There have been 44 individuals to fill the role of President of the United States between 1789 and today (including two non-consecutive terms for Grover Cleveland). This article discusses sights related to these presidents.
|“||In America the President reigns for four years, and journalism governs for ever and ever.||”|
The President is the head of the Executive Branch of the U.S. Government, responsible for enforcing Federal laws that are on the books and have the power to sign or veto bills (prospective laws) passed by Congress. After the initial Founding Father generation died off, the Presidency was often seen as a weak office with notable exception Andrew Jackson, who defied the will of the Supreme Court, and James K. Polk, who launched the Mexican American War. But over time, beginning with the American Civil War, the role of the President has expanded tremendously, leading to talk of an "imperial presidency". However, even after 1865 many presidents exercised less authority than did Lincoln, with Theodore Roosevelt being the first to turn the presidency into the undoubtedly most powerful position in the country after that had become uncommon.
The powers that presidents of the late 20th and 21st century are most associated with are foreign policy, war and peace, and the "bully pulpit" of being able to have their public statements immediately receive TV and newspaper coverage. When the president announces a major speech or wishes to address the nation, TV stations will go so far as pre-empt regularly scheduled programming on short notice. This was not the way newspapers treated presidents in the 19th century.
Every year, the president delivers a speech to a joint sitting of Congress in an event known as the State of the Union Address. This event is steeped in tradition with a lot of pomp and circumstance, and is one of the few times when all branches of the U.S. government gather in a single place. One of the many traditions surrounding the event is nominating a "designated survivor", usually a cabinet member born in the US who would assume the presidency should some unforeseen harm befall virtually the entire line of presidential succession assembled in Congress during that day.
List of presidents
(D) = Democrat; (D-R) = Democratic-Republican; (R) = Republican; (W) = Whig; (F) = Federalist; (U) = unaffiliated
George Washington (U), 1789-1797 — The only President to run without a party affiliation, also considered the father of the nation. Many monuments, schools, an entire U.S. state and the federal capital are named in his honor.
- 1 Washington Monument, National Mall, Washington, D.C., ☎ .
- 2 Washington Monument, Intersection of Monument Pl. and Mt Vernon Pl., Baltimore. Thursday 4PM to 9PM, Fridays, Saturdays and Sunday 12PM to 5PM. At the turn of the 19th century, Baltimorians lobbied for a monument dedicated to the United States' first president, and in 1829 — over a half-century before its more famous counterpart in D.C. — Washington's first monument finished construction. It is now the focal point of the Mount Vernon neighborhood. Visitors can climb to the top (more than 160 feet high) with admission to see a panoramic view of the city. $5.
- 3 George Washington Birthplace National Monument, 1732 Popes Creek Road, Colonial Beach, Virginia, ☎ .
- 4 George Washington Masonic National Memorial, 101 Callahan Drive, Alexandria, Virginia.
- 5 Mount Vernon, 3200 Mount Vernon Memorial Highway, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, Virginia, ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- 6 Federal Hall National Memorial, 26 Wall St, Financial District, Manhattan. On this site on April 30, 1789, George Washington stood on a balcony overlooking Wall Street and was inaugurated as the first president of the United States. The old building on the site had been used as New York's city hall and had hosted some of the first congregations of the colonies in the lead-up to the American Revolution, such as the Stamp Act Congress. After the revolution the building, now Federal Hall, briefly housed Congress, the Supreme Court, and Executive Branch offices before the national capital moved to Philadelphia. The current building dates to 1842 and was used first as a Customs House, then later the US Sub-Treasury (millions of dollars of gold and silver were kept in the basement vaults). Today the building is maintained by the National Park Service as a museum dedicated to the history of the site. Guided tours of the building are available, or you can just walk in and look up at the rotunda and view some of the artifacts, such as the bible Washington used in his inauguration ceremony. Free.
Several homes of Washington's direct ancestors and family members have been preserved:
During the Revolutionary War, General Washington used a number of houses and other buildings as military headquarters. Several are historical sites today.
- 11 Longfellow House, 105 Brattle St, Cambridge, Massachusetts, ☎ . The home of famed 19th century poet Henry W. Longfellow also served as headquarters for General George Washington during the Siege of Boston. The full guided tour takes just under an hour; there's a shorter tour which covers just the main floor or the gardens.
- 12 Washington's Headquarters State Historic Site (Hasbrouck House), 84 Liberty St., Newburgh, New York. Military history museum on a site where Washington rejected the idea of a monarchy, circulating a letter to state governors proposing key principles for the new republic and creating a Badge of Military Merit as the forerunner to the Purple Heart.
- 13 Fraunces Tavern, 54 Pearl Street, Financial District, Manhattan. Between 1785-1788, 54 Pearl St. contained the original offices of the Departments of Foreign Affairs, War and Treasury.
Many innkeepers make the claim that "George Washington slept here". Some of the more verifiable claims include:
- 14 Smithfield Inn B&B, 112 Main St, Smithfield, Virginia, ☎ . Former tavern (1759) and residence with brick fireplaces and low ceilings. $155.
- 15 John Rutledge House Inn, Charleston, South Carolina, toll-free: . Breakfast inn (1791) with inlaid floors and elaborate ironwork. $180.
John Adams (F), 1797-1801 — First Vice President and also one of the founders. Lost reelection in part due to the "Three Fifths clause" giving more electoral weight to the South (which supported Jefferson).
- 1 Adams National Historical Park, 135 Adams St, Quincy, Massachusetts, ☎ . The birthplace of presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams was the farm homestead of five generations, including Ambassador Charles Francis Adams and writers and historians Henry Adams and Brooks Adams. A presidential library is on-site; a church where both presidents (and their first ladies) were buried is adjacent.
Thomas Jefferson (D-R), 1801-1809 — Principal author of the U.S. Constitution. As President, negotiated the Louisiana Purchase from France which doubled the land area of the U.S., then sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark west from St. Louis on a voyage to explore the new territory. His gravestone does not mention him being President.
- 1 Jefferson Memorial, Washington, D.C., ☎ .
- 2 Monticello, Charlottesville, Virginia, ☎ . The residence of Thomas Jefferson. The grounds include the house itself, the gardens, slave quarters, and Thomas Jefferson's grave. Open daily. Adults $25 (Mar-Oct), $18 (Nov-Feb), Children $8, Annual Pass $50.
- 3 Tuckahoe Plantation, ☎ . Boyhood home of Thomas Jefferson.
James Madison (D-R), 1809-1817 — Considered the "Father of the Bill of Rights". Led the U.S. through the War of 1812.
- 4 Montpelier, 11350 Constitution Highway, Montpelier Station, Virginia, ☎ . 9AM-4PM Mo-Fr; 9AM-4:30PM Sa-Su. Adult $22.
James Monroe (D-R), 1817-1825 — President during the post-War of 1812 "Era of Good Feelings", a brief period of remarkable political unity in which there was only one political party (Monroe ran for reelection unopposed, the only president ever to do so.) Liberia's capital Monrovia is named for him, due to his support of the American Colonization Society's efforts to return former slaves to Africa. Asserted the Monroe Doctrine, proscribing future European colonization of the Americas. Acquired Florida from Spain, and portions of modern-day North Dakota and Minnesota from Britain.
- 5 James Monroe Tomb, Hollywood Cemetery, 412 S. Cherry St., Richmond, Virginia.
- 6 James Monroe Museum and Memorial Library, 908 Charles Street, Fredericksburg, Virginia, ☎ .
- 7 Highland (James Monroe house), 2050 James Monroe Parkway, Charlottesville, Virginia, ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com.
John Quincy Adams (D-R), 1825-1829 — Son of John Adams, became an opponent of slavery after leaving the White House. Won election in a four way race that had to be decided by the House of Representatives, after he had not come in first in either electoral or popular vote.
Andrew Jackson (D), 1829-1837 — Before taking office, he won a significant battle over the British in New Orleans in 1815, after the War of 1812 had officially ended but before British forces received word of the end of hostilities. He was also involved in bloody battle against Native Americans; there are multiple monuments commemorating General Jackson's military record:
- 1 Equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson, Jackson Square (French Quarter, New Orleans). Following the 1815 Battle of New Orleans against the United Kingdom, the last battle of the 1812 war (taking place after a peace treaty had already been signed in London), the former Place d'Armes was renamed Jackson Square, for the battle's victorious General Jackson. This victory made him a national hero. Alexis de Tocqueville later wrote in Democracy in America that Jackson "was raised to the Presidency, and has been maintained there, solely by the recollection of a victory which he gained, twenty years ago, under the walls of New Orleans." The statue was erected in 1856.
- 2 Large bronze statue of Andrew Jackson, Andrew Jackson State Park, 196 Andrew Jackson Park Road (near Indian Land, South Carolina).
- 3 Andrew Jackson equestrian bronze sculpture, Lafayette Square (West End, Washington, D.C.). A 1928 bronze sculpture of Andrew Jackson, identical to the one at Jackson Square, part of the National Statuary Hall Collection. Other identical copies are installed in Nashville, on the grounds of the Tennessee State Capitol; and in Jacksonville, Florida. Other equestrian statues of Jackson have been erected elsewhere, as in the State Capitol grounds in Raleigh, North Carolina, sculpted by Anna Hyatt Huntington, depicting a young Jackson astride a farm horse.
The adoption of a hard-working but stubborn donkey as the icon of the Democratic Party originates with a political slur (jackass) used by Jackson's opponents in this era.
- 4 Horseshoe Bend National Military Park, 11288 Horseshoe Bend Rd, Daviston, Alabama, ☎ . Major General Andrew Jackson‘s army of 3,300 men slaughtered over 800 of Chief Menawa’s 1,000 Red Stick Creek warriors in battle here on 27 March 1814, inflicting a crushing defeat which ultimately cost the natives 23,000,000 acres of their land.
- 5 The Hermitage, 4580 Rachel's Lane, Nashville, Tennessee, ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. This mansion with its carefully-manicured gardens was once Jackson's home; the facility is now a museum. Jackson's Tomb is nearby. Adult $20.
8. Van Buren
- 6 Martin Van Buren National Historic Site, 1013 Old Post Road, Kinderhook, New York, ☎ . Former Van Buren home, tours offered hourly on weekends; the gravesites of President Martin Van Buren, his wife Hannah and his son are nearby, at the Kinderhook Dutch Reformed Cemetery on Albany Ave.
William Henry Harrison (W), 1841 — First president to die in office, only a month after his inauguration. The first of an odd pattern of deaths in office at twenty-year intervals which continued through Lincoln (elected 1860) to Kennedy (elected 1960) and was claimed by some to be a native curse dating from Tecumseh and the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811.
- Public monuments
- statue at the base of the Soldiers and Sailors Monument in downtown Indianapolis
- a bronze statue of Harrison on horseback Cincinnati's Piatt Park
- the Tippecanoe County Courthouse in Lafayette, Indiana
- a limestone-relief carving is part of a sculpture in front of the Harrison County visitors' center in Corydon, Indiana
- the Ten O'Clock Line Monument in Owen County, Indiana
- 1 Grouseland, 3 West Scott St., Vincennes, Indiana, ☎ . The residence of Harrison while Governor of the Indiana territory.
- 2 William Henry Harrison Tomb State Memorial, 41 Cliff Rd., North Bend, OH (at Congress Green Cemetery).
John Tyler (U), 1841-1845 — First vice-president to assume the presidency upon the death of his predecessor, returned letters addressed to the "acting president" unopened. Elected as a Whig, but expelled from the party soon after his inauguration after a clash with powerful senator Henry Clay and the resignation of nearly his entire Cabinet; unaffiliated with any party for most of his term. Approved the annexation of Texas only a few days before leaving office.
- 16 Sherwood Forest Plantation, Charles City, Virginia, ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com. House tours are available by appointment.
James K. Polk (D), 1845-1849 — Polk's single term was a time of rapid territorial expansion: the annexation of Texas was finalized, the Mexican-American War ended with the U.S. conquering the northern third of Mexico, i.e. California and much of the modern-day Southwest, and the Oregon Treaty with Great Britain added what's now the Pacific Northwest and Idaho.
- 7 James K. Polk Ancestral Home, 301 W. 7th Street, Columbia, Tennessee, ☎ . Adult $10.
- 8 President James K. Polk Historic Site, Pineville, North Carolina, ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Tu-Sa 9AM-5PM. Free.
Zachary Taylor (W), 1849-1850 — Second President to die in office. Sometimes speculated to have been poisoned by hardline pro-slavery people.
Millard Fillmore (W), 1850-1853 — Signed the Compromise of 1850, which staved off civil war for awhile longer at the price of enraging both sides of the slavery dispute. As his Fugitive Slave Act allowed Southern slave catchers to forcibly abduct freedom seekers in Northern states, a clandestine Underground Railroad was assembled by anti-slavery Northerners and free blacks to spirit fugitives onward to freedom in Canada.
- 4 Millard Fillmore Museum, 24 Shearer Ave., East Aurora, New York, ☎ . W, Sa & Su 1PM-3PM, Jun-Oct. The only remaining residence (other than the White House) of President Fillmore, who built the house himself and resided in it from 1826 to 1830. It's now restored to its period appearance and furnished with authentic pieces belonging to the Fillmore family. One-hour tours. Listed as a National Historic Landmark. Adult $10.
Franklin Pierce (D), 1853-1857 — Presided over the "Gadsden Purchase" of what is now southern Arizona and New Mexico, the last major land acquisition in what is now the contiguous U.S. The land was supposed to be used for a southerly route of a transcontinental railroad, but that plan never materialized.
- 9 Franklin Pierce Homestead, 301 2nd NH Turnpike, Hillsborough, New Hampshire, ☎ . Adult $5.
- 10 The Pierce Manse, 14 Horseshoe Pond Lane, Concord, New Hampshire, ☎ . Tu-Sa 10AM-3PM Jun-Aug, Sa 10AM-3AM Sep,. Franklin Pierce's family home is open for guided tours June-October. $7/adult, $6/senior, $3/kids.
James Buchanan (D), 1857-1861 — Chosen largely because he had been abroad during the time the debate over slavery got heated. Did nothing during the secession crisis.
- 11 Buchanan's Birthplace State Park, near Cove Gap, in Peters Township, Franklin County, Pennsylvania (near Mercersburg).
- 12 James Buchanan Memorial, Meridian Hill Park, Northwest, Washington, D.C..
- 13 Wheatland (James Buchanan House), 1120 Marietta Ave., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, ☎ .
Abraham Lincoln (R), 1861-1865 — His election led 11 Southern states to secede, causing the American Civil War; however, he led the remaining U.S. states, called the Union, to victory over the Southern states. Assassinated in 1865, the first of four U.S. presidents to suffer such a fate.
- 1 Ford's Theatre Museum, 511 10th St. NW, Washington, D.C. (between E St & F St), ☎ . A great museum detailing the life of Abraham Lincoln and the place where he was assassinated. Free.
- 2 Lincoln Memorial, National Mall, Washington, D.C..
- 3 Lincoln Tomb, Oak Ridge Cemetery, 1441 Monument Ave., Springfield, Illinois.
- 4 Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historical Park, 2995 Lincoln Farm Road, Hodgenville, Kentucky, ☎ .
- Lincoln Museum, 66 Lincoln Square, Hodgenville, Kentucky, ☎ .
- 5 Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial, Lincoln City, Indiana, ☎ . See Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial for further details.
- 6 Lincoln Home National Historic Site, 413 S. 8th Street, Springfield, Illinois, ☎ .
- 7 Lincoln Depot Museum, 10 S. Water Street, Peekskill, New York, ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com.
- 8 Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, 212 N 6th St, Springfield, Illinois.
- 9 Lincoln Log Cabin State Historic Site, 402 S. Lincoln Highway Rd , Lerna, Illinois, ☎ .
- 10 President Lincoln's Cottage at the Solder's Home, Rock Creek Church Rd & Upshur St NW, Petworth, Washington, D.C..
- 11 Vandalia State House, Vandalia, Illinois.
Andrew Johnson (D), 1865-1869 — Elected to the Vice Presidency in the midst of the Civil War as a "war Democrat" on a "National Union" ticket with Lincoln; ascended to presidency after Lincoln's assassination and was later unsuccessfully impeached due to disputes with Republicans in Congress over the postwar "reconstruction" of the South. Signed the purchase of Alaska from Russia.
- 14 Andrew Johnson National Historic Site, 121 Monument Ave., Greeneville, Tennessee, ☎ .
- 15 President Andrew Johnson Museum and Library, Tusculum University, Greeneville, Tennessee.
Ulysses S. Grant (R), 1869-1877 — Union general who accepted the surrender of Robert E. Lee at Appomattox. Last president to try to advance African American civil rights for several decades. Decisively smashed the first iteration of the Ku Klux Klan. Wrote a widely acclaimed and bestselling autobiography that deals with his pre-presidential life.
- 12 Grant's Tomb (General Grant National Memorial), Riverside Drive and 122nd St., Upper West Side, Manhattan, New York, New York (Subway: to 125th St.), ☎ . Daily 9AM-5PM. General Ulysses S. Grant and his wife are buried in this imposing mausoleum, the largest tomb in North America. If you come when it is closed, you can still see the impressive facade, but coming during open hours gives you the opportunity to view the murals, the tomb itself and various documentation inside. Across Riverside Drive, there is a viewpoint to look across the Hudson River, a museum, gift shop and restrooms.
- 13 Grant Birthplace, 1551 State Route 232, Point Pleasant, Ohio, ☎ , toll-free: .
- 14 Grant Boyhood Home, 219 East Grant Avenue, Georgetown, Ohio, ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Adult $5.
- 15 Grant Cottage State Historic Site, 1000 Mt McGregor Rd., Wilton, New York, ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com. Adult $6.
- 16 Ulysses S. Grant Home, 511 Bouthillier St., Galena, Illinois. This was the place where Grant worked as "lackluster clerk" (according to the Ken Burns documentary about the American Civil War) before re-joining the Army and rising to be the highest ranking Union general of his age famed for winning the war - a fame which would ultimately propel him to the White House
- 17 White Haven (Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site), 7400 Grant Road, St. Louis, Missouri, ☎ .
- 18 Ulysses S. Grant Memorial, west of the Capitol, Washington, D.C..
Rutherford B. Hayes (R), 1877-1881 — called "Rutherfraud" due to the dubious nature of his electoral "victory"; lost the popular vote, but perhaps only because a large number of freed slaves in the South had been terrorized into not voting. A compromise that resulted in Democrats accepting his election also led to the withdrawal of federal troops from the South, often considered the end of Reconstruction, which ultimately led to the almost entire disenfranchisement of African Americans and many poor whites.
- 19 Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Library and Museums, Spiegel Grove, Fremont, Ohio, ☎ .
James Garfield (R), 1881 — Assassinated after only a few months in office.
- 20 James A. Garfield National Historic Site, 8095 Mentor Avenue, Mentor, Ohio, ☎ .
- 21 James A. Garfield Monument, First Street, S.W., and Maryland Avenue, Washington, D.C..
Chester Arthur (R), 1881-1885 — Garfield's former vice-president, initially widely mistrusted as a protégé of corrupt New York State Republican boss Roscoe Conkling, unexpectedly embraced the cause of civil service reform, rooting out cronyism in political hiring (the so-called "spoils system"). Signed laws prohibiting immigration from China and outlawing the polygamy that was then rampant in Mormon Utah. Declined to run for re-election due to poor health.
- 22 Chester Alan Arthur State Historic Site, 4588 Chester Arthur Rd., Fairfield, Vermont, ☎ . Adults $5.
Grover Cleveland (D), 1885-1889 and 1893-1897 — The only president to serve two terms non-consecutively. Campaigned on a promise to clean up corruption and end the spoils system (much as he had done at the state level as governor of New York). Reduced tariffs and modernized the Navy. Cleveland's second term was hampered by an economic depression and labor unrest, including the Pullman Strike of 1893 which he brutally suppressed. His non-interventionist foreign policy and support of Venezuela in their maritime boundary dispute with British Guiana helped improve U.S. relations with Latin America.
Benjamin Harrison (R), 1889-1893 — Grandson of William Henry Harrison. Continued to clean up corruption, but sharply increased the tariffs that his predecessor had lowered. Passed the Sherman Antitrust Act, the first meaningful attempt by the government to curb the power of big business. Established the first National Forests. A vociferous supporter of civil rights who advocated in vain for the enforcement of voting rights for black Southerners and a bigger federal role in education.
- 23 Benjamin Harrison Presidential Site, 1230 North Delaware Street, Indianapolis, Indiana, ☎ , e-mail: Harrison@bhpsite.org. Adult $10.
William McKinley (R), 1897-1901 — Presided over the brief Spanish-American War which ended with Puerto Rico, Guam, and Cuba becoming American colonies. The Philippines were also ceded by Spain but remained in rebellion against U.S. rule into the Roosevelt administration. Also responsible for the annexation of Hawaii. Assassinated.
- 24 McKinley Monument, Niagara Square, Buffalo, New York. Erected in 1907 in commemoration of the assassination of President William McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition exactly six years prior, this gleaming 96-foot (29 m) obelisk of Vermont marble was designed by the architectural firm of Carrere and Hastings. The lions and turtles resting at its base (symbols, respectively, of strength and eternal life) were carved by well-known sculptor A. Phimister Proctor. The monument was also the subject of Carl Sandburg's poem "Slants at Buffalo, New York".
- 25 McKinley Death Rock, in front of 30 Fordham Drive, Buffalo, New York. On the center island in the middle of Fordham Drive, in the residential neighborhood situated on what once were the grounds of the Pan-American Exposition, is a small rock with a historic plaque marking the spot where President McKinley was standing when felled by the bullet of his assassin, Leon Czolgosz.
- 26 William McKinley Presidential Library & Museum, 800 McKinley Monument Drive NW, Canton, Ohio, ☎ . Museum M-Sa 9AM-4PM, Su noon-4PM, monument open Apr-Oct during museum hours, Ramsayer Research Library M-F 9AM-4PM. Historical museum containing the largest collection of artifacts in the world related to McKinley, chronicling his life from childhood through his Civil War service, his time in the House of Representatives and as governor of Ohio, and his presidency and assassination, as well as the presidential archive itself in a separate wing of the building. The McKinley National Memorial, the domed mausoleum that serves as his final resting place, is also part of the complex; it stands on a hill behind the museum and boasts panoramic views over the surrounding area. The museum also contains exhibits related to local history in general and, somewhat incongruously, also a science center with fossils, stuffed wildlife, and a planetarium. $10, seniors $9, children 3 and over $8.
- 27 National McKinley Birthplace Memorial, 40 N. Main Street, Niles, Ohio.
Theodore Roosevelt (R), 1901-1909 — Spanish-American War hero who rose from the New York governorship to the Vice-Presidency to the Presidency (to which he ascended after McKinley was assassinated) in only three years. A popular president famous as a progressive "trust buster" who opposed the corrupt practices of big business, and as a conservationist who championed the establishment of many national parks and other protected lands.
- 28 Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site, 641 Delaware Ave., Buffalo, New York, ☎ . M-F 9:30AM-3:30PM, Sa Su 12:30PM-3:30PM. In September 1901, several days after President William McKinley was assassinated at Buffalo's Pan-American Exposition, Theodore Roosevelt stayed at the 1838 Greek Revival home of his friend, local lawyer and politico Ansley Wilcox, and the Oath of Office was administered to him there. A planned demolition of the house in the early 1960s was averted at the last minute, and today the Wilcox Mansion has been thoroughly restored inside and out, and features historical displays related to Roosevelt, McKinley and the Exposition as well as occasional temporary exhibits. The grounds are planted with herb and flower gardens in season. $10, aged 62+ and students $7, ages 6-18 $5, families $25, free for children under 5 and members.
- 29 Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace, 28 East 20th St., Flatiron, Manhattan, New York, New York, ☎ . Tu-Sa 9AM-5PM, closed Federal holidays. A designated National Historic Site, Roosevelt lived at this site from his birth in 1858 until the age of 14 years. The building is not the original - that was demolished in 1916 - but a reconstruction erected by admirers only three years later in 1919 after Roosevelt's death, and subsequently furnished with many of the original fittings and memorabilia of the 26th US President by Roosevelt's wife and sisters. $3 adults, children under 16 free, guided tours available.
- 30 Sagamore Hill, 20 Sagamore Hill Rd., Oyster Bay, New York. The Visitor Center and Bookstore are currently open Wednesday through Sunday from 9am to 5pm. Tours of the Theodore Roosevelt Home are offered Wednesday through Sunday, between 10:00 A.M. and 4:00 P.M. The summer home of President Theodore Roosevelt. Includes tours, a museum, and a visitor center. It is run by the National Park Service. From the website: Access to the Theodore Roosevelt Home is only by guided tour. Same-day tickets can be purchased on a first come, first served basis from the Visitor Center. Advanced reservations to tour Theodore Roosevelt's home can be booked through Recreation.gov or call +1 877 444-6777. $10.00.
- 31 Theodore Roosevelt Island, 700 George Washington Memorial Pkwy, McLean, Virginia, ☎ . Forest with trails, kayaking on Potomac River.
William Howard Taft (R), 1909-1913 — Though initially popular, the policies of Roosevelt's heir apparent so disappointed Republican leaders as insufficiently progressive that they caused a split in the party, and he placed third in his reelection bid. Later became the only ex-president to be nominated to the Supreme Court, as Chief Justice.
Woodrow Wilson (D), 1913-1921 — First Southern president since the Civil War. Won reelection by promising to keep the U.S. out of World War I; later reluctantly entered the war anyway and helped bring it to a speedy end. Segregated the military and other formerly integrated organs of the federal government. Was incapacitated for the final 17 months of his presidency by a series of strokes; many say his wife served as de facto Chief Executive during this time.
- 17 Woodrow Wilson Presidential Library and Museum, 20 N. Coalter Street, Staunton, Virginia, ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- 18 Woodrow Wilson Boyhood Home, 419 7th Street, Augusta, Georgia, ☎ . Th-Sa 10AM-4PM.
- 19 Thomas Woodrow Wilson Boyhood Home, 1705 Hampton Street, Columbia, South Carolina, ☎ . Adult $10.
- 20 Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 S St., NW, Washington, D.C., ☎ . Adullt $10.
Warren G. Harding (R), 1921-1923 — Campaigned on a promise of a postwar "return to normalcy", and accordingly oversaw an uneventful presidency. Notable today mostly for multiple corruption scandals involving members of his Cabinet. Died in office of natural causes.
- 33 Harding Home, 380 Mt. Vernon Ave., Marion, Ohio, toll-free: . Currently closed for restoration and will reopen on May 4, 2019.
Calvin Coolidge (R), 1923-1929 — Presiding over a politically uneventful economic boom, Coolidge's economic policies (tax cuts, disdain for government regulation of business) had much in common with today's Republican Party; his relatively outspoken support for civil rights did not.
- 34 Coolidge Homestead, 3780 Route 100A, Plymouth Notch, Vermont, ☎ . Adult $10.
- 35 Plymouth Notch Cemetery, Plymouth Notch, Vermont. Burial place of Calvin Coolidge.
Herbert Hoover (R), 1929-1933 — Share prices on stock markets had been bid up to unsustainable levels through the Roaring Twenties, only to crash dramatically in 1929 in the start of what became a ruinous Great Depression. Crop failures in the Dust Bowl conditions of 1930s Oklahoma and Arkansas only worsened the misery, sending penniless sharecroppers westward The Grapes of Wrath-style on Route 66 to California. Shantytowns for unemployed workers were known as "Hoovervilles", vehicles pulled by horses for want of money for fuel were "Hoover wagons", a newspaper was a "Hoover blanket" and an empty trousers pocket turned inside-out was a "Hoover flag". Hoover's inaction in the face of the stock market crash of 1929 was blamed for worsening the Great Depression, but he later earned a reputation as a great philanthropist.
- 36 Herbert Hoover Presidential Library & Museum, 210 Parkside Drive, West Branch, Iowa (near Iowa City), ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com. Open daily 9am-5pm, closed Thanksgiving, Christmas and New Year's Day. Adults $10.
- 37 Hoover–Minthorn House, 115 S. River Street, Newberg, Oregon, ☎ . Adult $5.
- 38 Herbert Hoover National Historic Site, West Branch, Iowa (near Iowa City), ☎ .
- 39 Hoover Dam (Boulder City, Nevada), ☎ , toll-free: , fax: . This $49 million concrete arch-gravity dam, constructed 1931-1936 on the Colorado River, borders Nevada and Arizona. A product of the Great Depression, its hydroelectric station generates two gigawatts of power. There is a visitor facility and a $15 tour of the power station.
- 40 Rapidan Camp (Camp Hoover), Shenandoah National Park, 3655 US Rte 211 E, Luray, Virginia, ☎ . The president's cabin, The Brown House, is historically refurnished to the 1929 era with a ranger-guided tour in high season.
- 41 Hoover Tower, near Palo Alto, California. Observation tower on Stanford University campus. $4, $3/senior.
Franklin D. Roosevelt (D), 1933-1945 — A distant cousin of former president Theodore Roosevelt, and the only president to serve more than two terms. Enacted major economic relief legislation in response to the Great Depression and shepherded the U.S. through most of World War II before dying in office.
- 21 Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library & Museum, 4079 Albany Post Rd., Hyde Park, New York, toll-free: . Daily 9AM-6PM, Apr-Oct; closes at 5PM all other times. This is the first presidential library, and to date the only one used by its namesake while in office.
- 22 Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site, 4097 Albany Post Rd., Hyde Park, New York, ☎ . Open year round, daily. Closed Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Years Day. Buildings are open 9AM-5PM, grounds are open 7AM to sunset.
- 23 Roosevelt's Little White House Historic Site, Warm Springs, Georgia.
- 24 Campobello Island, New Brunswick, Canada. A 34-room "cottage" on Campobello was FDR's long-time Atlantic summer retreat; Roosevelt Campobello International Park is maintained in his memory.
- 26 Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, Manhattan/Roosevelt Island, ☎ . April 1: Sept 9AM-7PM. Oct 1- March 31: 9AM-5PM. Park closed Tu, and may close early for private events. Park at southern end of Roosevelt Island, between Manhattan and Queens, celebrates the "Four Freedoms" in his 1941 State of the Union: Freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear. It's next to the ruins of the Smallpox Hospital and has views of the city skyline and East River.
Harry S. Truman (D), 1945-1953 — Ordered the nuclear bombing of Japan that brought an end to World War II; won an upset re-election victory in 1948, leading to the "Dewey defeats Truman" headline. Desegregated the U.S. military, kicking off the Democrats' transition toward favorability to African-American civil rights. Sent U.S. troops to Korea to assist the U.S.-allied south after invasion by the Communist north.
- 27 Harry S. Truman Presidential Library & Museum, 500 W. U.S. Hwy 24, Independence, Missouri, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Adults $8.
- 28 Harry S. Truman Birthplace State Historic Site, Lamar, Barton County, Missouri, ☎ .
- 29 Harry S. Truman Farm Home, 12301 Blue Ridge Blvd, Grandview, Missouri (near Lee's Summit).
- 30 Harry S. Truman National Historic Site, 223 North Main Street, Independence, Missouri, ☎ .
- 31 Harry S. Truman Little White House, 111 Front St. in Key West, Florida, ☎ .
Dwight D. Eisenhower (R), 1953-1961 — Former World War II general who presided over the postwar economic boom. Arranged a permanent cease-fire in the Korean War. Signed important civil rights legislation and ordered the desegregation by military force of Little Rock Central High School. Pushed for construction of the Interstate Highway System as he had seen similar highways during his time in Europe and thought them of military value. Signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA and launching the Space Race with the Soviet Union.
- 42 Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library & Museum, 200 SE. Fourth Street, Abilene, Kansas, ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com.
- 43 Eisenhower National Historic Site, 1195 Baltimore Pike, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, ☎ .
- 44 Eisenhower Birthplace State Historic Site, 609 S. Lamar, Denison, Texas, ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
John F. Kennedy (D), 1961-1963 — First Roman Catholic U.S. president, and the youngest person ever to be elected president (age 43 in 1961). His attempted invasion of Communist Cuba was an abject failure, but his deft diplomacy during the subsequent Cuban Missile Crisis narrowly avoided nuclear war with the Soviet Union. Sent U.S. troops to Vietnam. Assassinated.
- 32 John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum, Columbia Point, Dorchester, Boston, Massachusetts, ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com. Adults $14.
- 33 The Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza, 411 Elm St., Suite 120, Dallas, Texas, ☎ , toll-free: , fax: . Daily 9AM-6PM. Dallas was the site of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The Texas Book Depository is the site where shots were fired by Lee Harvey Oswald. The museum is on the sixth floor of the same building, with an extra exhibition on the seventh. It is a moving experience with videos, full-wall descriptions and photographs, along with artifacts from the event. The museum's gift shop is in a different building. Adults $13.50.
- 34 John Fitzgerald Kennedy National Historic Site, 83 Beals Street, Brookline, Massachusetts, ☎ .
- 35 John F. Kennedy Hyannis Museum, 397 Main Street, Hyannis, Massachusetts, ☎ .
- 36 John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame, Arlington National Cemetery.
- 37 Yad Kennedy Memorial Lookout, Mateh Yehuda (מטה יהודה), near Jerusalem. "And to them will I give in my house and within my walls a memorial and a name." - Isaiah 56:5. This 60' (18 m) Israeli memorial to JFK on a hill overlooking Jerusalem is shaped to resemble a stump of a felled tree, representing a life cut short.
Lyndon B. Johnson (D), 1963-1969 — Former leader of the U.S. Senate from Texas who ascended to the presidency after Kennedy's assassination. Signed the most expansive package of civil rights and social welfare legislation in U.S. history, the so-called "Great Society". Oversaw the Apollo space program that would eventually send astronauts to the Moon. Escalated U.S. involvement in Vietnam; conscription for this unpopular war drew widespread protests, with more than a few young men fleeing to Canada to dodge the draft and others seeking deferment on medical or educational grounds.
- 38 Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library & Museum, 2313 Red River Street, Austin, Texas, ☎ . 9am-5pm every day except Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year's Day. Adults $10.
- 39 Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park, Blanco and Gillespie counties, Texas, ☎ . See Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park for further details.
- 40 LBJ Memorial Grove on the Potomac, Washington, D.C..
Richard Nixon (R), 1969-1974 — First further escalated, but then withdrew U.S. troops from the Vietnam War (which ended as a Communist victory and American defeat). Established a diplomatic relationship with Communist China. Removed the U.S. dollar from the gold standard and imposed an unpopular 55 mph national speed limit to conserve fuel after the 1973-74 OPEC oil embargo quadrupled crude prices and created shortages. Resigned from office (the only president ever to do so) under threat of almost certain impeachment in the wake of the Watergate scandal, which grew from a "third-rate burglary" to one of the most far-reaching incidents of political corruption in American history.
- 45 Richard Nixon Presidential Library & Museum, 18001 Yorba Linda Boulevard, Yorba Linda, California, ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
There's no record indicating Nixon ever slept at the Watergate, but it did play a pivotal role in the later years of his administration.
- 46 Watergate Hotel, 2650 Virginia Ave. NW, Washington, D.C., toll-free: . One of a group of six buildings; the attached Watergate Office Building (2600 Virginia Ave NW) housed the offices of a rival political party, inextricably linking the name to the Watergate burglary of 1972.
Gerald Ford (R), 1974-1977 — Appointed Vice-President after Spiro Agnew's resignation and succeeded to the presidency after Nixon's resignation, thus the only person to serve as president never having been elected on a presidential ticket. Pardoned Nixon in September 1974 "for all offenses against the United States which he... has committed or may have committed", a deeply unpopular move that was a factor in his narrow defeat in the 1976 election.
- 47 Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library, 1000 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan, ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com.
- 48 Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum, 303 Pearl Street, Grand Rapids, Michigan, ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Jimmy Carter (D), 1977-1981 — Former peanut farmer turned governor of Georgia. Pardoned all Vietnam War "draft dodgers", brokered peace between Egypt and Israel, but had rocky relations with Congress. Continued the monetary policies which sustained double-digit inflation during the Nixon/Ford administrations. Was perceived as weak in office due to his handling of the Islamic Revolution in Iran (the US Embassy in Tehran was taken hostage for more than a year), his reaction to the 1979 Nicaraguan Revolution and his handling of an influx of former prisoners from Cuba. Gained respect as an elder statesman and peacemaker long after leaving office. Alive and active in charitable ventures as of 2018.
- 41 Jimmy Carter Presidential Library & Museum, 441 Freedom Parkway, Atlanta, Georgia, ☎ .
- 42 Jimmy Carter National Historic Site, 300 North Bond Street, Plains, Georgia (Plantation Midlands), ☎ .
Ronald Reagan (R), 1981-1989 — 1940s and '50s-era movie star turned California governor. One of two presidents to hold a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, he was known for a "Reaganomics" economic policy which involved big tax cuts for richer Americans and curtailing regulations on businesses. Reagan abruptly ended long-running 1970s policy whereby governments printed money in an attempt to lower unemployment. Many farmers locked into double-digit interest rates on mortgages in inflationary times found those loans very expensive once inflation stopped dead; some lost their farms and the nation slid rapidly into recession. Reagan took hardline positions opposing Communism in Eastern Europe and confronting trade unions at home, firing America's civilian air traffic controllers during one infamous walkout. The Iran-Contra scandal, which involved covert aid to Nicaraguan anti-communists against the express wishes and decisions of Congress as well as covert arms sales to Iran took place under his Administration, but he remained popular and his vice-president George H.W. Bush became his successor. To date the oldest President upon leaving office.
- 49 Ronald Reagan Presidential Library & Museum, 40 Presidential Drive, Simi Valley, California, toll-free: .
- Ronald Reagan Pub (inside Reagan Library and Museum, admission required).
- 50 Ronald Reagan Birthplace & Museum, 111-113 S. Main Street, Tampico, Illinois, ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com.
- 51 Ronald Reagan Museum & Peace Garden, 300 E College Ave, Eureka, Illinois, ☎ .
- 52 Ronald Reagan Boyhood Home, 816 S. Hennepin Ave., Dixon, Illinois, ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. open Apr 1 - Oct 31, M-Sa 10AM-5PM, Su 1-5PM.
George H.W. Bush (R), 1989-1993 — Formerly Reagan's Vice-President, led the U.S. into a five-week war with Iraq after that nation invaded Kuwait. Drew criticism on economic issues, most notably declaring "read my lips, no new taxes" before ultimately raising taxes; was popular during the Gulf War but began to lose popularity when a recession set in toward the end of his term in office. Currently the oldest living ex-president.
- 53 George Bush Presidential Library & Museum, 1000 George Bush Drive West, College Station, Texas, e-mail: email@example.com.
Bill Clinton (D), 1993-2001 — Former governor of Arkansas. A centrist "new Democrat" who took many positions more typical of Republicans, such as cutting social programs and cracking down on crime and illegal immigration. Signed a free trade agreement with Canada and Mexico. Sent U.S. troops to intervene in conflicts in the former Yugoslavia. An attempt to let gays freely serve in the armed forces ended in a flawed compromise ("don't ask, don't tell") and an initiative to provide health coverage was voted down in Congress. Involvement with the Whitewater Development Corp. drew the Clintons into the long-running controversy surrounding the failed savings and loan institutions of the 1986-1995 era. Bill Clinton was unsuccessfully impeached for trying to cover up a sex scandal, and the Clinton administration's support for free trade became a liability to Hillary Clinton's 2016 presidential campaign in key rust belt states long bleeding once-lucrative manufacturing jobs.
- 43 William J. Clinton Presidential Library & Museum, 1200 President Clinton Avenue, Little Rock, Arkansas, ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Adult $10.
- 44 William Jefferson Clinton Birthplace Home National Historic Site, 117 South Hervey St., Hope, Arkansas, ☎ . Daily, 9AM-4:30PM. Tours of home every 30 minutes. Free.
George W. Bush (R), 2001-2009 — In the wake of massive terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C. in 2001, led the U.S. into lengthy and still-ongoing wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Exploited fear of terrorism to curtail civil liberties under the Patriot Act of 2001 and ended passport-free travel from Canada and other adjacent nations in 2007, while relaxing laws governing the banking sector. Markets were bullish during much of the early 2000s, only to crash into recession during the subprime mortgage collapse of 2008 and the Chapter 11 bankruptcy of Detroit auto makers GM and Chrysler in 2009.
- 54 George W. Bush Presidential Library & Museum, 2943 SMU Blvd., Dallas, Texas, ☎ . Adult $19.
- 55 George W. Bush Childhood Home, 1412 West Ohio Avenue, Midland, Texas, ☎ .
Barack Obama (D), 2009-2017 — first African-American President; his father was born in Kenya. Took office during the Great Recession on a platform of "hope and change", briefly had government take equity in domestic auto makers to save manufacturing jobs and continued efforts to bail out the beleaguered financial sector. Signed the first national health insurance law intended to cover all U.S. citizens. Supported measures to defer deportation of persons brought illegally to the US in childhood, while increasing the number of deportations in some other categories.
- 45 Jackson Park (Chicago), 6401 South Stony Island Ave, Woodlawn, Chicago. Host site of the Chicago World's Fair in 1893, this 500-acre park is the proposed future site of the Barack Obama Presidential Center and library. The park includes a Museum of Science and Industry, woodland trails, playing fields, a Japanese garden, a beach, a golf course, and a boat harbor. The adjacent Hyde Park neighborhood is home to various Obama-related attractions, including the Obama House, miscellaneous plaques, and restaurants where he used to eat when he lived there.
Donald Trump (R), 2017—present — First president to hold no elected or military office prior to the Presidency; before being President, he was a billionaire businessman and television personality in New York City. His campaign platform included a Mexican border wall to lower immigration levels from Latin America, a ban on Muslim travel to the United States, international trade restrictions, and climate change denial, as well as a promise to bring heavy industry and coal mining jobs back to the United States. His campaign and presidency have also seen the rise of the Alt-right, a group of white nationalists who desire a white ethno-state based on Judeo-Christian values.
- 56 Old Post Office (Trump Hotel), 1100 Pennsylvania Ave NW, Washington DC. Donald Trump is a real estate developer by trade; a chain of Trump Hotels bears his family's name. The Old Post Office in Washington is leased to the Trump Organization by the government. These complex dealings may create multiple conflicts of interest, especially when foreign diplomatic personnel become clients of the hotel chain. The building's Tower is run by the National Park Service, containing the Bells of Congress and an observation deck.
- 17 The White House, 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D.C., ☎ . The residence of every U.S. President since John Adams (in 1800), was set ablaze by British troops during the Burning of Washington (in 1814).
- 18 The Henry Ford Museum, 20900 Oakwood Blvd. (Detroit), ☎ , toll-free: . Daily 9:30AM-5PM. Exhibits include presidential parade cars that transported Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush including the 1961 Lincoln Continental Presidential Limousine that John F. Kennedy was riding in when assassinated.
- 19 The Hall of Presidents, Walt Disney World Resort, Orlando, Florida. An attraction located in Liberty Square at the Magic Kingdom.
- 20 Presidential Archives and Leadership Library, 4919 East University Blvd., Odessa, Texas. A museum established at the University of Texas of the Permian Basin soon after the 1963 Kennedy assassination has since expanded to cover all of the historic presidents and first ladies.
- 21 Grosvenor Square, Mayfair, London, United Kingdom. Home of the US Embassy to London from 1938-2018, this square includes monuments to FDR, Dwight Eisenhower, and Ronald Reagan. Eisenhower established a military headquarters here during World War II.
A few public houses have presidential themes.
- 22 Founding Fathers Pub, 75 Edward St., Buffalo, New York, ☎ . A presidential-themed pub whose walls are decorated with portraits and memorabilia representing all 44 men who've held the office. Run by a former social studies teacher famous for quizzing patrons on American history from behind the bar, it's home to pub trivia the first Tuesday night of each month where the topic is, of course, American presidents.
- 23 City Tavern, 138 South 2nd St at Walnut St, Philadelphia, PA, ☎ . 1976-era replica of a public house popular among the Founding Fathers of the U.S.
- 24 Presidential Lounge at the Mission Inn, Riverside, California. Portraits in the Presidential Lounge commemorate the ten U.S. presidents to visit the The Mission Inn Hotel and Spa. The lounge serves mixed drinks, including the JFK Cosmopolitan or Herbert Hoover Lemon Drop. Live jazz on weekends.
- Mount Rushmore — a carving into Mount Rushmore, showing the faces of four of the national Presidents, was featured in the film North by Northwest and is one of the most iconic landmarks in South Dakota.
- North American history