Four provinces are mainly or entirely on Panay:
- Iloilo to the south, capital Iloilo City
- Antique along the west side, capital San Jose de Buenavista
- Capiz around the center of the east coast, capital Roxas
- Aklan in the north, capital Kalibo
Iloilo City is the largest city on Panay and the main hub for both air and sea transport.
The island of Boracay, located just off northern Panay, is one of the best-known and most heavily developed beach resort areas in the country. It is part of Aklan Province and is generally reached via Kalibo.
The small island province of Guimaras is in the strait between Panay and Negros and is generally reached by ferry from Iloilo City.