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Presidents of the United States

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There have been 44 Presidents of the United States between 1789 and today (including two non-consecutive terms for Grover Cleveland). This article discusses sights and destinations related to these presidents.

Understand[edit]

Map of Presidents of the United States

The President is the head of the Executive Branch of the U.S. Government, responsible for enforcing Federal laws that are on the books and has the power to sign or veto bills (prospective laws) passed by Congress. After the initial Founding Father generation died off, the Presidency was often seen as a weak office with notable exception Andrew Jackson, who defied the will of the Supreme Court, and James K. Polk, who launched the Mexican American War. But over time, beginning with the American Civil War, the role of the President has expanded tremendously, leading to talk of an "imperial presidency". However, even after 1865 many presidents exercised less authority than did Lincoln, with Theodore Roosevelt being the first to turn the presidency into the undoubtedly most powerful position in the country after that had become uncommon.

The powers that presidents of the late 20th and 21st century are most associated with are foreign policy, war and peace, and the "bully pulpit" of being able to have their public statements immediately receive TV and newspaper coverage. When the president announces a major speech or wishes to address the nation, TV stations will go so far as pre-empt regularly scheduled programming on short notice. This was not the way newspapers treated presidents in the 19th century. Since the emergence of the United States as the world's dominant power in the post-World War II period, the presidency has been widely regarded as the most powerful position in the world.

The president is elected through a unique electoral college system, meaning that winning the nationwide popular vote does not win one the election. In this system, each state and the District of Columbia is assigned a certain number of electoral votes based on its population, which are allocated to candidates based on the election results in that state. This means that it is possible for a candidate to win the election without winning the nationwide popular vote, which has happened five or six times to date; to John Quincy Adams in 1824, Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876, Benjamin Harrison in 1888, debatably John F. Kennedy in 1960, George W. Bush in 2000 and most recently, Donald Trump in 2016.

Every year, the president delivers a speech to a joint sitting of Congress in an event known as the State of the Union Address. This event is steeped in tradition with a lot of pomp and circumstance, and is one of the few times when all branches of the U.S. government gather in a single place. Although attendance is generally limited to special guests that have been invited by the president, it is broadcast live on television by all the major American news channels.

Air Force One

Although Air Force One officially refers to any US Air Force aircraft carrying the president, in popular culture it is often used to refer to a pair of Boeing 747s that have been retrofitted for the security and comfort of the president. These are painted with a blue and white livery, with the words "United States of America" in a typeface used from the declaration of independence. They can often be seen at airports around the world whenever the president travels. The existing planes are due for retirement in 2024. While the active fleet of presidential aircraft are off-limits to the public for security reasons, decommissioned or replica aircraft occasionally appear in museum exhibits.

List of presidents[edit]

(D) = Democrat; (D-R) = Democratic-Republican; (R) = Republican; (W) = Whig; (F) = Federalist; (U) = unaffiliated

1. Washington[edit]

Washington Monument on the Fourth of July

George Washington (U), 1789-1797 — The only President to run without a party affiliation, also considered the father of the nation. Many monuments, schools, an entire U.S. state and the federal capital are named in his honor.

  • 1 Washington Monument, National Mall, Washington, D.C., +1 202 426-6841. Washington Monument on Wikipedia Washington Monument (Q178114) on Wikidata
  • 2 Washington Monument, Intersection of Monument Pl. and Mt Vernon Pl., Baltimore. W-Su 10AM-5PM. Climbs every 20 minutes. At the turn of the 19th century, Baltimorians lobbied for a monument dedicated to the United States' first president, and in 1829 — over a half-century before its more famous counterpart in D.C. — Washington's first monument finished construction. It is now the focal point of the Mount Vernon neighborhood. Visitors can climb to the top (more than 160 feet high) with admission to see a panoramic view of the city. $6. Washington Monument (Baltimore) on Wikipedia Washington Monument (Q3683526) on Wikidata
  • 3 George Washington Birthplace National Monument, 1732 Popes Creek Road, Colonial Beach, Virginia, +1 804 224-1732 ext 227. George Washington Birthplace National Monument on Wikipedia George Washington Birthplace National Monument (Q1476974) on Wikidata
  • 4 George Washington Masonic National Memorial, 101 Callahan Drive, Alexandria, Virginia. George Washington Masonic National Memorial on Wikipedia George Washington Masonic National Memorial (Q611813) on Wikidata
  • 5 Mount Vernon, 3200 Mount Vernon Memorial Highway, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, Virginia, +1 703 780-2000, e-mail: . Mount Vernon on Wikipedia Mount Vernon (Q731635) on Wikidata
  • 6 Federal Hall National Memorial, 26 Wall St, Financial District, Manhattan. On this site on April 30, 1789, George Washington stood on a balcony overlooking Wall Street and was inaugurated as the first president of the United States. The old building on the site had been used as New York's city hall and had hosted some of the first congregations of the colonies in the lead-up to the American Revolution, such as the Stamp Act Congress. After the revolution the building, now Federal Hall, briefly housed Congress, the Supreme Court, and Executive Branch offices before the national capital moved to Philadelphia. The current building dates to 1842 and was used first as a Customs House, then later the US Sub-Treasury (millions of dollars of gold and silver were kept in the basement vaults). Today the building is maintained by the National Park Service as a museum dedicated to the history of the site. Guided tours of the building are available, or you can just walk in and look up at the rotunda and view some of the artifacts, such as the bible Washington used in his inauguration ceremony. Free. Federal Hall on Wikipedia Federal Hall (Q858689) on Wikidata

Several homes of Washington's direct ancestors and family members have been preserved:

During the Revolutionary War, General Washington used a number of houses and other buildings as military headquarters. Several are historical sites today.

  • 11 Longfellow House, 105 Brattle St, Cambridge, Massachusetts, +1 617 876-4491. The home of famed 19th century poet Henry W. Longfellow also served as headquarters for General George Washington during the Siege of Boston. The full guided tour takes just under an hour; there's a shorter tour which covers just the main floor or the gardens. Longfellow House–Washington's Headquarters National Historic Site on Wikipedia Longfellow House–Washington's Headquarters National Historic Site (Q474665) on Wikidata
  • 12 Washington's Headquarters State Historic Site (Hasbrouck House), 84 Liberty St., Newburgh, New York. Military history museum on a site where Washington rejected the idea of a monarchy, circulating a letter to state governors proposing key principles for the new republic and creating a Badge of Military Merit as the forerunner to the Purple Heart. Washington's Headquarters State Historic Site on Wikipedia Washington's Headquarters State Historic Site (Q7971579) on Wikidata
  • 13 Fraunces Tavern, 54 Pearl Street, Financial District, Manhattan. Between 1785-1788, 54 Pearl St. contained the original offices of the Departments of Foreign Affairs, War and Treasury. Fraunces Tavern on Wikipedia Fraunces Tavern (Q2947539) on Wikidata

Many innkeepers make the claim that "George Washington slept here". Some of the more verifiable claims include:

2. Adams[edit]

John Adams (F), 1797-1801 — First Vice President and also one of the founders. Lost reelection in part due to the "Three Fifths clause" giving more electoral weight to the South (which supported Jefferson).

  • 1 Adams National Historical Park, 135 Adams St, Quincy, Massachusetts, +1 617 770-1175. The birthplace of presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams was the farm homestead of five generations, including Ambassador Charles Francis Adams and writers and historians Henry Adams and Brooks Adams. A presidential library is on-site; a church where both presidents (and their first ladies) were buried is adjacent. Adams National Historical Park on Wikipedia Adams National Historical Park (Q351941) on Wikidata

3. Jefferson[edit]

Thomas Jefferson (D-R), 1801-1809 — Principal author of the U.S. Constitution. As President, negotiated the Louisiana Purchase from France which doubled the land area of the U.S., then sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark west from St. Louis on a voyage to explore the new territory. His gravestone does not mention him being President.

4. Madison[edit]

James Madison (D-R), 1809-1817 — Considered the "Father of the Bill of Rights". Led the U.S. through the War of 1812.

  • 4 Montpelier, 11350 Constitution Highway, Montpelier Station, Virginia, +1 540 672-2728 ext 450. 9AM-4PM Mo-Fr; 9AM-4:30PM Sa-Su. Adult $22. Montpelier (Orange, Virginia) on Wikipedia Montpelier (Q2469085) on Wikidata

5. Monroe[edit]

James Monroe (D-R), 1817-1825 — President during the post-War of 1812 "Era of Good Feelings", a brief period of remarkable political unity in which there was only one political party (Monroe ran for reelection unopposed, the only president ever to do so.) Liberia's capital Monrovia is named for him, due to his support of the American Colonization Society's efforts to return former slaves to Africa. Asserted the Monroe Doctrine, proscribing future European colonization of the Americas. Acquired Florida from Spain, and portions of modern-day North Dakota and Minnesota from Britain.

6. Adams[edit]

John Quincy Adams (D-R), 1825-1829 — Son of John Adams, became an opponent of slavery after leaving the White House. Won election in a four way race that had to be decided by the House of Representatives, after he had not come in first in either electoral or popular vote. The first person to become president despite losing the nationwide popular vote.

7. Jackson[edit]

Andrew Jackson (D), 1829-1837 — Before taking office, he won a significant battle over the British in New Orleans in 1815, after the War of 1812 had officially ended but before British forces received word of the end of hostilities. He was also involved in bloody battle against Native Americans; there are multiple monuments commemorating General Jackson's military record:

  • 1 Equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson, Jackson Square (French Quarter, New Orleans). Following the 1815 Battle of New Orleans against the United Kingdom, the last battle of the 1812 war (taking place after a peace treaty had already been signed in London), the former Place d'Armes was renamed Jackson Square, for the battle's victorious General Jackson. This victory made him a national hero. Alexis de Tocqueville later wrote in Democracy in America that Jackson "was raised to the Presidency, and has been maintained there, solely by the recollection of a victory which he gained, twenty years ago, under the walls of New Orleans." The statue was erected in 1856.
  • 2 Large bronze statue of Andrew Jackson, Andrew Jackson State Park, 196 Andrew Jackson Park Road (near Indian Land, South Carolina). Andrew Jackson State Park on Wikipedia Andrew Jackson State Park (Q4757478) on Wikidata
  • 3 Andrew Jackson equestrian bronze sculpture, Lafayette Square (West End, Washington, D.C.). A 1928 bronze sculpture of Andrew Jackson, identical to the one at Jackson Square, part of the National Statuary Hall Collection. Other identical copies are installed in Nashville, on the grounds of the Tennessee State Capitol; and in Jacksonville, Florida. Other equestrian statues of Jackson have been erected elsewhere, as in the State Capitol grounds in Raleigh, North Carolina, sculpted by Anna Hyatt Huntington, depicting a young Jackson astride a farm horse.

While in office, Jackson ordered the forcible relocation of some Native American tribes to what is now Oklahoma on the Trail of Tears; thousands perished en route.

The adoption of a hard-working but stubborn donkey as the icon of the Democratic Party originates with a political slur (jackass) used by Jackson's opponents in this era.

  • 4 Horseshoe Bend National Military Park, 11288 Horseshoe Bend Rd, Daviston, Alabama, +1 256 234-7111. Major General Andrew Jackson‘s army of 3,300 men slaughtered over 800 of Chief Menawa’s 1,000 Red Stick Creek warriors in battle here on 27 March 1814, inflicting a crushing defeat which ultimately cost the natives 23,000,000 acres of their land. Horseshoe Bend National Military Park on Wikipedia Horseshoe Bend National Military Park (Q5905985) on Wikidata
  • 5 The Hermitage, 4580 Rachel's Lane, Nashville, Tennessee, +1 615 889-2941, e-mail: . This mansion with its carefully-manicured gardens was once Jackson's home; the facility is now a museum. Jackson's Tomb is nearby. Adult $20. The Hermitage (Nashville, Tennessee) on Wikipedia The Hermitage (Q2376587) on Wikidata

8. Van Buren[edit]

Martin van Buren (D), 1837-1841 — The only president to speak a language other than English natively (Dutch), Van Buren's New York roots are a legacy of the Netherlands in North America.

9. Harrison[edit]

William Henry Harrison (W), 1841 — First president to die in office, only a month after his inauguration. The first of an odd pattern of deaths in office at twenty-year intervals which continued through Lincoln (elected 1860) to Kennedy (elected 1960) and was claimed by some to be a native curse dating from Tecumseh and the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811.

  • Public monuments
    • statue at the base of the Soldiers and Sailors Monument in downtown Indianapolis
    • a bronze statue of Harrison on horseback Cincinnati's Piatt Park
    • the Tippecanoe County Courthouse in Lafayette, Indiana
    • a limestone-relief carving is part of a sculpture in front of the Harrison County visitors' center in Corydon, Indiana
    • the Ten O'Clock Line Monument in Owen County, Indiana
  • 1 Grouseland, 3 West Scott St., Vincennes, Indiana, +1 812 882-2096. The residence of Harrison while Governor of the Indiana territory. Grouseland on Wikipedia Grouseland (Q3118119) on Wikidata

10. Tyler[edit]

John Tyler (U), 1841-1845 — First vice-president to assume the presidency upon the death of his predecessor, returned letters addressed to the "acting president" unopened. Elected as a Whig, but expelled from the party soon after his inauguration after a clash with powerful senator Henry Clay and the resignation of nearly his entire Cabinet; unaffiliated with any party for most of his term. Approved the annexation of Texas only a few days before leaving office.

11. Polk[edit]

James K. Polk (D), 1845-1849 — Polk's single term was a time of rapid territorial expansion: the annexation of Texas was finalized, the Mexican-American War ended with the U.S. conquering the northern third of Mexico, i.e. California and much of the modern-day Southwest, and the Oregon Treaty with Great Britain added what's now the Pacific Northwest and Idaho.

12. Taylor[edit]

Zachary Taylor (W), 1849-1850 — Second President to die in office. Sometimes speculated to have been poisoned by hardline pro-slavery people.

13. Fillmore[edit]

Underground Railroad passengers of the 1850s

Millard Fillmore (W), 1850-1853 — Signed the Compromise of 1850, which staved off civil war for awhile longer at the price of enraging both sides of the slavery dispute. As his Fugitive Slave Act allowed Southern slave catchers to forcibly abduct freedom seekers in Northern states, a clandestine Underground Railroad was assembled by anti-slavery Northerners and free blacks to spirit fugitives onward to freedom in Canada.

  • 4 Millard Fillmore Museum, 24 Shearer Ave., East Aurora, New York, +1 716 652-4735. W, Sa & Su 1PM-3PM, Jun-Oct. The only remaining residence (other than the White House) of President Fillmore, who built the house himself and resided in it from 1826 to 1830. It's now restored to its period appearance and furnished with authentic pieces belonging to the Fillmore family. One-hour tours. Listed as a National Historic Landmark. Adult $10. Fillmore House on Wikipedia Fillmore House (Q5448856) on Wikidata

14. Pierce[edit]

Franklin Pierce (D), 1853-1857 — Presided over the "Gadsden Purchase" of what is now southern Arizona and New Mexico, the last major land acquisition in what is now the contiguous U.S. The land was supposed to be used for a southerly route of a transcontinental railroad, but that plan never materialized.

15. Buchanan[edit]

James Buchanan (D), 1857-1861 — Chosen largely because he had been abroad during the time the debate over slavery got heated. Did nothing during the secession crisis.

16. Lincoln[edit]

Abraham Lincoln (R), 1861-1865 — His election led 11 Southern states to secede, causing the American Civil War. However, he led the remaining U.S. states, called the Union, to victory over the Southern states, and abolished slavery nationwide. Assassinated in 1865, the first of four U.S. presidents to suffer such a fate.

17. Johnson[edit]

Andrew Johnson (D), 1865-1869 — Elected to the Vice Presidency in the midst of the Civil War as a "war Democrat" on a "National Union" ticket with Lincoln; ascended to presidency after Lincoln's assassination and was later unsuccessfully impeached due to disputes with Republicans in Congress over the postwar "reconstruction" of the South. Signed the purchase of Alaska from Russia.

18. Grant[edit]

Ulysses S. Grant (R), 1869-1877 — Union general who accepted the surrender of Robert E. Lee at Appomattox. Last president to try to advance African American civil rights for several decades. Decisively smashed the first iteration of the Ku Klux Klan. Wrote a widely acclaimed and bestselling autobiography that deals with his pre-presidential life.

19. Hayes[edit]

Rutherford B. Hayes (R), 1877-1881 — called "Rutherfraud" due to the dubious nature of his electoral "victory"; lost the popular vote, but perhaps only because a large number of freed slaves in the South had been terrorized into not voting. A compromise that resulted in Democrats accepting his election also led to the withdrawal of federal troops from the South, often considered the end of Reconstruction, which ultimately led to the almost entire disenfranchisement of African Americans and many poor whites. Mediated in the aftermath of the triple alliance war between Paraguay on one side and Uruguay, Argentina and Brazil on the other, widely seen as a national hero in Paraguay due to this.

20. Garfield[edit]

James Garfield (R), 1881 — Assassinated after only a few months in office.

21. Arthur[edit]

Chester Arthur (R), 1881-1885 — Garfield's former vice-president, initially widely mistrusted as a protégé of corrupt New York State Republican boss Roscoe Conkling, unexpectedly embraced the cause of civil service reform, rooting out cronyism in political hiring (the so-called "spoils system"). Signed laws prohibiting immigration from China and outlawing the polygamy that was then rampant in Mormon Utah. Declined to run for re-election due to poor health.

22+24. Cleveland[edit]

Grover Cleveland (D), 1885-1889 and 1893-1897 — The only president to serve two terms non-consecutively. Campaigned on a promise to clean up corruption and end the spoils system (much as he had done at the state level as governor of New York). Reduced tariffs and modernized the Navy. Cleveland's second term was hampered by an economic depression and labor unrest, including the Pullman Strike of 1893 which he brutally suppressed. His non-interventionist foreign policy and support of Venezuela in their maritime boundary dispute with British Guiana helped improve U.S. relations with Latin America.

23. Harrison[edit]

Benjamin Harrison (R), 1889-1893 — Grandson of William Henry Harrison. Continued to clean up corruption, but sharply increased the tariffs that his predecessor had lowered. Passed the Sherman Antitrust Act, the first meaningful attempt by the government to curb the power of big business. Established the first National Forests. A vociferous supporter of civil rights who advocated in vain for the enforcement of voting rights for black Southerners and a bigger federal role in education.

25. McKinley[edit]

Denali, in Alaska, is the highest mountain in North America. The mountain and the surrounding national park were formerly known as Mt. McKinley, named after the president.

William McKinley (R), 1897-1901 — Presided over the brief Spanish-American War which ended with Puerto Rico, Guam, and Cuba becoming American colonies. The Philippines were also ceded by Spain but remained in rebellion against U.S. rule into the Roosevelt administration. Also responsible for the annexation of Hawaii. Assassinated.

  • 24 McKinley Monument, Niagara Square, Buffalo, New York. Erected in 1907 in commemoration of the assassination of President William McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition exactly six years prior, this gleaming 96-foot (29 m) obelisk of Vermont marble was designed by the architectural firm of Carrere and Hastings. The lions and turtles resting at its base (symbols, respectively, of strength and eternal life) were carved by well-known sculptor A. Phimister Proctor. The monument was also the subject of Carl Sandburg's poem "Slants at Buffalo, New York". McKinley Monument on Wikipedia McKinley Monument (Q3323246) on Wikidata
  • 25 McKinley Death Rock, in front of 30 Fordham Drive, Buffalo, New York. On the center island in the middle of Fordham Drive, in the residential neighborhood situated on what once were the grounds of the Pan-American Exposition, is a small rock with a historic plaque marking the spot where President McKinley was standing when felled by the bullet of his assassin, Leon Czolgosz.
  • 26 William McKinley Presidential Library & Museum, 800 McKinley Monument Drive NW, Canton, Ohio, +1 330 455-7043. Museum M-Sa 9AM-4PM, Su noon-4PM, monument open Apr-Oct during museum hours, Ramsayer Research Library M-F 9AM-4PM. Historical museum containing the largest collection of artifacts in the world related to McKinley, chronicling his life from childhood through his Civil War service, his time in the House of Representatives and as governor of Ohio, and his presidency and assassination, as well as the presidential archive itself in a separate wing of the building. The McKinley National Memorial, the domed mausoleum that serves as his final resting place, is also part of the complex; it stands on a hill behind the museum and boasts panoramic views over the surrounding area. The museum also contains exhibits related to local history in general and, somewhat incongruously, also a science center with fossils, stuffed wildlife, and a planetarium. $10, seniors $9, children 3 and over $8. William McKinley Presidential Library and Museum on Wikipedia William McKinley Presidential Library and Museum (Q8015466) on Wikidata
  • 27 National McKinley Birthplace Memorial, 40 N. Main Street, Niles, Ohio. National McKinley Birthplace Memorial on Wikipedia National McKinley Birthplace Memorial (Q6974277) on Wikidata

26. Roosevelt[edit]

Roosevelt on Mount Rushmore (third from left)

Theodore Roosevelt (R), 1901-1909 — Spanish-American War hero who rose from the New York governorship to the Vice-Presidency to the Presidency (to which he ascended after McKinley was assassinated) in only three years. A popular president famous as a progressive "trust buster" who opposed the corrupt practices of big business, and as a conservationist who championed the establishment of many national parks and other protected lands.

  • 28 Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site, 641 Delaware Ave., Buffalo, New York, +1 716 884-0095. M-F 9:30AM-3:30PM, Sa Su 12:30PM-3:30PM. In September 1901, several days after President William McKinley was assassinated at Buffalo's Pan-American Exposition, Theodore Roosevelt stayed at the 1838 Greek Revival home of his friend, local lawyer and politico Ansley Wilcox, and the Oath of Office was administered to him there. A planned demolition of the house in the early 1960s was averted at the last minute, and today the Wilcox Mansion has been thoroughly restored inside and out, and features historical displays related to Roosevelt, McKinley and the Exposition as well as occasional temporary exhibits. The grounds are planted with herb and flower gardens in season. $10, aged 62+ and students $7, ages 6-18 $5, families $25, free for children under 5 and members. Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site on Wikipedia Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site (Q7782001) on Wikidata
  • 29 Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace, 28 East 20th St., Flatiron, Manhattan, New York, New York, +1 212 260-1616. Tu-Sa 9AM-5PM, closed Federal holidays. A designated National Historic Site, Roosevelt lived at this site from his birth in 1858 until the age of 14 years. The building is not the original - that was demolished in 1916 - but a reconstruction erected by admirers only three years later in 1919 after Roosevelt's death, and subsequently furnished with many of the original fittings and memorabilia of the 26th US President by Roosevelt's wife and sisters. $3 adults, children under 16 free, guided tours available. Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site on Wikipedia Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site (Q904191) on Wikidata
  • 30 Sagamore Hill, 20 Sagamore Hill Rd., Oyster Bay, New York. The Visitor Center and Bookstore are currently open Wednesday through Sunday from 9am to 5pm. Tours of the Theodore Roosevelt Home are offered Wednesday through Sunday, between 10:00 A.M. and 4:00 P.M. The summer home of President Theodore Roosevelt. Includes tours, a museum, and a visitor center. It is run by the National Park Service. From the website: Access to the Theodore Roosevelt Home is only by guided tour. Same-day tickets can be purchased on a first come, first served basis from the Visitor Center. Advanced reservations to tour Theodore Roosevelt's home can be booked through Recreation.gov or call +1 877 444-6777. $10.00. Sagamore Hill (house) on Wikipedia Sagamore Hill (Q7398976) on Wikidata
  • 31 Theodore Roosevelt Island, 700 George Washington Memorial Pkwy, McLean, Virginia, +1 703 289-2500. Forest with trails, kayaking on Potomac River. Theodore Roosevelt Island on Wikipedia Theodore Roosevelt Island (Q2002770) on Wikidata

27. Taft[edit]

William Howard Taft (R), 1909-1913 — Though initially popular, the policies of Roosevelt's heir apparent so disappointed Republican leaders as insufficiently progressive that they caused a split in the party, and he placed third in his reelection bid. Later became the only ex-president to be nominated to the Supreme Court, as Chief Justice.

28. Wilson[edit]

Woodrow Wilson (D), 1913-1921 — First Southern president since the Civil War. Won reelection by promising to keep the U.S. out of World War I; later reluctantly entered the war anyway and helped bring it to a speedy end. Segregated the military and other formerly integrated organs of the federal government. Was incapacitated for the final 17 months of his presidency by a series of strokes; many say his wife served as de facto Chief Executive during this time.

29. Harding[edit]

Warren G. Harding (R), 1921-1923 — Campaigned on a promise of a postwar "return to normalcy", and accordingly oversaw an uneventful presidency. Notable today mostly for multiple corruption scandals involving members of his Cabinet. Died in office of natural causes.

30. Coolidge[edit]

Calvin Coolidge (R), 1923-1929 — Presiding over a politically uneventful economic boom, Coolidge's economic policies (tax cuts, disdain for government regulation of business) had much in common with today's Republican Party; his relatively outspoken support for civil rights did not.

31. Hoover[edit]

Herbert Hoover (R), 1929-1933 — Share prices on stock markets had been bid up to unsustainable levels through the Roaring Twenties, only to crash dramatically in 1929 in the start of what became a ruinous Great Depression. Crop failures in the Dust Bowl conditions of 1930s Oklahoma and Arkansas only worsened the misery, sending penniless sharecroppers westward The Grapes of Wrath-style on Route 66 to California. Shantytowns for unemployed workers were known as "Hoovervilles", vehicles pulled by horses for want of money for fuel were "Hoover wagons", a newspaper was a "Hoover blanket" and an empty trousers pocket turned inside-out was a "Hoover flag". Hoover's inaction in the face of the stock market crash of 1929 was blamed for worsening the Great Depression, but he later earned a reputation as a great philanthropist.

32. Roosevelt[edit]

Depression-era breadline, FDR Memorial, Washington DC

Franklin D. Roosevelt (D), 1933-1945 — A distant cousin of former president Theodore Roosevelt, and the only president to serve more than two terms. Enacted major economic relief legislation in response to the Great Depression and shepherded the U.S. through most of World War II before dying in office.

  • 26 Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, Manhattan/Roosevelt Island, +1 212 204-8831. April 1: Sept 9AM-7PM. Oct 1- March 31: 9AM-5PM. Park closed Tu, and may close early for private events. Park at southern end of Roosevelt Island, between Manhattan and Queens, celebrates the "Four Freedoms" in his 1941 State of the Union: Freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear. It's next to the ruins of the Smallpox Hospital and has views of the city skyline and East River. Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park on Wikipedia Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park (Q74980) on Wikidata

33. Truman[edit]

Harry S. Truman (D), 1945-1953 — Ordered the nuclear bombing of Japan that brought an end to World War II; won an upset re-election victory in 1948, leading to the "Dewey defeats Truman" headline. Desegregated the U.S. military, kicking off the Democrats' transition toward favorability to African-American civil rights. Sent U.S. troops to Korea to assist the U.S.-allied south after invasion by the Communist north.

34. Eisenhower[edit]

Dwight D. Eisenhower (R), 1953-1961 — Former World War II general who presided over the postwar economic boom. Arranged a permanent cease-fire in the Korean War. Signed important civil rights legislation and ordered the desegregation by military force of Little Rock Central High School. Pushed for construction of the Interstate Highway System as he had seen similar highways during his time in Europe and thought them of military value. Signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA and launching the Space Race with the Soviet Union.

35. Kennedy[edit]

John F. Kennedy (D), 1961-1963 — First Roman Catholic U.S. president, and the youngest person ever to be elected president (age 43 in 1961). His attempted invasion of Communist Cuba was an abject failure, but his deft diplomacy during the subsequent Cuban Missile Crisis narrowly avoided nuclear war with the Soviet Union. Sent U.S. troops to Vietnam. Assassinated.

36. Johnson[edit]

Lyndon B. Johnson (D), 1963-1969 — Former leader of the U.S. Senate from Texas who ascended to the presidency after Kennedy's assassination. Signed the most expansive package of civil rights and social welfare legislation in U.S. history, the so-called "Great Society". Oversaw the Apollo space program that would eventually send astronauts to the Moon. Escalated U.S. involvement in Vietnam; conscription for this unpopular war drew widespread protests, with more than a few young men fleeing to Canada to dodge the draft and others seeking deferment on medical or educational grounds.

37. Nixon[edit]

Richard Nixon (R), 1969-1974 — First further escalated, but then withdrew U.S. troops from the Vietnam War (which ended as a Communist victory and American defeat). Established a diplomatic relationship with Communist China. Removed the U.S. dollar from the gold standard and imposed an unpopular 55 mph national speed limit to conserve fuel after the 1973-74 OPEC oil embargo quadrupled crude prices and created shortages. Created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in an effort to tackle pollution. Resigned from office (the only president ever to do so) under threat of almost certain impeachment in the wake of the Watergate scandal, which grew from a "third-rate burglary" to one of the most far-reaching incidents of political corruption in American history.

There's no record indicating Nixon ever slept at the Watergate, but it did play a pivotal role in the later years of his administration.

  • 46 Watergate Hotel, 2650 Virginia Ave. NW, Washington, D.C., toll-free: +1-844-617-1972. One of a group of six buildings; the attached Watergate Office Building (2600 Virginia Ave NW) housed the offices of a rival political party, inextricably linking the name to the Watergate burglary of 1972. Watergate complex on Wikipedia Watergate complex (Q1419538) on Wikidata

38. Ford[edit]

Gerald Ford (R), 1974-1977 — Appointed Vice-President after Spiro Agnew's resignation and succeeded to the presidency after Nixon's resignation, thus the only person to serve as president never having been elected on a presidential ticket. Pardoned Nixon in September 1974 "for all offenses against the United States which he... has committed or may have committed", a deeply unpopular move that was a factor in his narrow defeat in the 1976 election.

39. Carter[edit]

Jimmy Carter (D), 1977-1981 — Former peanut farmer turned governor of Georgia. Pardoned all Vietnam War "draft dodgers", brokered peace between Egypt and Israel, but had rocky relations with Congress. Continued the monetary policies which sustained double-digit inflation during the Nixon/Ford administrations. Was perceived as weak in office due to his handling of the Islamic Revolution in Iran (the US Embassy in Tehran was taken hostage for more than a year), his reaction to the 1979 Nicaraguan Revolution and his handling of an influx of former prisoners from Cuba. Gained respect as an elder statesman and peacemaker long after leaving office. Currently the oldest living ex-president, and still active in charitable ventures as of 2018.

40. Reagan[edit]

"Tear down this wall!" (1987), Brandenberg Gate, Berlin

Ronald Reagan (R), 1981-1989 — 1940s and '50s-era movie star turned California governor. One of two presidents to hold a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, he was known for a "Reaganomics" economic policy which involved big tax cuts for richer Americans and curtailing regulations on businesses. Reagan abruptly ended long-running 1970s policy whereby governments printed money in an attempt to lower unemployment. Many farmers locked into double-digit interest rates on mortgages in inflationary times found those loans very expensive once inflation stopped dead; some lost their farms and the nation slid rapidly into recession. Reagan took hardline positions opposing Communism in Eastern Europe and confronting trade unions at home, firing America's civilian air traffic controllers during one infamous walkout. The Iran-Contra scandal, which involved covert aid to Nicaraguan anti-communists against the express wishes and decisions of Congress as well as covert arms sales to Iran took place under his Administration, but he remained popular and his vice-president George H.W. Bush became his successor. To date the oldest President upon leaving office.

41. Bush[edit]

George H.W. Bush (R), 1989-1993 — Formerly Reagan's Vice-President, led the U.S. into a five-week war with Iraq after that nation invaded Kuwait. Drew criticism on economic issues, most notably declaring "read my lips, no new taxes" before ultimately raising taxes; was popular during the Gulf War but began to lose popularity when a recession set in toward the end of his term in office.

42. Clinton[edit]

Bill Clinton (D), 1993-2001 — Former governor of Arkansas. A centrist "new Democrat" who took many positions more typical of Republicans, such as cutting social programs and cracking down on crime and illegal immigration. Signed a free trade agreement with Canada and Mexico. Sent U.S. troops to intervene in conflicts in the former Yugoslavia. An attempt to let gays freely serve in the armed forces ended in a flawed compromise ("don't ask, don't tell") and an initiative to provide health coverage was voted down in Congress. Involvement with the Whitewater Development Corp. drew the Clintons into the long-running controversy surrounding the failed savings and loan institutions of the 1986-1995 era. Bill Clinton was unsuccessfully impeached for trying to cover up a sex scandal, and the Clinton administration's support for free trade became a liability to Hillary Clinton's 2016 presidential campaign in key rust belt states long bleeding once-lucrative manufacturing jobs.

43. Bush[edit]

George W. Bush (R), 2001-2009 — In the wake of massive terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C. in 2001, led the U.S. into lengthy and still-ongoing wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Exploited fear of terrorism to curtail civil liberties under the Patriot Act of 2001 and ended passport-free travel from Canada and other adjacent nations in 2007, while relaxing laws governing the banking sector. Markets were bullish during much of the early 2000s, only to crash into recession during the subprime mortgage collapse of 2008 and the Chapter 11 bankruptcy of Detroit auto makers GM and Chrysler in 2009.

44. Obama[edit]

Barack Obama (D), 2009-2017 — first African-American President; his father was born in Kenya. Took office during the Great Recession on a platform of "hope and change", briefly had government take equity in domestic auto makers to save manufacturing jobs and continued efforts to bail out the beleaguered financial sector. Signed the first national health insurance law intended to cover all U.S. citizens. Supported measures to defer deportation of persons brought illegally to the US in childhood, while increasing the number of deportations in some other categories.

  • 45 Jackson Park (Chicago), 6401 South Stony Island Ave, Woodlawn, Chicago. Host site of the Chicago World's Fair in 1893, this 500-acre park is the proposed future site of the Barack Obama Presidential Center and library. The park includes a Museum of Science and Industry, woodland trails, playing fields, a Japanese garden, a beach, a golf course, and a boat harbor. The adjacent Hyde Park neighborhood is home to various Obama-related attractions, including the Obama House, miscellaneous plaques, and restaurants where he used to eat when he lived there. Jackson Park (Chicago) on Wikipedia Jackson Park (Q3157432) on Wikidata

45. Trump[edit]

Donald Trump (R), 2017—present — First president to hold no elected or military office prior to the Presidency; before being President, he was a billionaire businessman and television personality in New York City. His campaign platform included a Mexican border wall to lower immigration levels from Latin America, a ban on Muslim travel to the United States, international trade restrictions, and climate change denial, as well as a promise to bring heavy industry and coal mining jobs back to the United States. His campaign and presidency have also seen the rise of the Alt-right, a group of white nationalists who desire a white ethno-state based on Judeo-Christian values.

  • 56 Old Post Office (Trump Hotel), 1100 Pennsylvania Ave NW, Washington DC. Donald Trump is a real estate developer by trade; a chain of Trump Hotels bears his family's name. The Old Post Office in Washington is leased to the Trump Organization by the government. These complex dealings may create multiple conflicts of interest, especially when foreign diplomatic personnel become clients of the hotel chain. The building's Tower is run by the National Park Service, containing the Bells of Congress and an observation deck. Old Post Office (Washington, D.C.) on Wikipedia Old Post Office (Q1141542) on Wikidata
  • 57 Mar-a-Lago Club, 1100 S. Ocean Blvd, Palm Beach (Florida). A luxury golf resort owned by Donald Trump, where he regularly spends his weekends, and sometimes hosts state guests. Membership in the club, while theoretically possible for the general public, is very expensive with an eye-watering $200,000 intiation fee. Mar-a-Lago on Wikipedia
  • 58 Trump Tower, 721 5th Ave, New York City, New York. The headquarters of the Trump Organization, Donald Trump's eponymous company. The tower also contains a penthouse that was Trump's primary residence prior to moving into the White House. While the penthouse itself is off limits, the tower contains numerous retail business, including several shops and restaurants, that may be visited by the general public. Trump Tower on Wikipedia

Multiple presidents[edit]

North façade – White House
  • 17 The White House, 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D.C., +1 202-456-1111. The residence of every U.S. President since John Adams (in 1800), was set ablaze by British troops during the Burning of Washington (in 1814). Public tours focusing on the historic and social spaces in the East Wing can be scheduled (well) in advance through your Senator or Representative (non U.S. citizens should contact your country's embassy in Washington). White House on Wikipedia White House (Q35525) on Wikidata
  • 18 The Henry Ford Museum, 20900 Oakwood Blvd. (Detroit), +1 313 982-6001, toll-free: +1-800-835-5237. Daily 9:30AM-5PM. Exhibits include presidential parade cars that transported Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush including the 1961 Lincoln Continental Presidential Limousine that John F. Kennedy was riding in when assassinated. The Henry Ford on Wikipedia The Henry Ford (Q3521242) on Wikidata
  • 19 The Hall of Presidents, Walt Disney World Resort, Orlando, Florida. An attraction in Liberty Square at the Magic Kingdom. The Hall of Presidents on Wikipedia The Hall of Presidents (Q3126038) on Wikidata
  • 20 Presidential Archives and Leadership Library, 4919 East University Blvd., Odessa, Texas. A museum established at the University of Texas of the Permian Basin soon after the 1963 Kennedy assassination has since expanded to cover all of the historic presidents and first ladies. Presidential Museum and Leadership Library on Wikipedia Presidential Museum and Leadership Library (Q7241452) on Wikidata
  • 21 SAM-970 (Air Force One), Seattle/Sodo-Georgetown. Older presidential aircraft are sometimes donated to museums, and you can visit SAM 970, a Boeing 707 which served as Air Force One for Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon at the Museum of Flight outside of Seattle. Air_Force_One on Wikipedia
  • 22 Presidential Gallery at the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force, 1100 Spaatz St, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio (near Dayton). National Museum of the United States Air Force on Wikipedia National Museum of the United States Air Force (Q1422977) on Wikidata
  • 23 Grosvenor Square, Mayfair, London, United Kingdom. Home of the US Embassy to London from 1938-2018, this square includes monuments to FDR, Dwight Eisenhower, and Ronald Reagan. Eisenhower established a military headquarters here during World War II. Grosvenor Square on Wikipedia Grosvenor Square (Q932992) on Wikidata

A few public houses have presidential themes.

  • 24 Founding Fathers Pub, 75 Edward St., Buffalo, New York, +1 716 855-8944. A presidential-themed pub whose walls are decorated with portraits and memorabilia representing all 44 men who've held the office. Run by a former social studies teacher famous for quizzing patrons on American history from behind the bar, it's home to pub trivia the first Tuesday night of each month where the topic is, of course, American presidents.
  • 25 City Tavern, 138 South 2nd St at Walnut St, Philadelphia, PA, +1 215 413-1443. 1976-era replica of a public house popular among the Founding Fathers of the U.S. City Tavern on Wikipedia City Tavern (Q2974580) on Wikidata
  • 26 Presidential Lounge at the Mission Inn, Riverside, California. Portraits in the Presidential Lounge commemorate the ten U.S. presidents to visit the The Mission Inn Hotel and Spa. The lounge serves mixed drinks, including the JFK Cosmopolitan or Herbert Hoover Lemon Drop. Live jazz on weekends. The Mission Inn Hotel & Spa on Wikipedia Mission Inn (Q1920529) on Wikidata

See also[edit]

This travel topic about Presidents of the United States is a usable article. It touches on all the major areas of the topic. An adventurous person could use this article, but please feel free to improve it by editing the page.