- For other places with the same name, see Texas (disambiguation).
Owing to its remarkable size, distinctive culture and politics, and colorful history, many Texans maintain a fiercely independent attitude, with Texan identity often superseding American identity. Few other American states feature their flag so prominently in businesses, on the backs of cars and in advertisements.
Texas became a colony of Spain in the 17th century, and, later, part of Mexico. Texas rebelled in 1836 and was an independent nation for 10 years before being annexed by the United States in 1845. Despite having existed under the auspices of six different countries (France, Spain, Mexico, the Republic of Texas, the United States of America, and the Confederate States of America), Texas has maintained its fascinating independent spirit, making for a unique and unrivaled exploration ground for any intrigued and intrepid adventurer.
Known for their generosity, hospitality, unusual accent, and penchant for the larger-than-life, Texans are wonderful people to meet. The variety of cultural experiences, from feasting on bratwurst with the Germans of the Hill Country to watching Flamenco dancers with the Tejanos of the Rio Grande valley, is seemingly unlimited.
The large size of the state should not be underestimated. Texas measures over 267,000 sq mi (690,000 km2) in area, making it slightly larger than France. Having a car is essential for travel between cities, and within most. The traveler should factor on long driving times between cities and destinations.
Texas is bordered by the U.S. states of New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, and the Mexican states of Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Chihuahua, as well as having a long coast on the Gulf of Mexico.
Texas is called the "Lone Star State" and the Lone Star can be found on its state flag as well as its state seal.
|Texas Panhandle (Lubbock, Amarillo, Wichita Falls)|
Great plains, cotton and the Llano Estacado
|Prairies and Lakes (Dallas, Fort Worth)|
Recreational lakes and exciting nightlife
|Piney Woods (Nacogdoches, Lufkin, Texarkana, Tyler)|
Pine forests, bayous, and Civil War and Civil Rights history
|Gulf Coast (Houston, Corpus Christi, Brownsville, Beaumont, Port Arthur, Galveston)|
Islands, beaches and port cities
|South Texas Plains (San Antonio, Laredo)|
Border country along the Rio Grande, Spanish missions
|Hill Country (Austin, Fredericksburg)|
Edwards Plateau, rolling hills, rivers and the State capital
|Big Bend Country (El Paso, Odessa)|
Big Bend National Park, mountains, desert and canyons.
- 1 Austin – "Live Music Capital of the World", state capital and home to the main campus of the University of Texas
- 2 Corpus Christi – home of the Texas State Aquarium and gateway to Padre Island
- 3 Dallas – Texas' multicultural economic powerhouse, blending Texan culture with modern trends.
- 4 El Paso – the largest city on the US/Mexico border
- 5 Fort Worth – Fort Worth Stockyards, "Where the West Begins"
- 6 Houston – Texas' largest city, home of NASA's Mission Control Center, best dining scene in the state, and home to Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine.
- 7 Laredo – the US's largest inland port
- 8 Lubbock – financial and cultural center of the South Plains, birthplace of Buddy Holly and home of several top notch wineries, location of Texas Tech University
- 9 San Antonio – famous for the Alamo as well as the "River Walk" nightlife district, this metropolis is also home to four major theme parks, two SeaWorld and two Six Flags parks
- 1 Big Bend National Park
- 2 Big Thicket National Preserve
- 3 Guadalupe Mountains National Park
- 4 Palo Duro Canyon
- 5 South Padre Island
The first European to arrive in Texas was Spanish conquistador Alonso Álvarez de Pineda.
France, Spain and Mexico have all laid claim to Texas at one point or another. However, in 1836, Texas won its independence from Mexico and became the Republic of Texas. The most famous battle of the fight for independence was the stand at the Alamo. Although tragic, the sacrifice allowed the main army of Texas time enough to gather their strength and defeat the formidable Mexican army, led by General Santa Anna. Nine years later Texas agreed to be annexed by the United States and became the 28th state of the Union.
Texas, especially the eastern part, is considered part of the South, and like the rest of the coastal South, was once home to slave plantations, most of which grew cotton. The northern and western regions were more typical to the Old West, with small groups of settlers pursuing livestock ranching and mineral prospecting.
In the American Civil War Texas joined the Confederacy, which was defeated by the Union. While Texas took little harm from the war, the following years were marked by clashes between white veterans, freed blacks, and outlaws. In the following decades, Texas prospered from ranching and an emerging oil industry. Like other southern states, Texas passed Jim Crow laws enforcing racial segregation in the late 1800s and early 1900s. During this time, many brutal lynchings took place. While hit hard by the Great Depression, the state went through rapid industrialization during World War II, and has since then emerged as a powerhouse of high technology, with Houston as the command center for the American space program.
The ethnic background of Texas is extremely diverse. One-third of the population has some sort of Hispanic background, some of whom have families that have lived in Texas since the time it was part of Mexico, with a few tracing their Texas roots back to the Spanish era. There are also many German settlements (such as Fredericksburg and New Braunfels), as well as Norwegian, Polish, Czech, Swedish and French settlements. Also, a sizable number of African-Americans (mainly in North, East and Southeast Texas) and Asian-Americans (often in metropolitan areas of Texas) can be found. Although generally regarded as a conservative state, this varies significantly by geographic area; larger cities like Houston, Dallas and San Antonio, as well as towns along the Mexican border, are generally liberal, while rural parts of the state tend to be deeply religious and conservative. In the 2010s, the huge influx of upwardly-mobile college-educated millennials into the big cities has been turning Texas into a swing state.
Texas is a huge state and therefore experiences an extreme variety of weather. The state is very warm in the summer months, with temperatures often above 100°F (38°C). In West Texas and the Panhandle, summers are usually dry with fits of stormy weather. North (Dallas/Fort Worth region) and coastal (Houston region) areas have unstable climates (hence the oft-repeated saying about Texas weather: "If you don't like the weather, wait 10 minutes" – though 10 minutes later you might not like the change).
Thunderstorms are common, sometimes generating tornadoes and hailstorms. It is often warmer near the coast, though humidity can be unbearable in the summer. Conversely, the spring, autumn and winter are relatively pleasant for most of the state. It rarely dips below the freezing point in winter, except in the Panhandle region where the winters can get quite cold (Lubbock and Amarillo have suffered devastating blizzards in the past), and, though it is quite rare, even points as far south as Corpus Christi and Brownsville have seen snow.
Again, the sheer size of the state is not to be underestimated. Brewster County in West Texas is larger in land area than Rhode Island and Delaware combined; Texarkana is closer to Chicago than it is to El Paso, El Paso is closer to Los Angeles than it is to Beaumont, and Brownsville is closer to Mexico City than it is to Dallas. If you are wanting to take in the full Texas experience, you will need ample time to do so.
Texas has no official language. However, as with the rest of the United States, English is the predominant language of the state. Spanish is also spoken by approximately one-third of the population, and is the first language of many residents from the towns on the Mexican border. However, don't assume that all Hispanic Texans speak Spanish. Some families have been in Texas for longer than Texas has been part of the U.S., and thus either speak only English, or use Spanish only as a second language. Texas also has small numbers of Chinese, Korean, Tagalog, and Vietnamese speakers as well.
Don't assume that the majority of people are going to have a "Texan" accent. While you will run into many that do, the majority of Texans, especially in the cities, speak in a General American accent and lack the "Texan twang" one associates with the state's residents.
Texas shares an international border with Mexico as well as a 600-mile coastline. It is bordered on the north by the state of Oklahoma, on the west by the state of New Mexico, and on the east by the states of Arkansas and Louisiana. As a state of the United States, all visa and passport rules of the U.S. apply.
- See also: Air travel in the United States
1 Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW IATA) and 2 George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH IATA) are the most popular entry points with a wide variety of flights from Europe, East Asia, India, Australia, Latin America, Middle East (Israel, Qatar, Turkey, UAE) and from various cities in the U.S. on a variety of U.S. and foreign flag carriers. Houston serves as a hub for United at Bush Intercontinental Airport and Southwest at Houston Hobby while Dallas-Ft Worth serves as a hub for American Airlines and Dallas Love Field as the hub for Southwest. If you are flying within Texas or coming from within the U.S., there are other airports in Texas that are less crowded and may be closer to your final destination in:
- 3 Dallas Love Field (DAL IATA) is an "alternate" airport in the Dallas-Ft Worth Metroplex that is closer in towards downtown Dallas. If you are traveling with Southwest Airlines to the Dallas Ft Worth metroplex they only land at the Dallas Love Field.
- 4 William P Hobby Airport (HOU IATA) is the other airport in the Houston area that 10 mi (16 km) southeast of downtown Houston. If you are traveling with Allegiant or Southwest Airlines into the Houston area they only land at the William P Hobby Airport
- 5 Austin-Bergstorm International Airport(AUS IATA) The third busiest airport in Texas receives many nonstop flights.
- 6 Amarillo Rick Husband Amarillo Airport(AMA IATA) 6 mi (9.7 km) east of downtown Amarillo. It has commercial service with Allegiant, American, United and Southwest from other parts of the state and from Las Vegas, Phoenix-Mesa and Denver.
- 7 El Paso International Airport (ELP IATA) northeast of downtown. Small airport served by Alaska, Allegiant, American, Delta, Frontier, Southwest, and United.
- 8 Lubbock Preston Smith International Airport (LBB IATA) 7.5 mi (12.1 km) north of downtown Lubbock and 120 mi (190 km) south of Amarillo. It is served mainly by intrastate flights with American, United and Southwest. The same airlines also offer non-stop flights from Las Vegas, Phoenix Sky Harbor and Denver.
- 9 McAllen-Miller International Airport (MFE IATA)The nearest airport to Laredo, McAllen and Brownsville in south Texas, near the border.
- 10 San Antonio International Airport (SAT IATA) in the northern neighborhoods of the Alamo city, serves a good chuck of American and Mexican destinations.
In addition to Dallas-Ft Worth and Bush Intercontinental in Houston, flights from Mexico land in Austin, San Antonio and McAllen in Texas and in Ciudad Juarez and Monterrey as the nearest Mexican airports to Texas. The roads leading from Monterrey to Reynosa/McAllen and Nuevo Laredo/Laredo are not safe due incidences of carjacking, illegal roadblocks and other violence perpetrated by drug cartel members against travelers. Same thing south of Brownsville/Matamoros in Tamaulipas state.
- See also: Rail travel in the United States
Three daily Amtrak trains serve the state. Firstly, the Texas Eagle between Chicago and San Antonio, with stops in Texarkana, Dallas and Austin. Secondly, the Sunset Limited between Los Angeles and New Orleans, with stops in Houston, San Antonio and El Paso. This train also conveys a through-car to and from Chicago three times per week. Finally, there's the Heartland Flyer travelling between Fort Worth and Oklahoma City.
Amtrak fares are often higher than a comparable flight and ride times are long, but travelling by train offers a unique perspective and spectacular views that can't be had from a car bus or plane for those who are interested. However, Amtrak is also notorious for delays as they don't own most of their tracks and have to wait to let freight trains pass on single tracked parts of the network, sometimes for hours.
Texas is well-served from other points in the U.S. by the United States Interstate Highway system, the quality and condition of which is generally very good. There are many roads which cross into Texas from Mexico, most notably in McAllen, Brownsville, Laredo and El Paso. Due to the enormous amount of traffic from Mexico and Central America, Laredo is the country's largest inland port, and wait times at this and all border stations can often be tremendous. In all, Texas boasts over 72,000 miles of state and federal highways.
If you are not a U.S. citizen and you are driving into the U.S. from Mexico, you must have a visa or valid permit beforehand, as they are not issued at the bridges across the Rio Grande. If you are a U.S. citizen, you must present a passport to customs at the border crossings to re-enter the United States. Otherwise, your vacation in Mexico just got longer!
Note that the roads in Tamaulipas, Coahuila, Chihuahua and Nuevo Laredos (an maybe further south) states, particularly those connecting Monterrey to Reynosa/McAllen and Nuevo Laredo/Laredo are not safe due incidences of carjacking, illegal roadblocks and other cartel violence against travelers. Same thing with the roads south of Brownsville/Matamoros in Tamaulipas state.
For the braver, more adventurous (and more frugal) passengers, inter-city busses are an option. Please take into consideration that this mode of transportation is primarily used by those who cannot afford air travel and you may be riding with migrant workers, and very low income Americans. Even so, conditions in stations and on the buses are adequate. The Greyhound takes you to remote cities within Texas, and can take you as far as Mexico City and all points in Canada.
The road system is almost universally excellent, and even the most remote points in the state can be accessed with an average sedan. Gas stations are numerous; however, in rural West Texas, do not press your luck. Texan highways are often built with parallel frontage roads and turnarounds at most exits. Speed limits are very strictly enforced in rural areas of the state; Texas state troopers will pull you over for an infraction as small as five miles per hour over the speed limit, as traffic fines are often an important source of income for many smaller towns. However, when traveling through larger cities, observing the "common speed" of traffic around you is much safer. The rural speed limit in Texas is generally 70 MPH, though it increases to 80 MPH on Interstates 10 and 20 in the sparsely populated far western portion of the state.
On the downside, Texas has one of America's worst traffic safety records and one of the highest number of alcohol-related traffic fatalities in America.
If you plan to drive around Texas, these are generally the most important routes for you to know:
- : Interstate 10 runs on an east-west route through Texas, connecting Beaumont, Houston, San Antonio, West Texas and El Paso.
- & : Also running on an east-west route, Interstate 20 connects Longview, Tyler, the Metroplex, Abilene, Midland and El Paso. It ends/begins at I-10 at Scroggins Draw at 186 mi (299 km) east of El Paso. US Hwy 80 parallels or runs concurrent on I-20 (in some places) between Mesquite and Cuba, Alabama serving as a local surface street through the cities and towns it passes through. US Hwy 80 begins/ends in Dallas at its junction with I-30 at the Dallas-Mesquite line.
- : A north-south route, Interstate 27 connects Amarillo and Lubbock.
- : Although it has a brief run in Texas, Interstate 30 connects Texarkana and the Metroplex.
- : The primary north-south route in Texas, this interstate connects Laredo, San Antonio, Austin, Waco and the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex.
- : Serves as a diagonal route from San Antonio to Corpus Cristi on the Gulf Coast.
- : The primary east-west route of the Panhandle region, Interstate 40 connects Amarillo to parts of Oklahoma and New Mexico.
- : A north-south route connecting the Metroplex, Houston, and Galveston.
- & The north-south route across Eastern Texas, this route connects Texarkana, Houston, Victoria and Laredo. The segment from Rosenberg to Cleveland, running through Houston, is now signed as Interstate 69. The latter route will eventually run northeast to southwest, connecting Nacogdoches, Houston, and Victoria before splitting into three segments in Victoria. One will follow a generally coastal route through Corpus Christi to Brownsville. The other two will follow inland routes, one to the western Rio Grande Valley cities and the other to Laredo.
- : A north-south route, this road runs somewhat northeast to southwest, connecting Texarkana, the Metroplex, San Angelo, Fort Stockton, Marfa and Presidio.
- & : The primary north-south route in Texas predating the interstate highway system, this highway connects Brownsville Harlingen, Victoria, Corpus Cristi, Waco and Fort Worth. It is concurrent or closely parallels with I-35/35W between Waco, Fort Worth and Oklahoma City. The section of US Hwy 77 between the Willacy-Kennedy County line (north of Raymond) and Brownsville have been upgraded and re-numbered to Interstate 69E
- : Another north-south route, this road runs somewhat more northwest to southeast, connecting Amarillo, Lubbock, San Angelo, Fredericksburg, San Antonio and Victoria.
- : US Hwy 90 begins/ends in Van Horn. Going south, US Hwy 90 winds 304 mi (489 km) southeast towards Del Rio (at the Mexican border), through Valentine, Marfa, Alpine, Marathon and Sanderson in San Antonio. US Hwy 90 runs parallel or concurrent on I-10 from San Antonio to Houston. East of Houston, US 90 splits from I-10 and heads northeast towards Liberty, eventually traveling through downtown Beaumont where it rejoins I-10 for the rest of its routing towards the Louisiana state line.
In regards to driver's licenses, Texas has reciprocity agreements with 83 countries (including Canada, Mexico, United Kingdom, most of Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea), meaning your driver's license is likely good in Texas if you plan to stay less than a year. That being said it never hurts to carry an International Driving Permit (IDP) in addition to your domestic license; for foreign nationals of countries who do not have reciprocity agreements, this is a must. IDPs are available from your local automobile association and are usually valid for one year.
Texas is home to three major airlines: American Airlines, based out of Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport, United Airlines, based out of Houston George Bush Intercontinental Airport, and Southwest Airlines, with hubs in Austin, Dallas Love-Field, and Houston Hobby. Southwest is the main budget airline and flies throughout Texas and most of the United States. Travel to any destination world-wide is quite painless from the larger Texas airports and many of them have nonstop flights to many foreign countries in addition to most US cities.
Since Texas cities are geographically dispersed, travel by train is expensive and often inconvenient, though Amtrak does provide several lines and a private company is acquiring land for a Japanese-style bullet train between Houston and Dallas, the two largest urban areas. Passenger service is no longer an option for cities in the Panhandle or southern Texas. Again, the size of the state is startling; traveling across the width of Texas (from Orange, in the eastern extremity, near Houston, to El Paso in the western extremity) is roughly the same distance as one would encounter while traveling from El Paso to Los Angeles or from Houston to Jacksonville, Florida. Texarkana, in the northeast corner of the state, is closer to Chicago than it is to the extreme southern tip of Texas. The far northwest corner of the Panhandle is closer to Bismarck, North Dakota than it is to Brownsville.
- See also: Intercity buses in the US
The bus is not the most glamorous way to get around the state, but it can be the cheapest. The most frequent services are between Dallas/Ft Worth (in the north), San Antonio/Austin (in the SW), and Houston/Katy (in the SE), laid out in a triangular pattern on the map. There are additional services connecting El Paso from the west and Houston in the east to Austin, College Station and/or San Antonio in the middle; and from the Mexican border to San Antonio and Houston. There are additional companies, county bus services, and those connecting rural towns not listed on here, check the city article or that of your destination and the schedules of the company for all the transportation options. Information on transit can be found here:
- Greyhound, toll-free: . Connects Dallas to El Paso (I-20); Houston (I-45); Laredo (via San Marcos, Austin, San Antonio) (I-35); Oklahoma City (I-35); Atlanta (I-20/I-85); Memphis (I-30) and points in between; and from Houston to Baton Rouge (I-10). They also connect San Antonio and Dallas towards Denver through Lubbock, Amarillo, Big Springs and points in between in the northern/northwestern part of the state. They serve the most places in Texas than the other bus companies.
- Valley Transit Co (VTC) operates primarily in the areas S/SE of San Antonio and Houston towards the Rio Grande (Mexican border) as a subsidiary brand of Greyhound.
- Greyhound Mexico connects Monterrey, Nuevo Laredo (state) to Laredo (via Nuevo Laredo) and McAllen (via Reynosa) on two separate routes. Otherwise they have Autobus Americanos as a co-brand with Grupo Estrella Blanca for further travel into Mexico.
- Flixbus. Connects Los Angeles to El Paso; From Houston to Austin, Dallas and New Orleans; and from San Antonio to Dallas (via San Marcos and Austin) on three separate networks. Flixbus doesn't offer direct connections between El Paso, San Antonio along the I-10 corridor.
- Megabus, Kerryville (CoachUSA). Connects Dallas to Houston, College Station, Prairie View, San Antonio (via Austin); and from Houston to Dallas, New Orleans (via Baton Rouge), Austin (via San Marcos), and San Antonio. Kerryville operates some of the Megabus routes in Texas, otherwise they're for hire as a charter.
- Redcoach, ☏ , toll-free: . Service between Houston, San Antonio, Austin, College Station and Dallas.
- Tornado Bus, El Expreso.
- Turimex (operated by Grupo Senda). Their intrastate connections are between Dallas, Houston, San Antonio, Laredo, McAllen and Brownsville.
Along with Oklahoma, Oregon, and Missouri, Texas is one of the few U.S. states that allow foot traffic on all toll-free Interstate highways (except within the city limits of El Paso). This makes hitchhiking relatively easy.
- The Battle of the Alamo in San Antonio was the most tragic hour of the erstwhile Republic of Texas. Here some 200 men under siege by a Mexican army of 1,500 or more bravely refused to surrender, and gained immortal fame.
- San Jacinto Battleground State Historical Park, Houston. This is the site of the decisive 1836 battle between Texians led by Sam Houston and the Mexican army under the dictator Gen. Santa Anna, in which Texas gained independence. The San Jacinto Monument, the park's 570-foot-tall centerpiece, is fifteen feet taller than the Washington Monument and the world's tallest monumental column (everything is bigger in Texas!). The battle is counted among those having the greatest impact on history. Within a dozen years of its defeat, Mexico had lost not only Texas, but the territory of the future states of California, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and New Mexico. Don't forget to make time to visit the Battleship Texas, permanently moored nearby.
- Galveston was a prosperous port city when a hurricane hit in 1900, wiping most of its buildings and 6,000 to 8,000 of its residents off the map in America's worst ever natural disaster. The city rebuilt on sand pumped in from the sea behind a 17-foot high seawall, but never regained its former position. A few buildings that survived the storm, and others built after the disaster and then protected from replacement by the city's decline, today form a handsome historic downtown district.
- After Texas was annexed, the U.S. and Mexico proceeded to quarrel over the border. General Zachary Taylor was ordered by President Polk to set up and to mobilize ground troops at Fort Texas/Fort Brown. During the American Invasion of Mexico, 1846 to 1848, two historic battles took place in Brownsville the Battle of Resaca de la Palma and the Battle at Palo Alto
- Fort Davis National Historic Site - Partially restored fort, home of the Buffalo soldiers (the first peacetime all-black regiments in the regular U.S. Army) in the town of Ft. Davis north of Big Bend Nat Park. In the surrounding Davis Mountains is MacDonald Observatory and Ft. Davis State Park. A scenic loop drive goes through the forested mountains and down on the desert prairie; you may see deer, pronghorn (also called antelope), javelinas (also called peccaries), roadrunners, eagles and some very beautiful scenery.
- The Fort Worth Stockyards offer a look into the past, when cattle drives and cowboys were all the rage.
- Lubbock Lake Landmark State Historical Park, Lubbock. Evidence of human occupation dating back several millennia is strewn across this South Plains park. Archaeologists even today frequently discover new artifacts.
- Dealey Plaza, Dallas. One of the top tourist attractions in the state, this is where the assassination of John F. Kennedy occurred on 22 November 1963. Visit the Sixth Floor Museum in the infamous Texas School Book Depository building nearby for related history and artifacts, including Lee Harvey Oswald's sniper rifle and Jack Ruby's iconic hat.
- The state capitol in Austin is a pink granite look-alike to the nation's capitol, with a gorgeous interior under a spectacular rotunda. It is one of several state capitols taller than the national one. In the nearby Bob Bullock Museum of Texas History, a Disney animatronic version of Sam Houston narrates the story of Texas.
- The Rio Grande has cut a pass through the Southern extension of the Rocky Mountain chain, here called the Franklin Mountains, found in the center of El Paso. Three Spanish missions south of the city -- Ysleta founded 1682, Soccorro Mission 1759, and San Elizario Chapel 1789 -- are some of the oldest still functioning churches in the U.S. The campus of the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) features buildings, even parking garages, which improbably enough are constructed in the Bhutanese style of architecture, unlike any place in the country.
Fun and games
- The original Six Flags and Hurricane Harbor, Arlington
- Six Flags Fiesta Texas, San Antonio
- Sea World, San Antonio
- Schlitterbahn, New Braunfels
- Wonderland Park, Amarillo
- Joyland Amusement Park, Lubbock
- Schlitterbahn Galveston, Galveston
- Galveston Pleasure Pier, Galveston
Culture and "Texana"
- The King Ranch, along the Gulf Coast, is a working ranch bigger than the state of Rhode Island.
- As the largest city on the US/Mexico border, El Paso is a hotbed of Hispanic culture in America with a flavor that is more Mexican than Texan.
- Not to be missed is the extraordinary Hill Country, with its fields of wildflowers covering sprawling cattle ranches.
- A total solar eclipse on Monday 8 April 2024 crosses Texas from 1:30PM. The track of totality is northeast from Mexico to enter the US at Del Rio then east of San Antonio and Austin, then over Waco and Dallas-Fort Worth to Texarkana and into Arkansas.
- Big Bend National Park is mountains, desert, wilderness, and river (Rio Grande) scenery. There are snakes, deer, javelina (wild pigs) plus many other types of wildlife. At the western entrance is Terlingua (an old ghost town) which is the home to the annual International Chili Cookoff. Farther down the road to the west along the El Camino del Rio (The River Road) scenic drive to Presidio is the town of Lajitas whose mayor is a goat (a real goat) that guzzles beer like water -- put a bottle or can near his mouth and he will grab it right out of your hand in his teeth and turn it up until it all drains into his mouth.
- Get an idea of the size and space of Texas with a drive through the Chihuahuan Desert or through the Texas Panhandle.
- Guadalupe Mountains National Park, at the New Mexico state line in the far western part of the state, is home to 8,749 foot Guadalupe Peak, the highest point in Texas. Another point of interest in the park is McKittrick Canyon, a rather startling oasis of maple trees and other flora and fauna that stands out in stark contrast to the aridness of the surrounding desert.
- Palo Duro Canyon, the second largest canyon in the country, was cut across the High Plains near Amarillo by a branch of the Red River, providing some really breathtaking scenery and plenty of trails to follow.
- Take a leisurely inner tube trip, floating down the Comal, Guadalupe, San Marcos, Brazos, or Frio rivers.
- Spend the weekend living the Old West at a Dude Ranch
- Hike and climb through the natural wonders of the Palo Duro Canyon near Amarillo.
- Enjoy live music and Western heritage at the Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo, held every spring at Houston's Reliant Park.
- Pique your curiosity about Texas' storied history at the Alamo in San Antonio.
- Take in a show in Houston's Theatre District - the largest performing arts district outside of New York City.
- Sports fans will want to see some of America's winningest and iconic professional and collegiate sports teams, including the Houston Astros, Dallas Cowboys, Texas Rangers, Houston Texans, Dallas Mavericks, San Antonio Spurs, Houston Rockets, University of Texas Longhorns, and the Texas A&M Aggies.
Sales tax in Texas is usually between 6.25% and 8.25%. The main items exempt from sales tax include medicines (prescription and over-the-counter), food and food seeds (but prepared food such as from a restaurant, is subject to sales tax). Texas provides one sales tax holiday per year (generally in August prior to the start of the school year, running from Friday to Sunday of the designated weekend). Clothing less than $100 (except for certain items, such as golf shoes) and school supplies are exempt from all sales tax (state and local) on this one weekend only.
The major department stores in Texas include Neiman Marcus, Saks Fifth Avenue, Nordstrom, Dillard's, Macy's, JCPenney, Sears, Kohls, and Bealls. The first three are considered to be upscale. Macy's and Dillard's is mostly midrange and most stores feature its own store brands. JCPenney, Sears, Kohls, and Bealls generally target a middle-class to working-class market.
Some noteworthy malls and shopping centers include:
- The Galleria (Houston)
- Katy Mills (Katy)
- NorthPark Center (Dallas)
- Galleria Dallas (Dallas)
- Grapevine Mills (Grapevine)
- Shops at La Cantera (San Antonio)
- North Star Mall (San Antonio)
- The Domain (Austin)
- Barton Creek Square (Austin)
- Cielo Vista Mall (El Paso)
In addition there are also several outlet malls in Texas of which the most important are at San Marcos, Round Rock, Texas City, Terrell, Grand Prairie, El Paso, and McAllen. In particular the outlet mall in San Marcos has been ranked as one of the best in the country, and is popular with both locals and Mexican tourists.
For those who want to buy genuine cowboy boots and other western wear, they are all over Texas.
As in the rest of the U.S., the leading convenience store chain in Texas is 7-Eleven which is coincidentally founded and based in Dallas. The three other major convenience store chains are Stripes, Buc-ee's, and Circle K.
For basic supplies, try to use supermarkets and pharmacies if possible, as they have better selection and provide better value for your money than convenience stores. The major pharmacy chains in Texas are CVS, Walgreens, and Rite Aid. The major supermarket chains include H-E-B, Kroger, Randall's, Tom Thumb, Albertsons, United, Brookshire Brothers, and Aldi. Whole Foods Market which is based in Austin is the leading organic/natural supermarket throughout the state; and other organic/natural chains such as Trader Joe's, Central Market, and Sprouts Farmers Market have a presence in the larger cities as well. The ubiquitous discount store chains Walmart and Target both offer some groceries (Walmart Supercenters and SuperTargets offer a full selection of groceries) and also usually have pharmacies on site.
H-E-B in particular is ubiquitous in South Texas, having replaced most other chain grocers. It is well-loved by locals for good deals and its support of the community.
- Barbecue is the mainstay of any true Texan's diet (some Texans will frown at you if you call it B-B-Q). The International Barbecue Cookoff is held annually in Taylor, TX (northeast of Austin). A Texas specialty is chopped or thinly sliced beef brisket, usually served with a slice of white bread, pickles, onions, and sauce in a separate container (although Central European-style sausage is also common). Classic sides are coleslaw, beans, and potato salad.
- Chili is the official state dish of Texas. There are many varieties of chili, but original Texas-style chili contains no beans. The place to try all the varieties is the International Chili Cookoff, held on the first weekend in November in Terlingua, TX.
- Tex-Mex is Mexican cuisine with Texas flair. Take ancient traditions (such as filled tortillas) and add beef, sauces, cheeses and spices, and Tex-Mex is born. Nachos, burritos, crispy tacos, crispy chalupas, chili con queso, chili con carne, chili gravy, and fajitas are all Tex-Mex inventions. Serving tortilla chips and a hot sauce or salsa con queso as an appetizer is also an original Tex-Mex combination, and one that Texan diners insist on. While Texans are generally nice people, and won't be easily offended, it's worth repeating: Tex-Mex food is most definitely not the same as Mexican food, a point locals will be all-too-happy to point out.
- Down Home Cookin' is a blend of American and German cuisine brought about by the necessity of cooking from the back of a chuck wagon. Meals include steaks, stews, casseroles, breads and pies. There are many steakhouses around the state, notably the Big Texan Steak Ranch in Amarillo, Bob's Steak and Chophouse in Dallas, Fort Griffin General Merchandise in Albany and Taste of Texas steak house in Houston's west side.
- Chicken Fried Steak is cube steak pounded until tender, breaded, and fried in a pan, usually topped with a peppery, creamy white gravy and served with a side of mashed potatoes and beans. CFS (as it's sometimes known) can be found everywhere from school cafeterias, to fast food joints, where it may be served on a sandwich, to upscale eateries (with a creative twist, of course). Its presence on the menu is a sure-fire way to tell if you're in Texas - just don't ask for it "rare" or "well done"; it's not that kind of steak!
- Kolaches are a type of pastry that holds a dollop of fruit or other fillings such as sausage, chocolate, jalapeño-cheese, etc., rimmed by a puffy pillow of supple dough. Due to the earlier large influx of Czech settlers into Texas along with their descendants, kolaches later became extremely popular in the state and both Caldwell and West, Texas, claim the title of "Kolache Capital" of the state and most doughnut shops and convenience stores such as Shipley's Do-Nuts also sell kolaches.
Aside from those Texas staples mentioned earlier it is also relatively easy to find hole in the wall ethnic restaurants serving a wide variety of authentic ethnic cuisines from around the world, especially in large and medium sized cities thanks to the large and rapidly growing transplant/immigrant population in Texas particularly in Houston, Dallas, Austin, and San Antonio. In addition cities such as Austin have jump started the national trend on food trucks. These usually offer a variety of foods, usually at lower than normal prices. Some popular food trucks include East Side King, Chi’lantro, Hey Cupcake![dead link], and the Peached Tortilla
Texas has many cities with fabulous nightlife. Some of the more notable include:
- Austin: 6th Street and the Warehouse District.
- Dallas: Uptown, Deep Ellum, and Greenville Avenue districts.
- Fort Worth: the Historic Fort Worth Stockyards including the world-famous Billy Bob's Texas, which claims to be the largest Honky-Tonk in the world (it even has its own rodeo arena). Also, in Fort Worth's surprisingly clean and vibrant downtown area, there is Sundance Square, where one can find food, drink, and entertainment ranging from live music to first-run movies.
- Houston: Downtown, The Heights, or Montrose.
- Historic San Antonio: Downtown/Riverwalk, the Southtown Arts District and the Pearl Brewery District.
- Lubbock: Depot District.
The maximum legal Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) limit for adults is 0.08.
In early 2006, the controversial Texas Alcohol and Beverage Commission (TABC) program that allows for "public intoxication" arrests in any public area or business establishment, including bars, drew national attention. This was due to an unfortunate incident where people staying in a hotel were arrested for being intoxicated in that hotel's bar. There has been enough negative feedback from the public regarding the TABC program that it has been suspended for review.
Texas produces a number of famous beers, particularly German-style beers, which are available throughout the state and beyond.
- Anheiser-Busch's Houston brewery produces Ziegen Bock, sold only in Texas.
- Lone Star Beer. Brewed in San Antonio, is billed as the "national beer of Texas", but is sold as far away as New York — and reportedly even spotted in Tallinn, Estonia.
- Saint Arnold and Southern Star in Houston.
- Live Oak Brewing Company and Austin Beerworks in Austin.
- Freetail Brewing Company in San Antonio.
- Real Ale Brewing Company in Blanco.
Texas wine & spirits
While not on the level of either Napa Valley or Sonoma Valley in California, Texas does have a burgeoning wine industry that is mainly concentrated in the Hill Country west of San Antonio and Austin and in the Panhandle region around Lubbock. Several wineries in Texas such as Llano Estacado Winery have actually won many awards. There are several wineries in and around Fredericksburg that are open to the public throughout the week, but the rest usually open their tasting rooms only on weekends.
Tito's Vodka is also produced in Texas and is unusual compared with other vodkas since it is made from yellow corn, instead of the more commonly used wheat or potatoes, resulting in a mildly sweet aftertaste, and is distilled six times.
The crime rate in Texas is relatively low. In the larger cities, if you stay in the tourist areas you will be generally safe (talk to your hotel concierge or manager if you aren't sure about a certain area). The rural areas have a very low crime rate. Texans have a reputation for carrying firearms or resolving disputes with gunfire, but such actions are not significantly more common here than in other parts of the US. Concerns about crime spilling over from Juarez across the border into El Paso are unjustified, as El Paso remains a very safe city. Of course, Juarez sadly remains a very unsafe city, and El Pasoans will very strongly advise that you do not cross the bridges.
All major cities and almost all towns have a police department, and all counties maintain a sheriff's office and multiple constable precincts. However, in some more sparsely populated areas of the state, agencies may be more understaffed and spread out. This is especially true in West Texas, where many towns are too small to operate police departments, and county sheriff's offices may be understaffed and spread out over enormous land areas. Just as in the rest of the United States, the number "911" should be called in the event of an emergency.
Policing on the state level is generally provided by the Texas Highway Patrol. This agency mainly enforces state traffic laws, but also provides more localized law enforcement services in areas like West Texas. The Texas Highway Patrol has an outstanding reputation in the United States for being extremely courteous and professional. Officers of this agency (called "troopers") can be easily recognized by their characteristic tan uniform and matching cowboy hat. The Texas Rangers, despite being internationally known and storied, are unlikely to be seen by the public and are not prominent in everyday police work. In fact, their work is more similar to that of the FBI.
Despite stories of extremely harsh and brutal justice in Texas, law is enforced in the Lone Star State in just as fair a manner as in any of the other forty-nine states.
While Texas' metro areas and South Texas are known to be quite liberal, Texas has a reputation for its conservative values and being a highly religious state. The rural areas outside of the major metropolitan areas are not LGBT-friendly.
- See also: Culture shock
Texas has a very strong gun culture, even more so than the rest of the US. Owing to its rural character, strong hunting traditions, and its many U.S. military bases, gun ownership is considered by many Texans to be a basic human right. While the vast majority of people who carry guns are kind, law-abiding people who will not cause any trouble for anyone, even if you personally oppose gun control, you should avoid discussing gun politics as it arouses many strong emotions and opinions in many Texans. Under Texan law, it is illegal for any establishments to restrict the carrying of firearms in public spaces. Texas also allows its residents to kill to defend their property (even of minimal value), rather than exclusively for self defense. Texas is one of several states in the US in which purple paint on trees or posts functions for all intents and purposes, the same as a "no trespassing" sign.
Texas has very tough laws regarding narcotics. Simple possession of even small amounts of any illegal substance can cause you significant and expensive legal trouble.
Near the Mexican border, it is very common to encounter CBP (Customs & Border Patrol) agents. They are generally somewhat gruff, but always professional. If you encounter a CBP roadblock while driving, relax and answer any questions calmly and honestly. The agents are looking for drug cartel members and smugglers, and are unlikely to bother the average tourist.
The startling heat of a Texas summer is not to be underestimated. Even in areas in Texas outside of the desert, it is not at all uncommon for temperatures to consistently hover around 90 to 100ºF (32 to 38 ºC) for extended periods of time, even at night during the spring and summer months. The state has experienced temperatures as high as 120ºF (49ºC), and though this extreme is rare, it is a good indicator of how hot things can get. Areas from north central Texas down to the coast also tend to experience stifling humidity during the spring and summer months, so pack accordingly with plenty of loose, light colored clothing.
Western portions of the state tend to experience higher temperatures and lower humidity. It is true that the Texas deserts are beautiful, but the heat can be dangerous without the proper precautions. Bring plenty of water and sunscreen. If you are venturing off into the desert, it might be best to do so later in the afternoon once the sun has begun to lower in the sky. Do not go alone, and always let someone else know where you will be going and when you should return. If you are going to Western Texas, see Desert safety.
Be aware of the weather during hurricane season on the coast (June through November). Hurricanes move slow and provide days to weeks of warning, so it is usually easy to evacuate.
The eastern and central regions of Texas are within the infamous "tornado alley". Always maintain a vigilance of any severe weather threats while traveling through or to these regions of the state during the spring and summer months. Dangerous weather conditions can arise suddenly, and if a traveler is unprepared, dire consequences may result. Tornadoes in this region can be exceptionally large and deadly. If there is an imminent threat of such weather, do not stay outside to take pictures. Do not try to outrun a tornado in your vehicle. Seek immediate shelter!
Refer to the Tornado safety page for further information.
Texans usually pride themselves on being friendly and hospitable to visitors. When talking with someone, if you smile, give a firm handshake, and look them in the eye, you'll generally have a better outcome to your conversation.
Texas has a historical reputation as the home of devout evangelical Christians, and in particular Southern Baptists. This coincides with the rise of the share of Hispanic Roman Catholics. Texans are more likely to go to weekly religious services than people in most other states. In particular, people living in rural areas are strongly religious. Conservative Christian religion can have a strong influence in social and cultural life for those people. If you visit Texas, you may be invited to church, to pray, or to discuss your religion. It's best simply to show respect for your hosts and try to stay out of any longer discussions. If you are genuinely curious, asking respectful questions about others' beliefs will usually be answered in a straightforward way. As when traveling generally, it's best to avoid jokes about religious figures or things that your hosts find to be religiously significant.
The following U.S. states share borders with Texas:
- New Mexico - Texas's western neighbor was a Spanish and then Mexican colony until the Mexican War of the 1840s, and retains a culture that is heavily influenced by its native and colonial past.
- Oklahoma - The state's northern neighbor has been a state since only 1907 and retains some of the pioneer spirit from its early days as a frontier, along with a lot of Native American history and culture.
- Arkansas - Texas shares a small border to the northeast with "The Natural State", which is home to the Ozark Mountains in the northwest while the south and east of the state has flatter land and shows more of its agricultural heritage.
- Louisiana - Home to New Orleans, this state on Texas's eastern border offers a unique culture.
These Mexican states also share a border with Texas:
- Chihuahua - The biggest state in Mexico, Chihuahua served as the battle ground between federal and revolutionary forces led by Pancho Villa and has played a crucial role in the development of high-tech enterprises in Mexico.
- Coahuila - Mexico's top mining state, Coahuila has also been a leader in modern policies such as offering civil unions to same-sex couples and, like Baja California, plays an important role in Mexico's wine production.
- Nuevo León - This state shares a tiny 15km border with Texas and is home to Monterrey, Mexico's third largest city.
- Tamaulipas - Strongly focused on export-oriented manufacturers (i.e. maquiladoras), the average wage for an employee in Tamaulipas is the highest in Mexico, making Tamaulipas also a leader in education with minimal illiteracy compared to other states.