- For other places with the same name, see New England (disambiguation).
New England is a six-state region in the northeast corner of the United States of America. Although it is one of the oldest settled parts of the U.S., most of the area (except the coastal areas of eastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and southwestern Connecticut) retains a rural charm and low population. Most of the area is well-travelled and has a thriving tourist industry. Visitors to New England will find no shortage of popular and often-packed attractions, but there are many hidden gems to be found.
Home to Hartford and the Knowledge Corridor, Mystic Seaport, the restaurant and nightlife scene in downtown New Haven, the Maritime Aquarium, and two major Native American casinos.
Known for its seacoast fishing villages, wooded and remote interior, and stunning vistas such as that found in Acadia National Park.
The birthplace of America's revolution, home to the Pioneer Valley, the vacation hotspot of Cape Cod, and the always-interesting city of Boston.
A fiercely independent state that offers the rugged White Mountains, idyllic lakes, and a handful of ocean resorts.
The smallest state in the United States, but has many miles of coastline and islands, and home to Providence and Newport.
The fall foliage of Vermont is not-to-be-missed, while during the rest of the year the state offers a rural charm unique in America.
There are many cities in New England; these are some of the major ones.
- Boston — by far the largest city in the region, effortlessly blending a storied past and a cutting-edge future
- Burlington — the largest city in Vermont, though every other state has a bigger one
- Hartford — the capital of Connecticut, but the one city most thought of in the state
- Manchester — the largest city in New Hampshire
- New Haven — home to Yale University and, some say, America's best pizza
- Portland — much smaller than the Portland in Oregon, but much goes on here in a slow way.
- Providence — Rhode Island's only real city, with historic neighborhoods and a booming arts scene
- Springfield — home to the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame
- Worcester — the second largest city in New England is home to 35,000 college students and several museums
- Acadia National Park — a United States National Park attracting nearly 3 million visitors per year.
- Block Island — an island off the southern coast of Rhode Island. This island packs great scenery and great beaches into a small, walkable and bikable area.
- Boston Harbor Islands — a group of thirty-four islands in Massachusetts.
- Cape Cod National Seashore
- Foxwoods — One of the world's largest casinos. Practically a small city with gambling, shopping, restaurants, golf, and a museum.
- Green Mountains
- Lake Champlain Islands — Small island and peninsula community in the middle of Lake Champlain.
- White Mountain National Forest
There's an expression in New England: "If you don't like the weather, wait ten minutes." The expression refers to New England's location on the eastern side of North America's continental climate. New England's coastal location does somewhat modify continental temperature extremes; but storminess is enhanced by New England's relatively rough topography. Northern New England winters can seem especially harsh -- if you plan to visit between December and mid-March, be prepared for freezing temperatures, wicked winds, and chills that take a couple of cups of coffee to dent. "Dress warmly" is an understatement -- in northern New England "prepare for nuclear winter" might be more accurate advice for travellers. The best advice, though is to dress in layers that include an outer layer to block the wind, plus a sweater or jumper to be removed when exerting oneself. Generally, the only areas of New England that are somewhat comfortable in the winter are the southern coastlines of Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts, which are warmed by nearby unfrozen salt water. For the visitor prepared for cold weather, northern New England's deep snows and crisp air can be exhilarating, and the three northernmost states boast much of the best skiing east of the Rockies.
The month of May can be New England’s best-kept secret. In southern Vermont you will find off-season rates in many historic inns, but as noted local Robert Frost once so eloquently put it, "Nature's first Green is Gold." The area is bursting with daffodils, tulips & lilacs and the temperatures are mild with cool nights, just perfect.
New England summers can range from mild to uncomfortably humid. They provide a beach season of mid-June to mid-September; the truly swimmable ocean water is in the southern states of Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massachusetts, but coastal beach culture extends all the way up into Maine. Most warm weather tourist destinations have a season from mid-May to mid-October. Areas right along the shoreline are often cooler and more temperate than inland areas.
New England shines during autumn. New England foliage is world-renowned for displays that rival pyrotechnics for their intense colors, rapid appearance, and equally rapid disappearance. Peak season ranges from early September at the farthest north points of Maine to early November for Southern Connecticut. Combine that with local festivals, hay rides, fresh-pressed apple cider, and fruit harvesting, and you have the recipe for a wonderful time.
Though many tourists visit New England for its rural charm, no U.S. region is more heavily dominated by a single city: Boston, one of America's great urban centers and the de-facto capital of New England as well as the official capital of Massachusetts. By its broadest definition, which stretches across four states and also comprises the metropolitan areas of the second- and third-largest cities in the region, Providence and Worcester, Greater Boston includes more than half of New England's population. But even beyond Boston's furthest reaches, New Englanders worship the city's pro sports teams (though recent successes by the Red Sox and Patriots mean you'll find fans of either team all over the U.S. and even outside North America) and gravitate toward its center for a taste of big-city amenities.
As in upstate New York and along the Eastern Seaboard, many New England towns grew up around textile mills or other kinds of factories. When those industries relocated and/or shut down during the 1900s, several of those towns fell into a depression, where many remain.
Similarly, several formerly booming whaling ports like New Bedford, MA had to rebuild their economies, with varying success, when the industry collapsed. The history of New England's many commercial fisheries is brutally illustrative, with both happy and sad stories, of the necessity of sustainability.
English is, as with the rest of the U.S., the de facto official language. Some areas with large Hispanic populations might have a majority speaking Spanish, but most have at least basic English skills (and these are off the tourist path). French is also spoken in the northern parts of Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont, near the Quebec/New Brunswick borders. In some areas, French-speakers are in the majority. There is a rich French-Canadian heritage in Biddeford, Maine, and Manchester, New Hampshire's largest city. Though the demographics are changing, it is still possible to find shops that cater to French speakers and churches that conduct Mass in French. In truth, though, not much is done to accommodate visitors who do not speak English.
Along with Southerners, New Englanders have a reputation for a distinct flavor of English speech. This is an overly broad generalization. The accents of Senators Kennedy and Kerry are rarely heard. The typical "pahk the cah in Hahvahd Yahd" Boston accent prevails in eastern Massachusetts, but is losing ground even there. There are some distinctive vocabulary words. "Bubbler" refers to a drinking fountain. Carbonated sweet drinks called "pop" in other parts of the United States and Canada are called "tonic" or "soda" in New England. "Wicked", an adjective interchangeable with "very", is frequently used by young New Englanders, though the once-common phrase "wicked pissah", meaning "excellent", has faded considerably and is used primarily by either the older generation or misled tourists. A relatively common New England traffic intersection not encountered much elsewhere in the United States would be called a "roundabout" in the United Kingdom, but is called a "rotary" in New England. When given directions on how to exit a "rotary" the driver would be instructed to "bang a right" in Boston. Large clams are called "quahaugs" in southern New England. In Maine an inland vacation home is called a "camp" while one on the coast is called a "cottage." Mainers also add the definite article "the" to the official names of roads, but not streets or avenues; and the tree that others might call an aspen is called a "popple" by Mainers.
- See also: Air travel in the United States
New England is served by several airports: Logan International in Boston, TF Green Airport Warwick, RI, Bradley International Windsor Locks (between Hartford, CT, and Springfield, MA), Tweed New Haven in New Haven, Burlington International Burlington, VT, Portland, Bangor, and Manchester Airport, to name a few. Logan is by far the largest. Amongst discount airlines, JetBlue serves Boston, Nantucket,Hartford/Springfield, Burlington, and Portland; while Southwest Airlines serves Boston, Hartford/Springfield, Portland, Providence, and Manchester.
New England is served by several interstate highways. I-95 enters from the New York City area and links five of the six states together. I-90 and I-84 both come in from the west out of Albany and southern New York, respectively. I-91 links New Haven with Hartford, Springfield and eastern Vermont. I-89 connects Burlington, VT with Concord, NH. I-93 runs through New Hampshire, connecting St. Johnsbury, VT with Boston.
- See also: Rail travel in the United States
Amtrak operates several routes into New England, most notably the Northeast Corridor, which connects New York City to Boston via New Haven and Providence. As well, the Vermonter goes from New York City and Washington, D.C. to Connecticut, western Massachusetts and Vermont. New York City's Metropolitan Transit Authority's MetroNorth trains run between Grand Central Station in midtown Manhattan and New Haven, stopping in many Connecticut towns en route. Shore Line East trains extend commuter service to the towns east of New Haven through New London. The Amtrak DownEaster offers fares from Boston up through southern Maine.
- See also: Inter-city buses in the USA
Greyhound also offers bus service to and from other areas of the country (plus Montreal), as does Peter Pan. From Port Authority Bus Terminal in New York City buses serve western New England. Boston's South Station is a hub for bus travel to and from New York and to and from all other areas of New England.
Nova Star Cruises provides daily round-trip service (June through mid-October) between Portland and Yarmouth (Nova Scotia), Nova Scotia. It's not a short trip, but it's a lot easier than driving. Departs Portland 8PM, arrives Yarmouth 8AM; departs Yarmouth 9:30AM, arrives Portland 7PM.
It is possible to visit New England without an automobile. Doing so requires the visitor to study schedules very carefully, purchase tickets in advance when possible, limit visits to one or two destinations, and keep in mind that local public transportation operates infrequently, if at all, at night, on weekends, and during the middle of the day. The visitor may also sign up for a group tour by bus or cruise ship. Bus tours and cruise ships visit all the major tourist destinations, if only to drive by with expert commentary by tour guides. Group tours do have the advantage of eliminating all worries about destinations, lodging, and meals, although they have inflexible schedules, offer virtually no opportunity to meet local people, and perhaps too much acquaintance with one's fellow passengers. Travelers interested in an urban experience will find that Boston is one of the most walkable major cities in the U.S., with an extensive public-transit system; many visitors find it easier to navigate without a car.
Amtrak covers urban New England pretty extensively with the Northeast Corridor (Boston-Rhode Island-Connecticut), the Vermonter (Washington, D.C.-Vermont), and the Downeaster (Boston-Portland--Brunswick). The Acela Express is a high-speed train that follows roughly the same route as the Northeast Corridor. Note that Boston has two major train stations, South Station and North Station. Trains from South Station serve areas to the south and west of the city, and North Station trains serve areas north of the city. All Amtrak trains to and from Boston, except the train to Portland are available at South Station, but not North Station. The train to Portland is available only at North Station. There is no direct connection between the two stations. Those wishing to connect between the two stations must either take a taxi, or take two subway lines, or walk about 2 km/ 1.2 miles through busy city streets. Information and train schedules are available from Amtrak's web site.
Commuter rail and bus lines radiate out from New York City and Boston for a distance of about 50 km/30 miles. The MBTA covers the greater Boston area with its commuter rail network, including Providence, Lowell, and Worcester. The MTA Metro North provides very frequent and affordable service between New York City and New Haven; at New Haven there are numerous connections to points north and east. Remember, though, that commuter service is infrequent outside of weekday morning and evening rush hours.
Greyhound has several routes in New England. New Hampshire and Maine are served by Concord Coach Lines. The primary intercity bus service in southern New England is Peter Pan Bus though there are many others, particularly in southern New England, including Dattco in south east Massachusetts, Megabus, and several state and smaller regional public systems.
New England has many offshore islands that are attractive destinations reachable only by boat. Typically, these islands are compact enough that the visitor does not require a car to visit them. Relatively flat coastal terrain and light traffic makes it easy to get around them by walking or bicycling. Taking a car on the ferry is expensive and usually requires reservations long in advance. In any case, many ferries are for passengers and bicycles only. Travelers who wish to avoid the notorious summer traffic also have the option of taking a ferry to and from Provincetown on the tip of Cape Cod.
Much of rural New England is under-served by bus or train, and driving (or biking or hiking) is required to visit much of Vermont, New Hampshire, western Massachusetts, and Maine.
There are many historical sights in New England, including many colleges, universities, monuments and architecture. Yale University in New Haven and Harvard University and MIT in Cambridge, MA are destinations, offering a variety of interesting museums, as well as nonstop cultural activities. Throughout the region there are small college towns, such as: Kingston Rhode Island; Storrs, Hamden, and Middletown Connecticut; Amherst, Northampton, and Williamstown Massachusetts; Burlington and Middlebury Vermont; and Brunswick, Waterville, and Orono Maine; that offer cultural diversions.
New England was important to Early United States history. Historical events are re-enacted at several collections of historical buildings: Mashantucket Pequot Museum in Ledyard, Connecticut for Native American history; Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, Massachusetts for early European settlement; Mystic Seaport in Mystic, Connecticut for maritime history; Old Sturbridge Village in Sturbridge, Massachusetts for early 19th century history; Shelburne Museum just south of Burlington, Vermont; and Historic Deerfield in Deerfield, Massachusetts as well as many other locations. New Hampshire offers colonial-era re-enactments and revitalized buildings at Strawberry Banke in Portsmouth and the Fort at No. 4 in Charlestown.
Newport offers visitors the unique opportunity to experience two different historical eras. The small Rhode Island city is known for its extensive collection of intact colonial architecture, one of the largest in the country. But it's even more famous for its jaw-dropping oceanfront mansions, many of which are open for tours, that were built by some of America's most prominent families in the Gilded Age of the late-19th and early-20th centuries.
Stop in some of the historical mill towns like Lowell, Massachusetts and Manchester, New Hampshire that have been revitalized.
In its small area New England packs a lot of natural beauty. Highlights would include: pastoral villages with white-steepled churches throughout rural New England; sandy beaches and moorlands along the southern coastal area of Rhode Island, Connecticut and Massachusetts, including Cape Cod and adjacent islands; the more rugged rocky coast and cliffs of Maine; the nearly alpine scenery of Vermont, northern New Hampshire, and western Maine; and dense forests everywhere. Treasuring bucolic vistas has in part led to a prohibition on billboard advertising throughout Vermont and in many towns in other states.
Ski or snowboard in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, the Green Mountains of Vermont and the mountains of western and central Maine. In southern New England, Connecticut and Massachusetts have small local ski areas with vertical slopes of less than 300 meters/1000 feet. There are many ski areas for everyone from beginners to advanced skiers/boarders. Many areas extend their seasons to year round by providing alpine slides and summertime activities. See the state articles for ski area listings.
New England skiing is unlike skiing in the western United States. Instead of open slopes above tree line, New England ski areas have relatively narrow trails carved through thick woodlands. New England's variable weather continues in winter. The skier or boarder may experience mild weather with temperatures above 10 Celsius/50 Fahrenheit or bitter cold with high winds delivering wind chill temperatures of -30 or less. Rain or snow may fall at any time. Rain often coats the snow with ice, and snow is often wet and sticky. The result of these conditions is that skiing and snowboarding in New England require attention to conditions. To deal with mild or dry conditions, all major New England ski areas make snow through the night and groom their slopes in the early morning.
Cross-country ski centers are spread across the region, some near urban areas on local farms, and others are large mountain resorts with 100+km of trails. Be prepared for various wet or dry conditions with the appropriate wax. Wax-less skis may struggle in wet conditions.
Traditional summer activities
Beaches abound along New England's coastline from Connecticut to just south of Portland, Maine. Here vacationers may swim or simply soak up the sun. Swimmers may find the waters north of Cape Cod to be cold, especially in Maine. Inland, swimming is available in New England's thousands of lakes and ponds, and the water is usually warmer. Almost every New England town has at least one "swimming hole". Swimming areas include those operated by the federal National Park Service in Cape Cod National Seashore and Acadia National Park, large state-owned beaches with parking for hundreds of cars, and local city or town beaches. In addition, local inquiries may reveal the locations of unmapped swimming areas, some quite scenic, along local streams or shorelines.
New England also offers plenty of opportunity for boating whether it be in sheltered bays and harbors along 9,900 km/6,100 miles of coastline, or on inland lakes, ponds, and rivers. Local yacht clubs usually conduct sailboat races for many different classes. Offshore cruises are offered from coastal tourist towns. These cruises include "whale watch" boats, other nature cruises to observe shore birds, and sailing on traditional sailboats such as Maine's "windjammers". Fishing charters and various community sailing programs are other options. On New England's south coast, where the water is significantly warmer than that north of Cape Cod, and the summer winds are more reliable than they are further south, a dinghy cruising school and guide service caters to sailors happy to rough it for access to more isolated locations off limits to bigger vessels. Anyone heading out to sea north of Cape Cod should bring a jacket or sweater no matter how hot it may be on land. Inland, outfitters offer whitewater rafting on Maine's rivers. Kayakers and canoers have plenty of opportunity to put their craft into local lakes, ponds, and rivers at state-owned boat launching areas. Rentals are often available in larger waterfront towns. Be advised that many local areas ban jet skis and have "no wake" areas for motor boats.
Bicycling is popular in New England. The large urban area stretching from Boston to Hartford and into the New York City area are densely populated with lots of automobile traffic, so cyclists often take advantage of the area's "rail-trails", which are paved sections of abandoned railroad track dedicated to bicyclists and pedestrians. Information on rail-trails, such as the East Coast Greenway, is available from the Rails-to-Trails Conservancy. In northern New England there is less traffic on the roads, but you'll find more mountainous terrain compared with the rolling hills of southern New England. Many of New England's state parks have trails for mountain biking. These trails follow old dirt roads. Mountain biking on hiking trails is usually prohibited. Both Cape Cod National Seashore and Acadia National Park offer ample opportunity for bicycling along scenic routes free of motor vehicle traffic. Biking opportunities abound on New England's many offshore island destinations where roads are usually flat and cooled by sea breezes. Most major tourist destinations have shops that rent bicycles.
Hiking is popular in New England. There are long distance hiking trails in the region, including the Appalachian Trail, which courses through all of the New England states except Rhode Island to its terminus on Mount Katahdin in Maine, and the Long Trail, which traverses Vermont from Massachusetts to Quebec. Although there are hundreds of miles of hiking trails in the region's state and federal parks, bear in mind that most hiking trails do cross private property, and the owner's rights are to be respected. Most of New England's mountains are thickly forested, but there are extensive areas above the tree line in Vermont and especially New Hampshire and Maine. On these mountains climate conditions are similar to those in Labrador far to the north, and the lack of trees affords wonderful long distance views. The Appalachian Mountain Club (AMC) has its headquarters in Boston and local chapters throughout the region. AMC operates campgrounds and lodges throughout the region, most of which are reachable only by hiking. New England's trails are generally maintained by volunteers organized by AMC's chapters or other organizations such as the Green Mountain Club or the Connecticut Forest and Park Association. These organizations offer detailed maps and other hiking information. Many towns and local land trusts have also preserved tracts and maintain trails appropriate for shorter day hikes.
New England is home to some of America's oldest LGBT resorts; the most famous are Provincetown and Ogunquit. Gays from large cities like New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. vacation in New England to enjoy the region's largely tolerant, accepting culture. Prior to nationwide legalization, the passage of same-sex marriage laws in all six New England states combined with the region's scenic beauty have made and still make it a popular wedding destination for straight and gay couples alike. Boston and Providence are known for their lively LGBT nightlife; elsewhere options are pretty sparse. Gay-owned guesthouses are, however, fairly common.
Activities for children
Children from toddlers to teenagers enjoy indoor and outdoor activities. Hiking levels are easy along the sandy coasts & lake shores; moderate along hills & rivers; and challenging mountain peaks. Plants, birds, rock formations, & views often keep the children entertained throughout the hike. Be prepared with extra layers, plenty of food, and comfortable pace. Alternatively, choose indoor activities in one of the many science centers, children museums, & aquariums. Many of them accept reciprocal programs for members of other facilities, which allows either free admission or reduced fare.
New England's cities and tourist areas have a wide variety of excellent restaurants. A few famous items of local cuisine include New Haven's pizza, Vermont's maple syrup, Southern Massachusetts and Rhode Island's Portuguese cuisine, and Maine's lobster and blueberries. Everywhere along New England's coast there are local restaurants offering fresh seafood, fried clams, and clam chowder. It can be kitschy, but there is a certain pleasure in spending a summer afternoon at a New England seaside restaurant eating seafood and watching boats come and go in the local harbor.
A special local treat is to attend a clam or "lobsta" "bake" or "shore dinner" at a coastal location. These venues typically serve only a complete clam or lobster dinner at a fixed time that includes all the ingredients of a traditional New England clam or lobster bake, including, of course, steamed clams or lobster, baked potatoes, corn on the cob, baked beans, and traditional desserts. Sometimes steak or hamburger is offered to those who will not eat lobster or clams. Inquire locally in seaside communities for locations and times.
Some of New England's smaller towns have old restored taverns which in the 18th and 19th centuries provided lodging and food for weary travelers. Most of these restored taverns no longer offer lodging, but offer meals featuring typical "New England fare" such as pot roast and a variety of steaks and poultry. Many of these restaurants also offer seafood.
Like almost everywhere else in the U.S.A., Fast Food comes in a wide variety of taste and quality.
- 99 Restaurant-Bar and grill chain found in all six states. Has a faux oldtime New Englandy vibe.
- D'Angelo Grilled Subs-Incessant radio ads blanket the summer airwaves for this Quiznos-like chain that also serves lobster rolls in the summer.
- Papa Gino's-There aren't very many Domino's, Pizza Huts, or Papa John's around here. In Southern New England and especially Massachusetts, you will find many Papa Gino's. Papa Gino's is a fairly thin crust pie, similar to NY-Style.
Boston is known for its drinking establishments known locally as bars or taverns or pubs, including the Cheers bar of TV fame. (See the section in the Boston article.) New Haven is home to hundreds of bars and restaurants, and has a thriving scene including the Playwright, the largest Irish Pub on the East Coast, a huge space holding two thousand people built out of church parts salvaged from Ireland. In addition, several other cities in the region have an active nightlife. Microbreweries and wineries are also located throughout the region, and many can be visited by travellers.
Be aware that New England states have strict laws on driving while under the influence of alcohol. Some New England police departments enforce these laws by stopping traffic near popular bars and interviewing drivers, or by stationing unmarked police cars in or near the parking lots of popular establishments.
Types of stores that sell alcohol for off-premises consumption vary from state to state. Generally, wine and beer may be purchased in groceries and convenience stores but harder liquors may only be available from retail liquor stores known locally as "package stores" or "packies". While former "Blue Laws" prohibited the sale of alcohol on Sundays in Massachusetts and Connecticut, many those laws have since been repealed. However, some cities and towns remain "dry" or do not allow for the sale of alcohol. Other New England states have slowly repealed such alcohol sales bans, but be aware of this odd tradition.
New England is Dunkin Donuts country. Although it has donuts in the name, this is a coffee chain. They are easy to find all over New England, especially southern New England where you are probably within a mile of several locations at once. For those unfamiliar with it Dunkin Donuts (sometimes referred to as "Dunk's" or "Dunkies") is a fairly barebones experience. If you want fancier coffee, most towns will have a few locally owned coffee shops as well.
New England is one of the safest regions of the country overall, but it is no stranger to crime. All of the region's towns and cities, regardless of their size, have areas that should be travelled with caution at night. Larger cities are the best-known for crime because of media publicity but most crimes in big cities occur among friends and acquaintances. Random acts of violence can happen anywhere, even in smaller towns. It is also best not to hitchhike.
Furthermore, as with other areas of the country, take care while driving. You are 200 times more likely to be injured or killed in a car accident than in any random act of violence. Particular areas to use caution are small, winding roads away from major interstates where cars can travel erratically and at high speeds. Hikers leaving an automobile at trail heads in remote areas should take care not to leave valuables in the vehicle.
As in the rest of the U.S.A., 911 can be dialed for emergencies, even from pay-phones.
Dangerous animals are hardly a concern in New England. During May and early June hikers may want to avoid thick woodlands in northern New England or risk being plagued by hordes of tiny black flies. The best time for hiking is September and October when cold nights have suppressed insect activity. That said, however, there are many trails with locations exposed to wind and sunshine and minimal contact with biting and stinging insects. There are rare encounters with poisonous snakes in southern and western parts of New England, but hardly any deaths. During warmer months, simply watch your step to avoid treading on a copperhead or timber rattlesnake, especially when stepping over fallen trees or larger rocks or clambering up onto sunny spots sometimes favored by a resting snake. The hiker will encounter no poisonous snakes in Maine or northern New Hampshire. The most dangerous animal likely to be encountered by a hiker in New England is the deer tick, a tiny creature no more than about 2 mm in diameter. Deer ticks carry Lyme Disease, which can engender severe medical symptoms in the victim. The best defense against the deer tick is to use insecticides and wear long pants and long-sleeved shirts. Wild turkeys, bears, and coyotes abound in New England but almost always avoid humans. Deer and, in northern New England, moose can be dangerous to motorists speeding along dark roads in rural areas. These animals are large and their massive bodies can go right through the windshield when struck by a smaller automobile. The best defense is to drive slowly through moose and deer crossing areas and watch carefully for animals stepping into the road.