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Bihar on a map of India

Bihar (Hindi: बिहार Bihār) is a state in the plains of India. The state is bounded by Uttar Pradesh to its west, West Bengal to its east, Jharkhand to its south and Nepal to its north. Bihar is one of India's poorest states, with stark social inequality. Travellers may find the hassles common to travelling everywhere in India are more pronounced here.


Map of Bihar

The Bihar plain is divided into two unequal halves by the Ganges, which flows through the middle from west to east. The two regions have distinct cultural and linguistic identities.

Home to Patna, once the capital of the Maurya Empire, and several historic and cultural sites.


Buddha's Statue at the Mahabodhi temple, Bodh Gaya
Ruins of Nalanda University, Nalanda
  • 1 Patna — the state capital
  • 2 Bhagalpur — the largest city in eastern Bihar
  • 3 Bihar-sharif — a town with examples of medieval Islamic architecture
  • 4 Darbhanga — cultural capital of Bihar
  • 5 Gaya — a major pilgrimage city in Bihar for both Hindus and Buddhists
  • 7 Muzaffarpur — one of the oldest and most important commercial and educational centres of Bihar
  • 8 Rajgir — Tourist place
  • 9 Sasaram — an ancient city in the Bhojpur region of Bihar

Other destinations[edit]

  • 1 Nalanda — site of the historic Nalanda University
  • 2 Valmiki Wildlife Sanctuary — a National Tiger Reserve


Ropeway ride in Rajgri
Shanti Stupa, Rajgri
View of Gai Ghat, from Gandhi Setu bridge, in Patna
Collectorate ghat on the bank of the Ganges in Patna

In ancient times, Bihar (bih-hahr) was the birthplace of the Maurya Empire, the largest ever to rule the Indian subcontinent, and the site of the Buddha's enlightenment. Unfortunately, the Maurya Empire collapsed in 185 BCE, and its been mostly downhill ever since. Riddled with a feudal structure, sharp caste divisions and venal politicians, Bihar in the 1990s was struck by a severe recession that saw it become a byword for poverty, corruption and crime.

Bihar has a youthful and mainly rural population of 85% and the society is mainly agrarian. Northern Bihar is prone to perennial flooding. The state has seen mass migration out of the state in the last few decades and these ethnic Biharis living in other states of India are victims of racist hate crimes and prejudice. There has been Naxalite (communist) violence, especially in Southern Bihar. Jharkhand, the mineral-rich tribal belt, used to be part of the state, but in 2001, it was split to form its own state.


Bihar has a glorious past and was historically known as Magadha. It was a centre of power, learning and culture. The Maurya Empire as well as one of the world's greatest pacifist religions, Buddhism, arose from Magadha. Bihari empires, like the Maurya and the Gupta, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule. Pataliputra (modern Patna), the capital of Magadha, was an important centre of Indian civilisation. Many important non-religious books like Arthashashtra and Kamasutra were composed here 2000 years back. Vaishali, one of the first known republics, existed here before the birth of Mahavira (c. 599 BCE).

The state suffered immensely due to Hunnic and later Muslim invasions, and the old traditions of culture and learning were almost lost by the end of the 12th century. Muhammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khilji in the 12th century CE destroyed many of the viharas (Buddhist sanghas) and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramshila. Thousands of Buddhist monks were massacred. Bihar lost its importance in the medieval period though it rose to prominence for a brief period during the rule of Sher Shah Suri in the 15th century. Foreign invaders often used abandoned viharas as military cantonments. The word Bihar has come from the large number of viharas thus employed in the area. Bihar was the name of a town, which was the headquarters of the Muslim invaders in Magadha, in the medieval period. The headquarters were subsequently shifted from Bihar to Patana (now Patna) by Sher Shah Suri and the establishments at those time started calling Magadha by the name Bihar. The town of Bihar still exists is also known as Bihar-Sharif, which is in Nalanda District, near the famous ruins of Nalanda University.


Although Hindi is the official language in Bihar and is understood by most locals, it is not a mother tongue to most people. Rather, Bhojpuri, Angika, Magahi and Maithili are common mother tongues in the state. These languages are known as Bihari languages and are descendants of Magadhi Prakrit, the language supposed to have been spoken by the Buddha and the language of the ancient kingdom of Magadha.

Get in[edit]

By plane[edit]

  • Bodh Gaya fields international flights to Bangkok (Thailand) and Paro (Bhutan), catering largely to Buddhist pilgrims. Patna is connected to major Indian cities.

By train[edit]

Bihar is connected by train to all major cities of India. Some good trains to reach the capital Patna are:

  • From Delhi – Rajendra Nagar Terminal Tejas Rajdhani Express, Patna Rajdhani Express (2309/2310), Sampurna Kranti Express (overnight journey)
  • From Kolkata – Patna Vande Bharat Express, Patna Jan Shatabdi Express (8-9 hr)
  • From Mumbai – Lokmanya Tilak Terminus–Rajendra Nagar Terminal Express
  • From Varanasi – Vibhuti Express (6 hr).

By road[edit]

Major National Highways which connect Bihar with other corners of country are NH 2, 19, 28, 30, 31.

Patna is well connected by road with the rest of the country. Deluxe bus services are available for Ranchi, Jamshedpur, Kolkata, Siliguri & the Nepal border.

Roads around Bihar are largely in poor condition and over-saturated with traffic. It is not advisable to drive on your own unless you are used to driving in India. Some car rental businesses may include a driver at an additional cost.

Get around[edit]


  • Ahirauli (Buxur) About 5 km north-east of Buxur, this village has a temple of Devi Ahilya. According to the local tradition it dates back to the pre historic ages. Legend is that, Ahilya was transformed into stone as a result of curse of her husband, Rishi Gautam and she could be redeemed only when lord Ram Chandra visited her place.
  • Bari Dargah (Bihar Sharif, Nalanda) This is headquarters of Nalanda district that lies 30 km South of Bakhtiarpur on NH-31. This is also a railhead on the Bakhtiarpur Rajgir branch line of the Eastern Indian Railway. This town is known as Bihar Sharif, owing to its many Muslim tombs that still retain traces of its former importance as a Muslim pilgrimage. There is a hill called Pir Pahari, about 1 m to the northwest of the town. At its summit is the dargah or mausoleum of the Saint Mallik Ibrahim Bayu, round which are tem smaller tombs. It is a brick structure surmounted by a dome and bears inscriptions showing that the saint died in 1353. Another great dargah is that of Mokhdum Shah Sharif ud-din, also called Makhdum-ul-Mulk, died here in 1379; the inscription over the entrance shows that his tomb was built in 1569. This tomb, which stands on the south bank of the river, is held in great veneration by the local Muslims, who assemble here on the 5th day of Sawan to celebrate the anniversary of his death. The Chhoti Dargah is the shrine of Badruddin Badr-I-Alam, famous saint who died here in 1440.
  • Bhimbandh (Munger) It is 56 km from Munger, 20 km from Jamui Railway Station and 200 km from Patna Airport. Bhimbandh Wild Life Sanctuary is located in the south west of Munger District. The forests cover an area or 681.99 km2 on the hills and undulating tract of Kharagpur Hills.
  • Bodh Gaya Near the holy city of Gaya, the Buddha attained enlightenment. The tree that had sheltered him came to be known as the Bodhi tree and the place Bodhgaya. Today Bodhgaya, an important place of pilgrimage, has a number of monasteries, some of them established by Buddhists of Japan, Thailand, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, etc.
  • Janki Temple (Sitamarhi) This temple is traditionally considered to be the birthplace of Sita or Janki, the daughter of king Janak. This temple, however seems to have been built about 100 years ago.
  • Kakolat (Nawada) It is a waterfall in Gobindpur police-station, about 21 miles away from Nawada. After going 9¼ miles from Nawada on Ranchi Road, a solid road known as Gobindpur—Akbarpore Road diverts from there. Just below the fall there is a deep reservoir natural in character. The fall is about 150 to 160 feet, from the ground level. The scene is panoramic due to all-round green forest area, which is very pleasant to the eyes. A legend is prevalent that in Treta Yuga a king named was cursed by a rishi and had to take the shape of a python and lived here. The place was visited by the great Pandavas during their exile and the accursed king got salvation from the damnation. The king after getting rid of the curse proclaimed that one who would bathe in the waterfall will not take the yoni of snake and that is why a large number of people from far and near bathe in the river. A big fair is held on the occasion of bishua or Chait Shankranti.
  • Kesaria This Stupa is in fact one of the many memorable stupa remarkable event in the life of Buddha. Kesaria has a lofty brick mound capped by a solid brick tower of considerable size, which it self is the remain of a Buddhist Stupa. The mound is a ruin with a diameter of 68 feet at its base and a total height of 5½ ft. It used to be crowned by a pinnacle which must have stood 80 or 90 ft above the ground. General Cunningham dated this monument to 200 to 700 CE, and held that it was built upon the ruins of a much older and larger Stupa. It is the highest Stupa found in the country with a height of about 104 ft (32 m) from the base.
  • Maner Sharif (Patna, Maner) It is a large village of historical antiquities, situated in the extreme north west of Danapur Sub-division, about 32 km west of Patna on Patna-Arrah Highway. In the early ages Maner was a centre of learning and it is said that grammarian Panini, and also Bararuchi, lived and studied here. Maner contains two well-known Muslim tombs, that of Shah Daulat or Makhdum Daulat, known as Chhoti Dargah, and the other that of Sheikh Yahia Maneri or Makhdum Yahia, called the Bari Dargah. Makhdum Daulat died at Maner in 1608, and Ibrahim Khan, Governor of Bihar and one of the saint's disciples completed the erection of his mausoleum in 1616. The building is exceptionally fine one, with walls containing carvings of great delicacy and high finish. A great dome crowns it, and the ceiling is covered with carved inscriptions from the Quran. Every detail of it is characteristic of the architecture of Jehangir's region, and it is by far the finest monument of the Mughals in Eastern India. Inside the compound there is a mosque also built by Ibrahim Khan in 1619, whiles a fine gateway bearing an older inscription corresponding to 1603–01, and affords access to the north. The tomb of Yahia Maneri lies in a mosque walls and ghats, and pillared porticos jutting out into it, which is connected with the old bed of the River Sone by a tunnel 400 ft long.
  • Motihari (East Champaran) Motihari was to the first laboratory of Gandhian experiment in Satyagraha and probably it will not be very incorrect to say that is has been the spring board for India's independence. Champaran district generated a wave of enthusiasm and inspiration to the people who were thirsting for a selfless and saintly leader. The technique followed by Gandhiji in Champaran was what attained later on the name of Satyagraha.
  • Nalanda A great centre of Buddhist learning, Nalanda came into prominence around the 5th century BCE and was a flourishing university town with over 10,000 scholars and an extensive library.
  • Patna once called Patliputra the capital of Bihar, is among the world's oldest capital cities with unbroken history of many centuries as imperial metropolis of the Mauryas and Guptas imperial dynasties.
  • Pawapuri In Pawapuri, or Apapuri, 38 km from Rajgir and 90 kilometres from Patna, all sins end for a devout Jain. Lord Mahavira, the final tirthankar and founder of Jainism, breathed his last at this place.
  • Rajgir Rajgir, 103 km from Patna, was the ancient capital of Magadha Empire. Lord Buddha often visited the monastery here to meditate and to preach. Rajgir is also a place sacred to the Jains, Since Lord Mahavira spent many years here.
  • Ram Rekha Ghat (Buxur) According to the legends, lord Ram Chandra and his younger brother Lakshman with their teacher Rishi Vishwamitra had crossed the Ganga here on their way to Janakpur where he later took part in the Sita swayambar (the public ceremony of Sita's Marriage).
  • Sadaquat Ashram (Patna) It is situated in Digha area on Patna Danapur Road and in pre independence days guided the freedom movement in Bihar. It is Associated with the memories of Mahatma Gandhi, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Mautana Mazharal Haque and other leaders.
Sher Shah Suri Tomb at Sasaram
  • Sasaram located at GT Road has the Sher Shah Suri Tomb.
  • Sita Kund (Munger) A village about 6 km east of the Munger town contains a hot spring known as the Sita Kund spring, which is so called after the well known episode of Ramayan. Ram, after rescuing his wife Sita from the demon king Ravan, suspected that she could not have maintained her honour intact, and Sita, to prove her chastity, agreed to enter a blazing fire. She came out of the fiery or deal unscathed, and imparted to the pool in which she bathed, the heat she had absorbed from the fire. The hot spring is now enclosed in a masonry reservoir and is visited by large number of pilgrims, specially at the full moon of Magh.
  • Tar (Bhojpur) About 10 km north west of Piro the village derives its name from Tarka, a she demon killed by lord Rama. There is an old tank in the village that is said to be the wrestling ground of Tarka.
  • Vaishali Vaishali was one of the earliest republics in the world (6th century BCE). It was here that Buddha preached his last sermon. Vaishali, birthplace of Lord Mahavira is also Sacred to Jains.
  • Valmiki Nagar (West Champaran) This is a village on the Indo Nepal border 42 km north-west of Bagaha to which it is connected by a metalled road. A barrage has been constructed here on the Gandak river for the purpose of irrigation. Besides an old Shiva temple constructed by the Bettiah Raj, there are also ancient temple of Nara Devi and Gauri Shankar at Valmiki Nagar. There is a Valmiki Ashram, which is said to be the place where Maharshi Valmiki was living. On the occasion of Makar Sankranti every year a fair is held on the bank of River Gandak.


  • Badi dargah Chiragha — in the month of Shawwal as pe Islamic Calendar every year at Bihar Sharif
  • Budha Mahotsav — in the month of December every year at Bodh Gaya
  • Chhath — Chhath (also called Dala Chhath) is a Hindu festival, unique to Bihar, Jharkhand state, India and Terai, Nepal. This festival is also celebrated in the northeast region of India, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and some parts of Chhattisgarh.It is an ancient and major festival. Songs for Chhath festival sung by Padma Shri Bihar Kokila Prof. (Smt) Sharda Sinha are very popular.
  • Durga Puja
  • Ganges Cruise — from Calcutta to Varanasi via Bihar
  • Patna Film Festival
  • Rajgir Mahotsav — in the month of October every year at Rajgir
  • Sonepur Fair
  • Vaishali Mahotsav — in the month of April every year at Vaishali
  • River cruise around Patna operated by the Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation; Cruise starts twice every day from Gaighat


Chiwda Muttor is popular Bihari breakfast

Some dishes which Bihar is famous for include Sattu Paratha, which are parathas stuffed with fried chickpea flour, Chokha (spicy mashed potatoes), Fish curry and Bihari Kebab,Postaa-dana kaa halwaa.

  • Chiwra - beaten rice, served with a coat of creamy curd and sugar or jaggery. In winters, this is mildly baked and accompanied with a thick spicy preparation made of peas and onions.
  • Chura-Dahi (Dahi Chura) - Traditional Bihar dessert - made of fresh yogurt, thick Poha (thick flattened rice), sugar or powdered Jaggery - touch of cardamom powder is optional
  • Dhuska - a deep fried item prepared from a mixture of powdered rice and ghee but is salted.
  • Ghugni - It is a preparation made of grams soaked (either lightly/overnight) in water and then sauteed in mustard oil in a wok.
  • Kadhi Bari - these fried soft dumplings made of besan (gram flour) are cooked in a spicy gravy of yogurt and besan. It goes very well over plain rice.
  • Khichdi - Mix of Rice, Dal and several Vegetables; steamed together to give a distinctive taste of different ingredients combined in one dish. It is often topped up with ghee.
  • Litti - Powdered baked gram is mixed with chopped onions, green chillies, lemon juice and coriander leaves. This mixture is filled inside atta and either barbecued over coal or deep fried with oil. Best accompanied with Ghee, Curd and Chokha and baigan bharta.
  • Pattal ka Mittai
  • Pittha - It is something like momos. It could be either salty or sweet.It is either a semi circular/ball shaped preparation made of crust made of soft rice flour and filled with preparations made of Channa Daal lentil paste, or Poppy seeds & Gur (Jaggey). and then steamed in water/ milk (allowed to thicken).
  • Sattu - powdered baked gram, a high energy giving food usually mixed with water or with milk. Sometimes, sattu mixed with spices is used to prepare stuffed 'chapattis', locally known as 'makuni roti'.


  • Aam Jhora Green mango drink, prepared by boiling or baking green mango and mixing it with water, salt, chili, cumin and clove leaves. It is generally served during summer season for its medicinal value for fighting against heat waves.
  • Bael ka Sarvat Prepared from Bael (Aegle marmelos) added with sugar/salt for taste. Bael is known for its medicinal value especially it is good for abdomen.
  • Bhang the leaf and flower of the Cannabis sativa plant, is consumed as a beverage is in many forms, the simplest of which is made by pounding bhang leaves with a little black pepper, sugar and mixing with water. Cannabis is widely produced in Bihar and sold legally at licensed Bhang shops
  • Taari Natural drink collected from tree of Taar, very common tree in Bihar. Tarri is collected overnight and served in early morning, very fast fermentation process during day time makes the drink alcoholic if kept in normal temperature for more than 2-3 hours.
  • Lassi A sweet/ salty drink made of yogurt, sugar, dry fruits and lots of cream. It is also a preferred summer drink.
  • Sattu A baked and powdered gram mixed with water, salt, cumin, chili and lemon juice. It is generally consumed in morning as it is considered as healthy food.
  • Taari Natural drink collected from tree of Taar, very common tree in Bihar. Tarri is collected overnight and served in early morning, very fast fermentation process during day time makes the drink alcoholic if kept in normal temperature for more than 2-3 hours.
  • Thandhai A sweet drink made of yogurt, spices, dry fruits etc. It is generally served during festival, especially on Holidays.

Stay safe[edit]

Bihar has a terrible reputation for crime and banditry (or dacoity, to use the Indian word), with armed bandits robbing moving trains. The situation has improved, though, with crime statistics for the most serious offences dropping, and crime against foreigners remaining comparably low compared to states popular with international tourists. So while reality may not be quite as grim as the horror stories you'll hear from non-Biharis, it's still advisable to keep a low profile and to avoid overnight travel on the roads. A low-level Naxalite (Maoist Communist) insurgency continues to bubble in the southern parts of the state, but tourists are unlikely to venture into the affected regions.

Public transportation systems, like trains and buses, are generally overcrowded. Trains in India are generally prone to theft, so it's wise to lock your luggage to the seat in the carriage and keep more aware than usual.

Go next[edit]

This region travel guide to Bihar is an outline and may need more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. If there are Cities and Other destinations listed, they may not all be at usable status or there may not be a valid regional structure and a "Get in" section describing all of the typical ways to get here. Please plunge forward and help it grow!