- See also: European history
World War I, called The Great War in its time as it was believed to be the war to end all wars, was one of the world's largest armed conflicts. It took place between 1914 and 1918, mainly in Europe and Africa. The Western Front, running through Belgium and Northeastern France, was particularly destructive.
In the 2010s, the centennial anniversaries, and the passing away of the last veterans, have revived interest for the war.
|“||This war, like the next war, is a war to end war.||”|
—David Lloyd George
In 1914, Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo by Serbian nationalists. This event sparked tension between Austria-Hungary and Serbia. As the Russian Empire backed up Serbia, other great powers joined the conflict. Though a single event started the war, many historians argue that conflict between Europe's great powers was almost inevitable and debate over which nation is most responsible for the war is still ongoing 100 years later.
World War I lives in infamy as the war that introduced weapons of mass destruction — poison gas — onto the battlefield. It was also the first war in which the recently-invented airplane was used in combat, though not the first war to see aerial bombardment, which had been employed from balloons and airships decades earlier.
The 1919 Treaty of Versailles held the Central Powers, especially Germany, responsible for the war, and liable for what were seen as harsh reparations. Public resentment over these reparations would later be a contributing factor in the rise of Hitler and lead up to World War II. However, neither the reparations nor the territorial losses imposed on Germany were notably harsher than what Germany itself had imposed on Russia in the Treaty of Brest Litovsk a few months earlier. By contrast, Italian fascism arose over what was seen as a "vittoria mutilata" or mutilated victory by some and the territorial gains Italy made in the war were widely seen as not enough and the economic woes after the war were blamed on the Allies and numerous internal and external foes.
The war brought down several empires — Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia and the Ottomans — and sparked the formation of the Soviet Union. The League of Nations, which was the precursor to today's United Nations, was formed in the aftermath of the war, though its effectiveness was limited by the fact that the United States never joined and League of Nations sanctions or decisions were frequently ignored, ultimately leading to the departure or expulsion of both the Soviet Union and the major Axis Powers, Germany, Italy and Japan. The tensions within Europe were only briefly resolved; World War II repeated many tragedies of the first war and introduced new horrors.
The war had a severe impact on culture and literature with both significant anti war works like All Quiet on the Western Front and glorifications of war being written by its veterans. Mussolini departed from the Socialist Party over his views on the war while an Austrian wannabe artist of the name of Adolf Hitler found his first purpose in life (and a political ideology) during his service for the Bavarian army. The war has been called "the original catastrophe of the 20th century" and many of the horrors or World War II and the Cold War would not have been possible without the catalyst of this war.
The war between Austria-Hungary and Italy (1915-18) was mostly static in terms of front movement but saw brutal fighting in next to impossible conditions of a still mostly untouched high mountain range. In the latter years, mining and explosives increasingly became a means of warfare and traces of this are visible to this day
- 1 Brest. The site of the notorious peace treaty of Brest-Litovsk between Soviet Russia and the German Empire.
- 2 Ypres. There were two large battles here, one in the autumn of 1914 and the second in the spring of 1915. The second saw the first use of poison gas in a military context, by the Germans.
- 3 Verdun. One of the bloodiest battles of this or in fact any war and almost every French soldier who participated in the war was deployed here at some point in time.
- 4 Vimy Ridge. A bitterly fought battle in early 1917 in which Canadians drove Germans off some high ground, with heavy casualties on both sides. There is a a 100-hectare (250-acre) preserved battlefield park with the Canadian National Vimy Memorial near the center.
- 5 Forest of Compiègne. Here the armistice ending major combat operations in the West was signed on November 11 1918. November 11 has been "Remembrance Day", "Veterans Day" or "Armistice Day" in various countries ever since.
Hitler later had the exact railroad carriage in which the armistice was signed brought back to force his French counterparts to sign the 1940 French capitulation here. The railroad carriage was subsequently lost, but a replica sits on site to this day.
- 6 Kiel. The German navy was stationed here and when the high command wanted them to sail out at a point in time when defeat seemed inevitable, the sailors started what is now known as the November revolution of 1918 and eventually ended up toppling the Kaiser and installing (short lived) soldiers' and workers' councils.
- 7 Manfred von Richthofen's grave (Grave of the "Red Baron"), Südfriedhof (Wiesbaden). One of the predominant flying aces and a pioneer of areial combat, Manfred von Richthofen aka the "Red Baron" has been (re-)buried in Wiesbaden after having prior resting places in Berlin (relocated in the 1970s due to it being too close to the border) and on several military graveyards in Eastern France
The fighting between Austria-Hungary and Italy between 1915 and 1918 was particularly fierce and fought in harsh terrain. A big part of the war effort where mines and counter mines and sometimes this involved literally blowing up (the tops of) mountains
Prince Faisal, much assisted by British intelligence officer T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) led an Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire. They took Aqaba with a surprise attack, and later took Damascus before the British force coming from Egypt through Palestine could reach it.
Today it is fairly common for residents of Saudi Arabia to go out into the desert to view places where Lawrence's lads blew up the Turks' Hejaz railway which ran from Damascus to Medina. Bedouin routinely travel this area in small Toyota trucks; anyone else needs a convoy of four-wheel drive vehicles.
- 8 Gallipoli. The ill-fated invasion of the Ottoman mainland, a brainchild of Winston Churchill, is credited with creating the Australian and Kiwi national "ANZAC spirit" as the Australia New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) suffered relatively high casualties.