in 1948. The station has lost long distance rail service (it retains local "MetroLink" service) but has been refurbished for use as a hotel and shopping complex.
Dwight D. Eisenhower (R), 1953–1961 — Former World War II Supreme Allied Commander who presided over the postwar economic boom. Arranged a ceasefire in the Korean War. Signed important civil rights legislation and ordered the desegregation by military force of Little Rock Central High School. Pushed for construction of the Interstate Highway System for its military value. Traveled extensively overseas on the first Boeing 707 Air Force One. Established NASA and launched the Space Race with the Soviet Union.
- 49 Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library, Museum & Boyhood Home, 200 SE. Fourth St, Abilene, Kansas, ☏ , email@example.com.
- 50 Eisenhower National Historic Site, 1195 Baltimore Pike, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, ☏ . This farm home at the edge of the Gettysburg Battlefield served as Eisenhowers's weekend retreat and a place to meet world leaders, then as his home after leaving office. You can visit the home only on a shuttle bus tour, which leaves from the Gettysburg National Military Park's visitor center.
- 51 Eisenhower Birthplace State Historic Site, 609 S. Lamar, Denison, Texas, ☏ , firstname.lastname@example.org.
- 52 Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial, 540 Independence Ave SW, Waterfront, Washington, DC.
John F. Kennedy (D), 1961–1963 — First Roman Catholic president and the youngest person ever to be elected president (age 43 in 1961). His attempted invasion of Communist Cuba was an abject failure, but his deft diplomacy during the subsequent Cuban Missile Crisis narrowly avoided nuclear war with the Soviet Union. Sent U.S. troops to Vietnam. Assassinated while riding in a motorcade in Dallas, Texas in 1963.
- 37 John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum, Columbia Point, Dorchester, Boston, Massachusetts, ☏ , email@example.com. The JFK Presidential Library and Museum opened in 1979, designed by renowned architect I.M. Pei who called it "the most important commission in my life". Visitors walk through exhibits in roughly chronological order. Starting with Kennedy on the campaign trail, and moving through the Cuban missile crisis, the space race, and civil rights issues. A dark claustrophobic hallway shows the events on the day of his assassination, before delivering you to a massive glass atrium of light and air. It's really quite moving. A more than worthwhile visit for those with an appreciation of American history, the museum can be toured in half a day. Adults $14.
- 38 The Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza, 411 Elm St., Suite 120, Downtown Dallas, Texas, ☏ , toll-free: , fax: . Daily 9AM–6PM. Dallas was the site of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The Texas Book Depository is the site where shots were fired by Lee Harvey Oswald. The museum is on the sixth floor of the same building, with an extra exhibition on the seventh. It is a moving experience with videos, full-wall descriptions and photographs, along with artifacts from the event. The museum's gift shop is in a different building. Adults $13.50.
- 39 John Fitzgerald Kennedy National Historic Site, 83 Beals Street, Brookline, Massachusetts, ☏ .
- 40 John F. Kennedy Hyannis Museum, 397 Main Street, Hyannis, Massachusetts, ☏ .
- 41 John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame, Arlington National Cemetery.
- 42 Yad Kennedy Memorial Lookout, Mateh Yehuda (מטה יהודה), near West Jerusalem. "And to them will I give in my house and within my walls a memorial and a name." — Isaiah 56:5. This 60' (18 m) Israeli memorial to JFK on a hill overlooking Jerusalem is shaped to resemble a stump of a felled tree, representing a life cut short.
36. L.B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson (D), 1963–1969 — Former leader of the U.S. Senate from Texas who became president after Kennedy's assassination. Signed the most expansive package of civil rights and social welfare legislation in U.S. history, the so-called "Great Society". Oversaw the Apollo space program that would later send astronauts to the Moon. Escalated U.S. involvement in Vietnam; conscription for this unpopular war drew widespread protests, draft-dodging, and requests for deferrals on medical or educational grounds. No relation to Andrew Johnson.
- 43 Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library & Museum, 2313 Red River Street, Austin, Texas, ☏ . Daily 9AM–5PM except Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year's Day. Adults $10.
- 44 Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park, Blanco and Gillespie counties, Texas, ☏ . See Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park for further details.
- 45 LBJ Memorial Grove on the Potomac, Washington, D.C..
Richard Nixon (R), 1969–1974 — Escalated, but then withdrew U.S. troops from the Vietnam War. Established a diplomatic relationship with Communist China. Removed the U.S. dollar from the gold standard. Created the Environmental Protection Agency to tackle pollution. Established Amtrak to end the terminal decline of America's (freight) railroads. Resigned from office (the only president ever to do so) under threat of almost certain impeachment in the wake of the Watergate scandal, one of the most far-reaching incidents of political corruption in American history.
- 53 Richard Nixon Presidential Library & Museum, 18001 Yorba Linda Boulevard, Yorba Linda, California, ☏ , firstname.lastname@example.org.
- 54 Watergate Hotel, 2650 Virginia Ave. NW, Washington, D.C., toll-free: . There's no record indicating Nixon ever slept at the Watergate, but it did play a pivotal role in the later years of his administration. One of a group of six buildings; the attached Watergate Office Building (2600 Virginia Ave NW) housed the offices of a rival political party, inextricably linking the name to the Watergate burglary of 1972.
Gerald Ford (R), 1974–1977 — A former college football star, Ford was appointed Vice-President after Spiro Agnew's resignation and succeeded to the presidency after Nixon's resignation, becoming the only person to serve as president without being elected on a presidential ticket. Pardoned Nixon in September 1974 "for all offenses against the United States which he... has committed or may have committed", an unpopular move that was a factor in his narrow defeat in the 1976 election.
- 55 Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library, 1000 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan, ☏ , email@example.com. The Gerald Ford Library collects and preserves the papers from Gerald Ford's presidency, including over 20 million pages of memos, letters, and personal papers. The collection also includes photographs, videotapes, audiotapes, and film. While these materials are by appointment only, there are free exhibits in the lobby on the life of President and Mrs. Ford, as well as a 20-minute film, narrated by President Ford. The Library hosts free evening events — author talks and programs by notable individuals.
- 56 Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum, 303 Pearl Street, Grand Rapids, Michigan, ☏ , firstname.lastname@example.org. Permanent and changing exhibits, highlights include Watergate break-in tools, State Gifts, Bicentennial materials, Oval Office, and interactives. Betty Ford Daylily on display, seasonally, in Betty Ford Garden. President and Mrs. Ford's final resting places are just north of the museum.
Jimmy Carter (D), 1977–1981 — Former peanut farmer turned governor of Georgia. Pardoned all Vietnam War "draft dodgers", brokered peace between Egypt and Israel, but had rocky relations with Congress. Continued the monetary policies which sustained double-digit inflation during the Nixon/Ford administrations. Was perceived as weak in office due to his handling of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, his reaction to the 1979 Nicaraguan Revolution, and his handling of an influx of former prisoners from Cuba. Gained respect as an elder statesman and peacemaker after leaving office. He is the oldest living ex-president, and still active in charitable ventures as of 2020.
- 46 Jimmy Carter Peanut Statue, Plains, Georgia. A roadside statue of a peanut with a toothy "Jimmy Carter smile" built as a show of support for his 1976 presidential run.
- 47 Jimmy Carter Presidential Library & Museum, 441 John Lewis Freedom Pwky, East Atlanta, Georgia, ☏ . One of ten presidential libraries administered by the National Archives & Records Administration and the only one in the Southeast, includes photographs, historical memorabilia from his presidency, an exact replica of the Oval Office, a permanent exhibit of significant events during Carter’s life and political career and the permanent home of the former president’s Nobel Peace Price awarded in late 2002.
- 48 Jimmy Carter National Historic Site, 300 North Bond St, Plains, Georgia (Plantation Midlands), ☏ .
Ronald Reagan (R), 1981–1989 — 1940s and '50s-era movie star turned California governor. His "Reaganomics" economic policy involved big tax cuts and curtailing regulations on businesses. Abruptly ended the policy of using inflation to lower unemployment. Took hardline positions opposing communism in Eastern Europe and confronting trade unions at home. Despite scandals about covert aid to Nicaraguan anti-communists and covert arms sales to Iran, he remained popular.
- 57 Ronald Reagan Presidential Library & Museum, 40 Presidential Drive, Simi Valley, California, toll-free: . Permanent exhibitions include a replica of the Oval Office and an Air Force One Pavillion that houses a Boeing 707 which was introduced in 1972 for President Nixon and used by six subsequent presidents until it was replaced in 1990.
- Ronald Reagan Pub (inside Reagan Library and Museum, admission required).
- 58 Ronald Reagan Birthplace & Museum, 111-113 S. Main Street, Tampico, Illinois, ☏ , email@example.com.
- 59 Ronald Reagan Museum & Peace Garden, 300 E College Ave, Eureka, Illinois, ☏ .
- 60 Ronald Reagan Boyhood Home, 816 S. Hennepin Ave., Dixon, Illinois, ☏ , firstname.lastname@example.org. open Apr 1–Oct 31, M–Sa 10AM–5PM, Su 1–5PM.
- 61 Ronald Reagan's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, in front of 6374 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, California. Though Reagan is by far better known today for his time as president, he first made his name in Hollywood, with a distinguished filmography including roles in Knute Rockne, All-American and the Academy Award Best Picture-nominated Kings Row, as well as seven years spent as president of the Screen Actors Guild. Appropriate enough, then, that he's one of two presidents with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
- 62 Höfði, Borgartún 105, Reykjavík, Iceland. It was built in 1909 as the French consulate, and hosted a meeting between Reagan and Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev in 1986.
41. G.H.W. Bush
George H. W. Bush (R), 1989–1993 — Vice-President under Reagan. Led the U.S. into a 5-week war with Iraq after it invaded Kuwait. Was criticized on economic issues; declared "read my lips, no new taxes" before raising taxes. Popular during the Gulf War, a recession toward the end of his term in office cost him support. The Berlin Wall fell and the Cold War ended during his time in office.
- 63 George Bush Presidential Library & Museum, 1000 George Bush Drive West, College Station, Texas, email@example.com.
Bill Clinton (D), 1993–2001 — Former governor of Arkansas. A centrist "new Democrat" who took many positions more typical of Republicans, such as cutting social programs and cracking down on crime and illegal immigration. Signed a free trade agreement with Canada and Mexico. Sent U.S. troops to intervene in conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and Somalia. An attempt to let gays freely serve in the armed forces ended in a flawed compromise. His signature health care plan was defeated in Congress. Involvement with the Whitewater Development Corp. drew Clinton into controversy, and he was unsuccessfully impeached for trying to cover up a sex scandal. Presided over the last federal budget surplus to date.
- 49 William J. Clinton Presidential Library & Museum, 1200 President Clinton Ave, Little Rock, Arkansas, ☏ , firstname.lastname@example.org. Adult $10.
- 50 William Jefferson Clinton Birthplace Home National Historic Site, 117 South Hervey St., Hope, Arkansas, ☏ . Daily, 9AM–4:30PM. Tours of home every 30 minutes. Free.
- 51 Clinton House Museum, 930 S California Blvd, Fayetteville, Arkansas, ☏ . The house that Bill and Hillary lived in while they taught at the University of Arkansas. It has been turned into a small museum, including a gift shop and a short tour. $5 adults, $1 kids.
43. G.W. Bush
George W. Bush (R), 2001–2009 — Son of George H. W. Bush. In the wake of massive terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C. in 2001, led the U.S. into lengthy wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Exploited fear of terrorism to curtail civil liberties under the Patriot Act of 2001 and ended passport-free travel from Canada and other adjacent nations in 2007, while relaxing laws governing the banking sector. Markets were bullish during much of the early 2000s, only to crash into recession during the subprime mortgage collapse of 2008 and the bankruptcy of Detroit auto makers GM and Chrysler in 2009.
- 64 George W. Bush Presidential Library & Museum, 2943 SMU Blvd., North Dallas, Texas, ☏ . Adult $19.
- 65 George W. Bush Childhood Home, 1412 West Ohio Avenue, Midland, Texas, ☏ .
Barack Obama (D), 2009–2017 — First African-American president. Took office during the Great Recession on a platform of "hope and change", briefly had government take equity in domestic auto makers to save manufacturing jobs and continued efforts to bail out the beleaguered financial sector. Signed the first national health insurance law intended to cover all U.S. citizens. Supported measures to defer deportation of people brought illegally to the U.S. in childhood, while increasing deportations of other migrants. Restored diplomatic relations with Cuba in 2015 after a break of 54 years.
- 52 Jackson Park (Chicago), 6401 South Stony Island Ave, Woodlawn, Chicago, Illinois. Host site of the Chicago World's Fair in 1893, this 500-acre park is the proposed future site of the Barack Obama Presidential Center and library. The park includes a Museum of Science and Industry, woodland trails, playing fields, a Japanese garden, a beach, a golf course, and a boat harbor. The adjacent Hyde Park neighborhood is home to various Obama-related attractions, including the Obama House, miscellaneous plaques, and restaurants where he used to eat when he lived there.
- 53 Obama's neighborhood, Makiki, Honolulu, Hawaii. Where Obama was born and spent part of his childhood. Visitors can see the hospital where he was born, his old apartment buildings and school, and other landmarks from "Barry" Obama's early years.
- 54 Barack Obama Plaza, County Tipperary, Ireland (R445 road at Exit 23 off the M7 motorway). A service stop, with bronze statues of Barack and Michelle Obama.
- 55 Bún chả Hương Liên, Hanoi, Vietnam. Shop specializing in the iconic northern Vietnamese dish bún chả, in which Obama and celebrity chef Anthony Bourdain dined together during their visit to Hanoi. This is still an active eatery where you can dine at, and the table, stools and utensils that Obama and Bourdain used when dining here have been preserved and encased in a glass cube for viewing.
Donald Trump (R), 2017–2021 — Wealthy real estate tycoon and media personality who was the first president to have held no prior elected or military office. His "America First" agenda involved restrictions on immigration, an expansion of the Mexican border wall, and relatively isolationist foreign policy. An extremely divisive figure, Trump is the only president to have been impeached twice: first after asking the Ukrainian government to investigate rival Joe Biden's son, and again after a mob of his supporters stormed the United States Capitol to try to overturn the 2020 election results. His single term coincided with widespread civil unrest and the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, which he was widely felt to have mismanaged.
- 66 Donald J. Trump State Park, near Yorktown Heights, New York. A 436-acre expanse of land that Trump purchased in the 1990s with plans to build a golf course, but which he donated to New York State in 2006 after environmental restrictions scuttled the project. The park boasts a network of off-the-beaten-path nature trails that traverse a mix of meadows, woods, and wetlands, but is otherwise largely undeveloped, with most of its other amenities — tennis courts, a swimming pool, various buildings — closed and in a dilapidated state (though, as of 2020, reports of newly paved driveways and parking lots, new fencing, and other improvements give reason for optimism).
- 67 Donald Trump's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, in front of 6801 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, California. The second of two U.S. presidents to be so honored, Donald Trump came by his star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame thanks to his pre-presidential identity as a perennial tabloid fixture, late-night talk show guest, and his stint as host of NBC reality show The Apprentice. And, true to form for the most polarizing figure in modern American political history, it's had a tendency of late to get vandalized by angry folks wielding pickaxes and sledgehammers. You'll find Trump's star — or its wreckage, depending on who else may have visited recently — in front of the Hard Rock Cafe near the west end of the Walk of Fame.
- 68 Mar-a-Lago Club, 1100 S. Ocean Blvd, Palm Beach, Florida. A historic mansion and resort built in the 1920s and owned by Donald Trump since 1985. He regularly spent his weekends there as president, and sometimes hosted state guests. Has been Trump's primary residence since leaving the White House. Membership in the club, while theoretically possible for the general public, is very expensive with an eye-watering $200,000 initiation fee, and $14,000 in monthly dues.
- 69 Trump International Golf Club, 3505 Summit Boulevard, West Palm Beach, Florida. Located five miles away from the aforementioned Mar-a-Lago club, this is where Donald Trump usually plays golf on the weekends due to the limited golfing facilities at Mar-a-Lago. Members of Mar-a-Lago get reciprocal access here but need to make advance arrangements. Closed for much of the summer for hurricane season.
- 70 Trump National Golf Club, 900 Lamington Road, Bedminster, New Jersey (near Far Hills). Donald Trump's preferred weekend retreat whenever his Florida golf course is closed for the hurricane season, leading to it being dubbed Trump's "Summer White House". Trump has indicated that he would like his mausoleum to be built on the property.
- 71 Trump Tower, 721 5th Ave, Midtown East, New York City, New York. The headquarters of the Trump Organization, Donald Trump's eponymous company. The tower also contains a penthouse that was Trump's primary residence prior to moving into the White House. While the penthouse is off limits, the tower contains numerous retail business, including several shops and restaurants, that may be visited by the general public.
Joe Biden (D), 2021–present — A former long-serving senator from Delaware and Vice President under Barack Obama. Elected to office amid the COVID-19 pandemic on the promise of a return to normalcy. As of 2021, the oldest person to assume the office, and will be the oldest person to do so when he leaves office.
- 56 Biden birth house, 2446 N Washington Ave, Scranton, Pennsylvania. The house where Joe Biden was born, in which he lived until the age of 10. It is still a private residence today and cannot be entered, though it can be viewed from the outside.
- 57 Joseph R. Biden, Jr. Railroad Station (Wilmington station), Wilmington, Delaware. This station was renamed in 2011 after then-Vice-President "Amtrak Joe" Biden, who had been an outspoken supporter of passenger rail for decades and had used this station to commute home to his family (honoring a promise he made when his first wife and one of his children died in a car crash to be home with his remaining family every evening) during his entire 35-year tenure in the Senate. He also launched his first presidential bid in 1987 here.
- 18 The White House, 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D.C., ☏ . The residence of every U.S. President since John Adams (in 1800), was set ablaze by British troops during the Burning of Washington (in 1814). Public tours focusing on the historic and social spaces in the East Wing can be scheduled (well) in advance through your Senator or Representative. Unless you have American friends, touring the White House is close to impossible for foreigners. Even if you can't get inside, you can see a model display and touchscreen virtual tour of the White House along with historical artifacts in the visitor center in the Department of Commerce Building (1450 Pennsylvania Ave NW). You'll also find several monuments and fountains in Lafayette Park to the north of the White House, and the Ellipse to the south.
- 19 The Henry Ford Museum, 20900 Oakwood Blvd., Dearborn, Michigan, ☏ , toll-free: . Daily 9:30AM–5PM. Exhibits include presidential parade cars that transported Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush including the 1961 Lincoln Continental Presidential Limousine that John F. Kennedy was riding in when assassinated.
- 20 The Hall of Presidents, Walt Disney World Resort, Orlando, Florida. An attraction in Liberty Square at the Magic Kingdom.
- 21 Presidential Archives and Leadership Library, 4919 East University Blvd., Odessa, Texas. A museum established at the University of Texas of the Permian Basin soon after the 1963 Kennedy assassination has since expanded to cover all of the historic presidents and first ladies.
- 22 SAM–970 (Air Force One), Seattle/Sodo-Georgetown. Older presidential aircraft are sometimes donated to museums, and you can visit SAM 970, a Boeing 707 which served as Air Force One for Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon at the Museum of Flight outside of Seattle.
- 23 Presidential Gallery at the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force, 1100 Spaatz St, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio (near Dayton).
- 24 Air Mobility Command Museum, 1301 Heritage Rd, Dover AFB, Delaware (the museum has its own entrance gate on Rte 9. Just use exit 91 on Rte 1), ☏ . Tu–Su 9AM–4PM. The museum is on the Dover Air Force Base. The museum has a McDonnell Douglas VC-9C jet, serial number 73-1682, that transported America’s top leadership from 1975 until 2011. It was mainly used as Air Force Two, but was occasionally used as Air Force One when Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush visited locations with smaller airports. Free parking and admission.
- 25 Grosvenor Square, Mayfair, London, United Kingdom. Home of the U.S. Embassy to the UK from 1938 to 2018, this square includes monuments to FDR, Dwight Eisenhower, and Ronald Reagan. Eisenhower established a military headquarters here during World War II.
- 26 Buffalo Presidential Center, second floor of the Buffalo Central Library, 1 Lafayette Square, downtown Buffalo, New York, ☏ . Sa 10AM–4PM. The city of Buffalo has played a pivotal role in the stories of no fewer than four U.S. presidents: Millard Fillmore and Grover Cleveland settled there as young men and launched their political careers there, William McKinley was assassinated there in 1901, and Theodore Roosevelt took the oath of office there shortly after said assassination. The bulk of the exhibits at the Buffalo Presidential Center have to do with those four men, but if you're a hardcore history buff, stick around and dig deeper into a trove of over 10,000 artifacts relating to the role Buffalo has played in U.S. presidential affairs. Of special note is a large timeline marking every time a U.S. president has visited town, beginning with William Henry Harrison's campaign stop in 1840. Free.
- 27 Camp David and Catoctin Mountain Park, Thurmont, Maryland, ☏ . A cottage retreat of multiple presidents, most notably Carter 39 (who brokered the Camp David Accords between Egypt and Israel here). Camp David is legally a tightly-guarded naval support facility and not open to the public (the park maps do not disclose its exact location), but the surrounding national park is publicly accessible.
- 28 Mount Rushmore — a carving into Mount Rushmore, showing the faces of four of the national presidents, was featured in the film North by Northwest and is one of the most iconic landmarks in South Dakota.
A few public houses have presidential themes.
- 29 [dead link] Founding Fathers Pub, 75 Edward St., Allentown, Buffalo, New York, ☏ . A presidential-themed pub whose walls are decorated with portraits and memorabilia representing all 45 men who've held the office. Run by a former social studies teacher famous for quizzing patrons on American history from behind the bar, it's home to pub trivia the first Tuesday night of each month where the topic is, of course, American presidents.
- 30 City Tavern, 138 South 2nd St at Walnut St, Old City Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ☏ . 1976-era replica of a public house popular among the Founding Fathers of the U.S.
- 31 Presidential Lounge at the Mission Inn, Riverside, California. Portraits in the Presidential Lounge commemorate the ten U.S. presidents to visit The Mission Inn Hotel and Spa. The lounge serves mixed drinks, including the JFK Cosmopolitan or Herbert Hoover Lemon Drop. Live jazz on weekends.
- 32 Ferdinand Magellan railcar (U.S. Car. No. 1). A railcar used by presidents from FDR to Eisenhower and brought back for a single use by President Reagan in the 1984 election campaign. It has sat in the Gold Coast Railroad Museum in Miami, Florida since 1958, but the museum has declared should any president wish to travel on it (like Reagan did in 1984) they would make it available.
Presidents of the Continental Congress
A frequent "gotcha" trivia question is to ask for the name of the "First President of the U.S." and then not to accept the answer "George Washington", pointing towards the Continental Congress, which was the highest governing body of the United States before the Constitution entered into force. However, unlike the President of the U.S.A., the President of the Continental Congress did not represent the U.S. internationally, was not cloaked in any special executive powers and was — at best — "first among equals" alongside members of the Continental Congress. In fact, the office was seen as such an afterthought that some holders of it simply left during a break in session and never bothered to resign the office, necessitating new elections. While nobody at the time thought much of the office, some of its holders are famous for other reasons, such as John-gigantic signature-Hancock or John-First Chief Justice-Jay.
- 33 The Hall of Presidents Before Washington, The Westin Hotel, 100 Westgate Circle, Annapolis, Maryland, email@example.com. 24 hours daily. Exhibit featuring the 14 presidents of the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1789 who were in office while George Washington was still a general. in the Westin Hotel near the Annapolis waterfront. Free.
- 34 Grave of and statue honoring David Rice Atchison, Plattsburg, Missouri. After the 1848 election, President-elect Zachary Taylor refused to be sworn in on a Sunday, even though inauguration day fell on that day that year. Thereby some claim that on that very Sunday David Rice Atchison, President pro tempore of the Senate and — under the rules in place at the time — next in line to the Presidency, was "President for a day" on that day. At any rate the claim is repeated on his tombstone at Greenlawn Cemetery and a statue dedicated to him in front of the Clinton County Courthouse.